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This history of the American Association of University 
Women was undertaken and carried to completion at the 
request of the Board of Directors, v/ho wished a permanent 
record of the half-century of idealism and of achievement 
which the organization represents and which it will cele- 
brate in April, 1 931. Besides carrying out the request of 
the Board of Directors, the authors have been guided by 
the conviction that the record would prove an important 
contribution to the history of education and an aid in esti- 
mating the actual and potential role of women in enlarging 
and enriching the field of scholarship and social betterment. 
It is their hope that the book will be read, not as a closed 
record, but as a stimulus and an incentive to still more 
important undertakings in the half-century to come. 

The material has been gathered from the publications and 
records of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, the West- 
ern Association of Collegiate Alumnse, the Southern Associa- 
rtion of College Women, the American Association of Univer- 
sity Women, and the International Federation of University 
Women. In addition, Mrs. Rosenberry read and evaluated 
^ the three hundred branch histories and the twelve state divi- 
i sion histories which were prepared especially for this semi- 
^ centennial volume. There have also been used reports of 
^ committees, some of them in manuscript. There was more 
material at hand at every stage of the writing than could 
\ possibly be used, and it is hoped that especially in the his- 
J tory of the branches the limitations of space will be recog- 
J nized by the local historians and generously accepted. 
5 While the two authors have collaborated and consulted 
^ from the outset, to Miss Talbot is due the research for the 
i first twenty-five years, with the collating of the material 


vi Preface 

thus obtained. Mrs. Rosenberry is responsible for the re- 
search of the last twenty-five years, for the arrangement of 
material on branch, state, and section, and for the actual 
writing of the book. 

It may be that unsympathetic readers of this volume will 
feel that the organization and individual members are too 
highly praised. One has only to turn to the written records of 
the Association — records both national and local — to feel 
avssured that the criticism is unjust. The universal testimony 
seems to be that college and university women get their in- 
spiration at the beginning of an undertaking or at moments 
of discouragement either from their Alma Mater or from 
other college and university women with whom, in branches 
of the Association, they work shoulder to shoulder. It is hard 
to estimate inspiration and perseverance, and to weigh actual 
achievement in the scales, but the three hundred branch his- 
tories and the twelve state division histories, together with 
records of national and local committees, can be cited for all 
facts this volume contains. 

The most willing assistance has been given on every occa- 
sion by the officers and directors of the Association and by 
the secretarial staff at headquarters. To Miss Belle Rankin, 
Mrs. Doris Falk Broberg, and Miss Helen Lewis, thanks are 
especially due. 

The Authors 

October i, 1930 


I. The Founding of the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumna 3 

II. The First Years of the Association 15 

III. Organization Past and Present 21 

IV. The Western Association of Collegiate 
Alumna 40 

V. The Southern Association of College 
Women 46 

VI. Expansion by the Admission of Institutions 63 

VII. Expansion by the Admission of Branches 95 

VIII. The First Research Project 116 

IX. Financing the Association 131 

X. Post-Graduate Study at Home and Abroad 143 

XI. The Fellowships Awarded by the Associa- 
tion • 156 

XII. Research in Child Study and Euthenics 173 

XIII. Some Early Committees 179 

XIV. College and University Administration 193 
XV. Three Typical Committees 205 

XVI. Committee on Educational Legislation 216 

XVII. The Association and New Vocations for 

Women 228 

XVIII. The Association of Collegiate Alumnae 

AND THE World War 242 

XIX. The Washington Headquarters 258 

XX. The Committee on International Rela- 
tions 266 

XXI. International Federation of University 

Women 277 

viii Contents 

XXII. Relation to Other Organizations 291 

XXIII. The Committee on Educational Policies 303 

XXIV. Publications and Printed Records 310 

XXV. Sectional Conferences and State Divi- 
sions 323 

XXVI. The Branches of the Association 338 

XXVII. Branches Outside the United States 389 

XXVIII. A Program of Adult Education 401 

XXIX. The End of the Story 416 


I. List of Past Presidents of the A.C.A., W.A.C.A., 

and S.A.C.W. 425 

II. List of Original Members of A.C.A. 427 

III. Approved List of Universities and Colleges, 
1930-31, with Date of Admission to A.C.A. or 
A.A.U.W. 429 

IV. List of Branches of A.A.U.W. to October i, 
1930, with Date of Admission to the Organiza- 
tion 435 

V. List of Fellowships Awarded by the A.C.A. and 
A.A.U.W. with List of Fellows, 1890-1931 443 

VI. Officers of A.A.U.W., 1930-1931 449 

VII. Chairmen of Standing and Special Committees, 

1930-1931 450 

Index 451 










In the 1870's, Boston, Massachusetts, was a center of 
culture and intellectual vigor, and to its schools and col- 
leges the whole of the United States looked with admiration, 
and with the hope of finding leadership there. Yet there was 
not as yet, either in Boston or its neighbor Cambridge, any 
school where a young woman could be prepared for college 
as the Boston Latin School or the Roxbury Latin School or 
the Cambridge High School prepared her brothers.^ Apiong 
private schools the Chauncy Hall School ^ admitted a few 
girls, but with reluctance, as its large classes were filled 
with boys, most of whom expected to go to Harvard College. 
When Boston University opened a College of Liberal Arts 
to which young women were admitted, there still remained 
the problem of how, without expensive private instruction, 
these same young women could be fitted to undertake the 

* Prepared entirely by Mrs. Rosenberry. 

' In Philadelphia no girls could be prepared for college In a public 
high school before 1893, neither Latin, French, nor German being taught 
in the Girls' High School. In Baltimore the two girls' high schools were 
still, in 1900, unable to prepare girls for college. 

' A large private school conducted by Thomas Gushing and William 
H. Ladd attended chiefly by boys, but with a small group of girls. It 
was occupying a new and conveniently located school building and the 
hospitality of its principals was frequently enjoyed by the Association. 

4 Association of University Women 

work of the freshman year. But these were large problems, 
and some specific case had to arise and demand solution 
before an answer to the puzzling situation could be found. 

Dr. I. Tisdale Talbot, dean of the School of Medicine in 
Boston University, and his wife had two daughters for whom 
they desired the best education possible. ' Finishing schools * 
seemed to them no solution for young women with real in- 
tellectual power, and with great foresight they had their 
elder daughter Marion begin the study of Latin when she 
was ten years of age, and the study of Greek when she was 
thirteen, partly by private instruction and partly by attend- 
ance at the Chauncy Hall School. It seemed to these far- 
sighted parents that modern languages should be a part of 
an educated woman's equipment, and they therefore took 
their family to Europe for fifteen months, that a speaking 
and reading knowledge of French and German might be 
acquired. Even with this unusual equipment, their elder 
daughter Marion was unable to fulfill all the requirements 
for entrance to the College of Liberal Arts of Boston Uni- 
versity, and as the Girls' High School could give only * small 
Latin and less Greek,* the principal of the school, Colonel 
Homer B. Sprague, directed her study of the ^neid and the 
Iliad. So slow was the pace set for her, in even the advanced 
class in geometry at the Girls* High School, that Dr. and 
Mrs. Talbot arranged for her to enter college at the begin- 
ning of the winter term (1876-77), gradually making up her 
entrance conditions and the work of the fall term which she 
had missed. Her eager mind seized gratefully upon this 
opportunity. When June came, the work of her freshman 
year had been com.pleted, and year by year she proceeded 
on her course until June of 1880, when she was graduated 
with the degree of Bachelor of Arts. 

But this unusual course had resulted In what was almost 
social ostracism for the young graduate, who had by her 
college course cut herself off from her girlhood friends. No 
'Junior League' or 'Sewing Circle' or 'Vincent Club' of 

Founding of the First Association 5 

those days wanted as a member a young woman whose aims 
were so different from their own, and whose time was ab- 
sorbed by what was to them a hopeless tangle of tormenting 
questions whose solution got one nowhere socially when it 
was all over. As a consequence, Marion Talbot came out of 
college to a world with which she had little in common, and 
to a life of comparative leisure to which she was entirely 
unaccustomed. It would evidently be highly desirable to 
choose a definite occupation for which her preparation fitted 
her; but the choice would have to be made in spite of difh- 
culties and uncertainties, and even when the choice was 
made, the opportunities for carrying it out were meager, if 
not actually hazardous. Her friends, who looked forward to 
marriage as the only possible step after the finishing school 
and the formal debut, did not speak the same language as 
this young graduate of 1880. To-day, when so many colleges 
and universities afford to young women social opportunities 
more numerous and varied than any found in smaller towns 
or cities, the problem is still complex, but not in the same 

Here, then, was Marion Talbot with a college degree and 
an absorbing desire to make herself and her education useful, 
but with as barren an outlook for such a future as one can 
imagine. The year 1880-81 was spent in making visits to 
various Eastern cities, while she thought over her problem 
and her contacts with life and people. The fall of 188 1 saw 
her mother's friend, Mrs. Julia Ward Howe, herself a 
courageous mother of young daughters, interested and eager 
to help her puzzled young friend. The Saturday Morning 
Club had been established for Miss Maud Howe and her 
friends, and by her admission here, Marion Talbot renewed 
in a measure her relations with the young women whose 
companionship her entrance to college had compelled her to 
forego five years before. 

But once the urge of an idea takes hold of one in thorough- 
going fashion, one is bound by it for life, and so it was with 

6 Association of University Women 

Marion Talbot. The satisfactions obtained in the pursuit 
of truth make other searches seem trivial in comparison, and 
the use of one's mind becomes not only a fascinating, but a 
compelling task. Not satisfied with what four years of col- 
lege had taught her, Marion Talbot began the study which 
led to a master's degree, obtained at Boston University in 

In the mean time, the younger daughter of the Talbot 
household, Edith, was facing the same problem and the 
same difficulties in preparing herself for college as had her 
older sister. Convinced that the path to college for boys 
which the Boston Latin School made so clear and easy and 
unswerving, should be opened for her daughter and all other 
young Boston girls whose desires lay in the same field, Mrs. 
Talbot gathered a small but equally courageous group of 
friends about her, and made a determined assault upon the 
Boston Latin School hoping to make a break in its walls 
whereby girls might enter along with their brothers. But 
tradition was too strong and conservatism was too stubborn, 
and the wall held. It was pointed out to Mrs. Talbot that the 
traditions of the Boston Latin School were too precious to be 
sacrificed, that fair play had nothing to do with the question, 
and other arguments as old as the story of Eve were brought 
up to buttress the case. The struggle had been brave and 
vigorous, but inevitably hopeless, and reluctantly Mrs. Talbot 
and her friends accepted a substitute for their far-sighted and 
idealistic plan. This substitute was the establishment of the 
Latin School for Girls, which was not allowed, however, to 
use ' Boston ' in its title, since there might be confusion with 
the Latin School for Boys, which had dated its existence 
from 1635. Here in the Latin School for Girls, Edith Talbot 
continued, with the opening of its doors, her preparation for 
college, and was a member one year later of its first graduat- 
ing class. 

Mrs. Talbot's eyes were now thoroughly opened to the 
unreasonable and manifold obstacles to women's education 

Founding of the First Association 7 

and the later use of that education as the foundation for a 
career. The difficulties which she had met in the task of 
securing thorough training for her own daughters had added 
immeasurably to her lifelong interest in education in general. 
In particular, her elder daughter's experience after leaving 
Boston University had brought home to Mrs. Talbot the 
realization that in addition to the small group of women 
who were able to utilize their college training as teachers, 
especially in institutions of collegiate rank, there was arising 
a class entirely new and destined within a few years to be 
large — that of the women whose intellectual urge had sent 
them to college, whom the freedom from economic pressure 
had left after graduating with leisure and fine standards 
of taste, but with few ways outside of the home in which 
such equipment might to advantage be utilized. A college 
course, with its definite aims and its training in habits of 
persevering industry, did not fit young women to live on the 
easiest terms with other young women less systematically 
trained. A conventional social life seemed lacking in purpose 
or even in providing friendships on any such basis as college 
provided, and was inadequate as a satisfying end in itself to 
this new generation. Moreover, the opportunity for ac- 
quaintance with graduates of other colleges was necessarily 
limited, and yet it was obvious that the same problems 
(albeit not of exactly the same difficulty) must exist all over 
the United States, and only through cooperation and united 
action could any solution be found. Three questions had to 
be answered by any thoughtful young woman who in 1880 
had a college or university degree. First, what especial value 
had a college degree been to her individually and personally? 
Second, if there were value in such a degree, how best could 
she assist in forwarding the aims and ambitions of other 
young women who also wished such training? Third, how 
best could she fit herself into her community and play the 
part in its life and program which was at once her interest 
and her evident obligation? 

8 Association of University Women 

' These were the questions which, in October of the year 
1 88 1, Marion Talbot was trying to answer, in the intervals 
of her study for her master's degree. Seated day after day 
in the comfortable home of her parents at 66 Marlborough 
Street, in this same city of Boston which had been so in- 
hospitable to new ideas on the subject of women's education, 
she pondered their solution. One day the doorbell rang, 
and a young woman asked if she might speak with Mrs. 
Talbot. When Mrs. Talbot entered the room, the young 
woman apologized for presenting herself so unconventionally 
and without formal introduction, and added the information 
-that she was Alice Hayes, who had been graduated the pre- 
ceding June with a bachelor's degree from the comparatively 
new college at Poughkeepsie, New York — Vassar College. 
Miss Hayes further explained that her family was quite 
unwilling that she take a regular teaching position, partly 
because she was not physically very vigorous, and partly 
because there was no financial necessity for her so to do. 
But Miss Hayes was determined to earn a small income of 
her own by her own labors, and she felt able and amply 
equipped to do tutoring, for example, for a few hours a week, 
if only such a position could be found. Knowing Mrs. 
Talbot's interest in women's education and in college train- 
ing especially. Miss Hayes said she had ventured to call to 
see if by any chance she could get advice as to how to pro- 
ceed in her search for a position. Thereupon the conversa- 
tion was opened, the whole situation canvassed by question 
and answer, and there stood revealed a definite case of attain- 
ments unquestioned, of ambitions most worthy, of young 
womanhood, modern in its training and its ideas, balked at 
every turn by tradition and prejudice. To Mrs. Talbot came 
the thought of her own daughters, of the number of such 
young women as were they and Miss Hayes, scattered the 
length and breadth of the whole United States, and in that 
moment came a vision. As if by inspiration she saw con- 
stantly increasing numbers of young women, with similar 

Founding of the First Association 9 

training and congenial tastes, drawn together in a great body 
for the advancement of human folk. She saw how by co- 
operation and by organization these young women might 
set the stakes ahead in the matter of educational methods, 
might encourage young girls in more definite aims for their 
lives, might give support to the student struggling for lack 
of funds wherewith to make a purpose come to fruition, 
might formulate plans for investigation of the very problems 
which at the moment seemed incapable of solution, and by 
such investigation point the way to their answers. She saw, 
too, as if in a flash of light, what would come of such associa- 
tion where trained young women learned to work together 
in a common interest, with unity of thought along with 
diversity of method, the whole in a spirit of self-sacrifice and 
loving service. She sent for her daughter Marion, and there 
the two young women met, Mrs. Talbot revealing to them 
her vision and imparting to them her fire. The whole scene 
is symbolic — the older woman trained in a different school, 
by different methods, in a different environment, but wholly 
sympathetic with a younger generation ; the younger women 
looking in respect and admiration to one whose years of 
experience in a world where she had kept consistently her 
idealism made her judgment well worth having. ( 

At once Marion Talbot consulted her friend and teacher, 
Ellen H. Richards, and together they issued a call to all the 
college women they knew — few indeed in that day — to 
meet on the 28th day of November, 1881, in the hospitable 
halls of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Eight 
colleges were represented by seventeen women: 

Oberlin College: Anna E. F. Morgan, '66 

Ellen A. Hayes, '78 
Margaret E. Stratton, '78 

Vassar College: Ellen H. Richards, '70 

Florence M. Cushing, '74 
Alice Hayes, '8i 

10 Association of University Women 

University of Michigan: Lucy C. Andrews, '76 

Alice E. Freeman, '76 
Mary O. Marston, '77 

Cornell University: Mary H. Ladd, '75 

University of Wisconsin: Maria M. Dean, '80 

Alma F. Frisby, '78 

Boston University: Sarah L. Miner, '77 

Marion Talbot, '80 

Smith College: S. Alice Brown, '81 

Wellesley College: Harriet C. Blake, '80 

Edith E. Metcalf, '80 

It is of interest to note that, with four exceptions, no one of 
the group had been out of college more than five years, and 
six had graduated that year or the one preceding. 

Ellen H. Richards was made chairman of the meeting, and 
Marion Talbot its secretary — an ofifi.ce she continued to 
hold for fourteen years, exercising its functions until 1892 
from her old home, 66 Marlborough Street, Boston, where 
was made manifest the vision which led to this first meeting. 
It was fitting that Miss Talbot should state the object of the 
gathering, and when she had finished, it was significant that 
the acting president of Wellesley College, Alice E. Freeman, 
should rise to make a motion, 'that a meeting be called for 
the purpose of organizing an association of women college 
graduates, with headquarters at Boston.' After discussion 
by all present, the motion was unanimously carried. It was 
then voted, on motion of Florence M. Gushing, that a com- 
mittee composed of one graduate from each college repre- 
sented in this preliminary gathering be appointed to arrange 
for and call a meeting, at the same time presenting an outline 
of a constitution. The meeting then adjourned. 

In accordance with the vote of the preliminary meeting, 
the following notice was sent out to many alumnae of the 
eight associated colleges then living in New England or 
New York: 

Founding of the First Association 11 

The undersigned, a Committee appointed to make arrangements 
for a general meeting of College Alumnae, cordially invite you to 
be present at this meeting, to be held at the Chauncy Hall School, 
cor. Boylston and Dartmouth Streets, January 14, 1882, at 3 o'clock. 

F. M. Cushing Edith Metcalf 

Vassar College Wellesley College 

M. H. Ladd S. A. Brown 

Cornell University Smith College 

L. C. Andrews Marion Talbot 

Michigan University Boston University 

M. E. Stratton M. M. Dean 

Oberlin College Wisconsin University 

On January 14, 1882, sixty-five women answered the call 
and attended the meeting.* Miss Talbot gave in brief outline 
the work she thought might be accomplished by such an 
organization as the one proposed. Alice E. Freeman spoke, 
as was her wont, with authority and contagious enthusiasm. 
While no detailed record of her speech is preserved, those 
present remember how clear and sound were her views, and 
how little to the end of her life the ideals she there set forth 
were changed. Her husband, Professor George Herbert 
Palmer, told the Association at its twenty-fifth anniversary, 
in speaking of the fellowship established as a memorial to his 
wife, that she believed the Association should exist and be 
fostered for the sake of society, for the sake of knowledge, 
and for the sake of the individual members themselves. She 
thought it was important that women who had gone to 
college should carry the college idea far and wide in the 
community and make it a rightly valued thing for a girl to 
go to college. She desired to set up a standard for the higher 
training of women, to insist that it be held there, and she 
thought it important that those young women who go out 
from the colleges into different occupations should feel the 
helpful influence of an unseen but guardian company close 
around them. Professor Palmer said that she had rejoiced 
when steadily she saw these aims being realized. 

» See Appendix, pp. 427-28, for the list of members present. 

12 Association of University Women 

After Miss Freeman had spoken, the discussion was 
general, many others of the gathering adding their views 
and giving their approval to the project. Strangely enough, 
the sole discordant note was struck by the only gray-haired 
woman present, Lucy Stone, a graduate of Oberlin College 
in the class of 1847, and known nationally as a pioneer in 
and courageous laborer for causes which were often far from 
popular. Mrs. Stone expressed doubt as to the need for any 
such organization, and made clear that she saw no methods 
by which its purposes could be accomplished. But her ques- 
tionings did not daunt the little assemblage, and after some 
discussion and amendment of the report on organization 
which had been prepared in accordance with the vote of the 
former meeting, the following constitution was adopted: 

Article I 

This organization shall be known as the Association of Collegiate 

Article II 

The SgJpject 6f this Association shall be to unite alumnae of dif- 
ferent institutions for practical educational work. 

Article III 

'" Any woman who has received a degree in Arts, Philosophy, Science 
or Literature, from any college, university or scientific school, which 
may be approved by the unanimous vote of the Executive Com- 
mittee, is entitled to membership in this Association. 

Article IV 

The officers of the Association shall be a president, vice-president, 
secretary, treasurer and not less than five directors; who together 
shall constitute an Executive Committee, with power to transact 
the business of the Association in the interim of its meetings. The 
officers shall be chosen by ballot, at the annual meeting of the Asso- 
ciation, and shall hold their offices for one year, or until others be 
chosen in their place; and they shall have power to fill any vacancies 
that may occur in their number. Five members of the Executive 
Committee shall constitute a quorum. 

Founding of the First Association 13 

Article V 

The annual meeting of the Association shall be held in January 
at such time and place as the Executive Committee shall appoint. 
Other regular meetings of the Association shall take place in March, 
May and October. Special meetings may be called by the secretary, 
at the request of the president or of three other members. 

Article VI 

This constitution may be altered or amended by a vote of three- 
fourths of the members present at any regular meeting, notice having 
been given in writing at a previous meeting. 

The meeting then proceeded under the constitution to the 
election of officers, selecting the following : 


Mrs. J. F. Bashford, University of Wisconsin, of Auburndale, 

Miss F. M. Gushing, Vassar College, of 8 Walnut Street, Boston, 

Miss Marion Talbot, Boston University, of 66 Marlborough 
Street, Boston, Massachusetts. 

Miss Margaret Hicks, Cornell University, of Cambridge, 

Miss A. E. F. Morgan, Oberlin College, of Wellesley College, 

Wellesley, Massachusetts. 
Mrs. E. H. Richards, Vassar College, of Jamaica Plain, Massa- 
Miss A. E. Freeman, University of Michigan, of Wellesley, 

Miss K. E. Morris, Smith College, of Cambridge, Massachu- 
Miss H. M. Peirce, Wellesley College, of Newton Centre, 

This list included a representative of each college belong- 
ing to the Association when it was organized. 

The secretary was instructed to notify all the alumnae, 
whose addresses could be secured, of their eligibility to 

14 Association of University Women 

membership in the new organization. This she did, using 
the following form of application: 

The undersigned, having completed a course of study at 

and received the degree of 

in i8. . . ., desires to become a member of the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae. 



Post-Office Address 


It may be added that responses came in rapidly from all 
parts of the country, though naturally the majority were 
from New England, where for long the real work of the 
Association was centered. 

' It would be difficult for a college girl of to-day,' wrote 
Elizabeth M. Howe in 1907, 'to realize the effect which the 
initial invitation to join an association of college women 
produced.* ' It came to me,' said a New Hampshire girl who 
had just graduated and was teaching in Omaha, 'and I 
joined. I felt as if I had been flung out into space, and the 
notices of these meetings were the only threads that con- 
nected me with the things I had known.* 

On that January day in 1882, there was launched upon 
its long career the first association of college and university 
trained women in the world — The Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae, whose semi-centennial is to be celebrated in Bos- 
ton, in 1931. How far its original purposes have continued 
to guide its work, how far its far-flung branches have shaped 
their own purposes, how far the logic of events in the United 
States and (since 19 14) throughout the world have widened 
its aims, the following pages will undertake to reveal. 


The Association had, as has been stated, drawn a constitu- 
tion and elected officers early in 1882. According to the 
provisions of its constitution, it held regular meetings in 
March, May, and October of each year, with the annual 
meeting in January, and this plan it continued for several 
years to follow. Its meetings were held in Boston or 
Wellesley until 1884, when in September of that year a 
meeting was held in Philadelphia. In October, 1885, a meet- 
ing was held in Brooklyn, and in October, 1886, at Bryn 
Mawr College. The annual meeting of 1887 was held in 
Boston, that of 1888 in Ithaca (New York), that of 1889 in 
Buffalo (New York), with the quarterly meetings held 
usually in Boston or its vicinity. It was not until 1889 that 
the quarterly meetings were abandoned and an annual 
meeting only was held. This development was of course 
due to the rise of branches of the Association, with a meet- 
ing of the entire membership of the organization no longer 

At these quarterly meetings of the early years, the presi- 
dent presided — first, Mrs. Bashford, a gentle, charming 
woman who had been a graduate in one of the early classes 
which had admitted women in the University of Wisconsin, 
and who was later to live in China for many years. Mrs. 
Bashford was succeeded in office by Florence M. Cushing, 

* It is interesting to note how the places where the A.C.A. met corre- 
sponded roughly to the expansion of the organization, the growth of its 
branches, etc. The annual meeting of 1890 was held in Chicago and 
Evanston, 1891 in Boston and Wellesley, 1892 in Washington, 1893 in 
Chicago, 1894 in New Haven, 1895 in Cleveland, 1896 in Providence, 
and in 1897 in Detroit. By 1904 the Association was able to hold its 
annual meeting in St. Louis and in 1905 in Atlanta, Georgia. 

16 Association of University Women 

who for nearly forty years served the Association in one 
capacity or another, and remained until the close of her life, 
the staunch, sane friend of the Association and of all move- 
ments for the higher education of women. Miss Gushing 
was succeeded by Alice E. Freeman, who was followed by 
Helen Hiscock Backus, but who again, as Alice Freeman 
Palmer, served a second time as president from 1887 to 189 1. 
And the list continues in regular order until to-day.^ 

The meetings in these early years were not unlike those 
of to-day — reading of minutes, finishing old business, hear- 
ing reports of the committees which were at once established 
for various purposes, and taking up new business. Then fol- 
lowed the reading, perhaps, of a paper, to be followed by a 
discussion upon the points thus brought before the audience. 
An essay on physical education, read at the first regular 
meeting of the Association by Dr. Adaline S. Whitney, led 
to the appointment of a Committee on Physical Education.* 
This was the first research committee of the organization, 
and was quickly followed by others. Thus an enduring 
method of work was established. 

Papers along new lines were often presented, such as that 
given at a meeting in March, 1883, by Evelyn Walton 
Ordway ^ on * Industrial Education for Women,' which con- 
tained *a large amount of information as to opportunities 
existing in various parts of the country for instruction in the 
industrial arts, and many suggestions for the further adop- 
tion of such training as a part of our system of public-school 

, The meeting in March, 1884, was largely a discussion of 
'The Idea of the College' — a subject so fruitful that an- 
other phase of it was developed in Philadelphia at the meet- 

^ See Appendix, pp. 425-26, for list of all presidents of the Association 
of Collegiate Alumnae, the Western Association of Collegiate Alumnae, 
the Southern Association of College Women, and the American Associa- 
tion of University Women. 

' See Chapter VIII for the work of this committee. 

5 See Chapter XVI I for future developments along the same lines. 

The First Years of the Association 1 7 

ing in September, 1884, under the topic, 'The Duty of Col- 
lege Graduates to Preparatory Schools.' At the same meet- 
ing, ' the members present had the privilege of hearing papers 
on " Occupations and Professions for College-bred Women," 
by Jane M. Bancroft, and on "The Relation Between the 
Home and the College," by Emma S. Atkinson.' The pious 
wish follows in the record ' that these papers will be made 
accessible to all who feel an interest in the publication.' 

Measures were taken as early as October, 1883, to inform 
the members of advances made in the college training of 
women, and a Committee on College Work was appointed 
to study the question and report later to the Association. 
Closely allied to this investigation was the paper of Kate 
Morris Cone on 'Women's Gifts to Educational Insti- 

It was in a way a matter of chance that the call issued by 
Mrs. Richards and Miss Talbot should have brought to- 
gether representatives of Oberlin College, Vassar College, 
Wellesley College, Smith College, Boston University, 
Cornell University, the University of Michigan, and the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. The seventeen women who gathered 
on November 8, 1881, for the first informal conference were 
such alumnae living in Boston and the vicinity as were 
known to those who issued the call. When the meeting for 
actual organization took place on January 14, 1882, it was 
natural that the sixty-five women present should represent 
the same institutions, since a graduate of each college repre- 
sented at the November meeting had been appointed to 
notify graduates of her own Alma Mater and to arrange for 
the January meeting. The constitution adopted at this 
latter meeting provided that membership should have an 
institutional, not a personal basis, and that institutions 
other than those represented by the original members should 
be admitted on unanimous vote of the Executive Com- 
mittee. Less than ten days elapsed between the adoption 
of the constitution and the first meeting of the Executive 

18 Association of University Women 

Committee, which had been formed in accordance with the 
constitution. There were present Mrs. Bashford, Mrs. Rich- 
ards, Miss Gushing, Miss Hicks, Miss Morgan, Miss Morris, 
Miss Peirce, and Miss Talbot, Mrs. Bashford acting as 
chairman and Miss Talbot as secretary. At once Miss Peirce 
presented the name of Wesleyan University (Connecticut) 
for membership in the Association, and Miss Cushing offered 
that of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. With 
practically no discussion, the Executive Committee passed 
the necessary vote, the two institutions were admitted, and 
their graduates became eligible to membership on the same 
basis as the original members. Eagerly welcoming any sign 
of encouragement and wholly unaware of the Pandora's box 
of problems and responsibilities whose lid they thus opened, 
the Executive Committee accepted the two new institu- 
tions thus simply and naturally. Only a scant number of 
new members could be enrolled, for neither institution had 
many alumnae. But the principle of accepting new institu- 
tions on an equality with the institutions already accepted 
was established and has continued throughout the half- 

So valuable did the various activities prove to be that 
almost at once college-trained women in other parts of the 
country expressed a desire to assure themselves of the bene- 
fits and privileges which the Association in Boston had 
proved possible. The founders of the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae never intended their organization to be 
local in character or program. Mrs. Talbot's vision was one 
of far-flung sister groups all over the vast territory of the 
United States, linked together by the slender but strong 
bond of a common ideal and purpose, but functioning as 
independent units to bring about actual achievement in 
their separate localities. While, therefore, the post-ofiice 
address of the Association continued to be that of the home 
of the secretary, Marion Talbot, 66 Marlborough Street, 
Boston, and the Executive Committee meetings as well as 

The First Years of the Association 19 

the regular meetings of the new organization were held at 
first in Boston, it was never the intention of the first mem- 
bers to confine their membership or labors to the Bay State 
or any part of it. It was less than two years after the organ- 
ization meeting that the first request for a new center of the 
Association came before the officers. After some corre- 
spondence in October, 1883, the following minute appears in 
the record of a meeting of the Association held on the 27th 
of that month : 

Voted that the Association signify its cordial approval of the 
proposition to establish a branch Association in Chicago and instruct 
the secretary to offer any information which the Association can 
furnish to aid in furthering the plan. 

But Immediately there arose the question of the relation 
of such a 'branch association' to the original group, and on 
March 22, 1884, in the worn old minute-book occurs the 
following : 

The Committee on Branch Associations reported from the Execu- 
tive Committee the following draft of an article to the constitution: 

Art. VI. 

Branch associations may be formed in accordance with the follow- 
ing provisions: 

1. They shall be specified as branch associations In their name. 

2. They shall cooperate with the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnse in its general work, while carrying on independent local 

3. The requirements of regular membership shall be the same as 
in the Association of Collegiate Alumnae. Such membership shall 
also constitute membership In the Association of Collegiate Alumna?. 

4. The presidents of branch associations shall be ex officio vice- 
presidents and the recording secretaries ex officio corresponding secre- 
taries of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae. Each recording 
secretary shall make an annual report to the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae. 

5. Branch associations shall make their own by-laws governing 
all points except those hereby specified. 

20 Association of University Women 

It was not, however, until October 25, 1884, that the 
proposed article was finally adopted, after little amendment 
and much discussion. 

Thus the policy of expansion became very early in the 
history of the organization a settled part of their program. 

The plan for branches was first accepted by a group of 
college women in Washington, D.C. As early as 1882, a 
group of alumnse residing in Philadelphia began the dis- 
cussion preliminary to forming a new center of the Asso- 
ciation. Temporarily their plan was laid aside, and it was 
not until May, 1886, that the group was fully organized 
and recognized as a ' branch ' — the name accepted and 
used to the present time to designate local chapters of the 
parent organization. In the mean time, however, a group 
in Washington and its vicinity founded the Washington 
branch, the first branch of the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnse as one knows them to-day.* 

Within less than five years, then, the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnse had inaugurated six policies which have been 
carried on for half a century: first, that of conducting re- 
search by means of committees; second, that of forming new 
committees for the study of new problems; third, that of 
admitting properly qualified institutions to membership; 
fourth, that of welcoming branches of the Association 
formed in various parts of the country; fifth, that of asking 
distinguished people to present the results of their study 
before the branches of the parent organization; and sixth, 
that of encouraging through study groups (for such some of 
the committees proved themselves to be) investigation which 
should be concerned with any aspect of education whether 
elementary, advanced, rural or industrial. 
^ See Chapter VII, p. 95 ff. 



It was natural that the very simple code under which the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae began its work should, 
as the years went by, need amplification and change. New 
methods were called for, new procedure required. As the 
secretary said: 'The lusty infant needed not only bigger 
clothes but more of them.' 

The first change in the simple constitution drawn up in 
January, 1882, was made necessary in 1883, by the question 
of eligibility to membership in the Association. As new 
members applied, the institutions whose degrees they had 
obtained necessarily passed in review before the Executive 
Committee of the Association, before the final steps could 
be taken which should admit the college or university to 
corporate membership in the organization, and so add the 
new members to the roster. Immediately there arose the 
question of how to judge the standard of these institntions, 
how to evaluate the degrees they conferred, and, in the case 
of coeducational institutions, how to assure one's self that 
every opportunity, intellectual and personal, should be open 
to women equally with men. As a result of the situation 
thus presented, along with the necessity for finding a basis 
which would be equally acceptable to all members of the or- 
ganization, a new article was adopted as a part of the con- 
stitution. It read as follows: 

Any woman who has received a degree in arts, philosophy, science 
or literature from any college, university, or scientific school, ad- 
mitted to the Association, is entitled to membership. New institu- 
tions shall be admitted on a three-fourths vote of the Executive 
Committee, confirmed by a vote of three-fourths of the members 
of the Association present at any regular meeting. Notice of such 
proposed action shall be given with the call for the meeting. 

22 Association of University Women 

The changes involved in the adoption of this new article 
were three: first, substituting a three-fourths for a unani- 
mous vote of the Executive Committee; second, placing the 
final responsibility on the Association itself; and third, sub- 
stituting the word 'admitted' for the word 'approved.' 

A second change was necessary almost immediately upon 
the launching of the new enterprise, for it was speedily evi- 
dent that even so idealistic a piece of work as the founders 
contemplated could not proceed without money. At first 
voluntary contributions from the members were the only 
receipts the treasury contained. But those were the days 
of 'high thinking and plain living' in earnest, and the mem- 
bership of the group was made up almost entirely of women 
who lived on regular incomes, mostly derived from teaching. 
The day of the five-dollar annual memberships in any soci- 
ety or the fifty-dollar fee for belonging to a college club were 
still far distant. Yet an assured income, no matter how 
small, must be forthcoming for the Association if it was to 
do the things which it had set about to accomplish. The 
simplest way seemed to be to indicate in gentle terms what 
sum might reasonably be expected from members, and ac- 
cordingly the following article was in 1884 adopted: 

An annual assessment of one dollar shall be due from each member 
in January. Regular members of duly recognized branches shall be 
exempt from this assessment. The president and treasurer are 
authorized to remit any fee sub silentio, when they deem it advisable. 

The effect of this article was twofold. It first relieved the 
members of branches from any financial obligation to the 
general Association, a fact which proves how small a part 
branch membership played at first in the whole organiza- 
tion; and second, it took cognizance of the possible existence 
of an impecuniosity among its members, which was, how- 
ever, either non-existent, or had already begun to succumb 
to the pressure of the onrushing tide of countless member- 
ship dues, for the fact is that there are very few records of 
such silently excused payments. 

Organization Past and Present 23 

But the most far-reaching development came when a 
group of women in Chicago inquired concerning the possi- 
bility of becoming a branch of the parent organization. It 
was at this time that the constitution was amended to pro- 
vide for the formation of branches and for the expansion of 
the organization.' Under these new provisions the Associ- 
ation proceeded evenly and quietly, until in 1889 the union 
of the Western Association of Collegiate Alumnse with the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnse made other changes de- 
sirable in order to conform to the wishes of the Western 
group. . Accordingly the following article was adopted : 

No State shall have more than one director, and, so far as pos- 
sible, all the different institutions in the Association shall be repre- 
sented in the board of directors. Each director shall call at least 
one meeting annually of the members of the Association resident in 
the State represented by her, and may call other meetings of the 
alumnae resident in her State when she deems it advisable. The 
directors of the neighboring States may, with the consent of the 
president, call a joint meeting of the alumnae resident in their States. 
Each director shall make an annual report to the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae. 

Under this provision the District of Columbia and the 
States of California, Connecticut, Illinois, Massachusetts, 
Minnesota, Michigan, New Jersey, New York, and Wis- 
consin chose directors. 

By another article, while the quarterly meetings were 
abandoned, the provision for special meetings, 'which may 
be called by the Secretary at the request of the President or 
three Directors,' was retained, thus making possible, in case 
of necessity, more frequent meetings than the annual one 
then provided. 

It is clear that these changes emphasized the fact that 
the Association belonged to the whole country and was 
really national. At the same time the local character of the 
branches was recognized and confirmed by the requirement 

« See Chapters IV, VII. 

24 Association of University Women 

that their members should 'reside within such distance as 
may permit their attendance at meetings* [of the branch!. 

By still another change, seemingly slight but essentially 
fundamental, 'regular members of duly organized branches 
shall pay to the general Association ^ through the treasurer 
of their branch, an annual fee of fifty cents.' Thus the 
branch members not only helped finance the Association as 
a whole in its national work, but became conscious of the 
fact that, though operating locally, they were in reality a 
part of a nation-wide organization doing work on a larger 
scale and of a more general character than could be the case 
were each local group entirely an isolated one. Not all 
members of the Association could or would be gathered into 
branches. Yet these interested people could not be lost, 
both for their own sakes and for the sake of the organiza- 
tion. As a consequence the dues of these ' general members ' 
were in 1889 — and still are in 1931 — sent directly to the 
headquarters of the Association.^ 

It is of interest to note that the Association had an experi- 
ence common to all organizations, for, whether because the 
original method. of financing the organization by means of 
voluntary contributions had made an impression upon the 
minds of many members that no amount of constitutional 
provision could dislodge, or whether annual dues seemed 
some kind of illegal assessment, at any rate one hundred 
per cent of dues was not forthcoming. As a consequence new 
measures were resorted to which it was hoped would secure 
from every member the regular annual fee upon which the 
Association quite logically felt it had a right to count in 
making up its budget and paying its bills. Accordingly there 
was added to the constitution a clause (and it was certainly 
not a hard ruling) that 'the names of members shall be 

' * This is the first time the term ' general Association ' appears any- 
where in the records (1889). 

^ The general members have also always been represented at conven- 
tions of the Association. 

Organization Past and Present 25 

stricken from the membership Hst when three successive 
annual dues shall remain unpaid.' '■ 

With the enlarging of the Association which the merging 
of the Western Association with the A.C.A. brought about, 
and with the change from quarterly to annual meetings, the 
term of office for all general officers was in 189 1 changed from 
one year to two years. 

It was natural, however, that the rise of branches to- 
gether with the new establishment of state directorships 
should be accompanied by some difficulties, among which 
were duplication of authority and a consequent loss in work- 
ing power. This situation became clear from reports pre- 
sented at the annual meeting of 1893 by both state directors 
and by branches themselves. A special committee was, 
therefore, appointed to go Into the matter and make recom- 
mendations concerning it. The problem proved to be intri- 
cate, and it was not until 1895, after prolonged considera- 
tion, that a recommendation was made by the committee 
and adopted by the Association whereby presidents of 
branches were substituted for state directors as members of 
the Executive Committee. This was a significant step In the 
recognition of the importance of the branches, not only as 
sub-organizations, but also as valuable factors in formulat- 
ing and carrying out policies of the general Association. 

But no cross-section of the situation, after fourteen years 
of effort, could have been more revealing than that made 
clear in the report of the secretary which she presented on 
October 25, 1895. It is therefore given at length. 

The time seems favorable for suggestions in regard to future 
methods of work which should strengthen the Association and make 
it more effective as a national organization of college-bred women 
united for practical educational work. 

I. Immediate steps should be taken to plan for securing a per- 
manent salaried secretary, trained in collegiate principles and with 

^ In 1897 the time of grace for paying dues in arrears was reduced 
from three years to one year. 

26 Association of University Women 

executive ability, who should give practically all of her time to the 
administrative and educational work of the Association. 

2. The financial condition of the Association should be studied, 
and an effort made to free it from some of the crippling conditions 
which now exist. 

3. The publications should appear in a more permanent form, and 
should contain not only reports of the general Association, but be a 
means of communication between the branches. Collegiate informa- 
tion of much value and interest is frequently unavailable because of 
the lack of an adequate and suitable medium of publication. 

4. The relation of the branches to the Association presents certain 
aspects about which there is confusion in some quarters. Questions 
relating to fees, honorary and associate membership, independent 
work, and kindred topics, while in fact answered in the constitution, 
seem to require more explicit statements for the assistance of officers 
who have not had much experience. It would greatly aid in the 
understanding of these matters if a joint committee representing the 
branches and the Association at large could prepare a statement 
covering these and other points of administrative detail. 

5. Work already undertaken by the Association should be pushed 
to completion, as, for example, the bibliography of the higher educa- 
tion of women and the study of the causes which lead to the with- 
drawal of girls from college before the completion of their course. 

Such subjects should command earnest and loyal attention, for an 
important and noble work remains to be done by the Association. 
The dreams of its founders have been far more than realized in the 
past. Its friends can wish nothing better for its future than that its 
existing possibilities shall in due time prove actualities, and that 
in all its career a wise and generous spirit shall pervade its work. 

Nor is the reply of the committee appointed to consider 
Miss Talbot's report of less importance. Its chairman, 
Frances H. Sidwell, made for her committee recommenda- 
tions providing for the appointment of a finance committee 
to whom should be referred the first two suggestions of the 
secretary's report; and for the appointment of a committee 
on publications as well. Thus was the work of the Associa- 
tion gradually becoming more highly organized and central- 
ized at the same time that its branches were growing in 
number and in importance — a centripetal and a centrifugal 
motion going on, so to speak, at the same time. For with 

Organization Past and Present 27 

the centralizing of authority, there was also a real tendency 
observable to allow the branches to strengthen themselves 
wherever possible. For instance, a situation had arisen in 
some branches because of application for admission on the 
part of women who had obtained advanced degrees (A.M. 
and Ph.D.) in residence and by virtue of post-graduate 
study, whose undergraduate degrees (B.A. or B.S.) were 
from colleges or universities not members of the A.C.A. 
After a long discussion, it was decided to permit branches 
at their option to invite such women to associate member- 
ship, provided the institutions from which the advanced 
degrees were obtained were recommended by the Com- 
mittee (of the A.C.A.) on Corporate Membership and ap- 
proved by the Association ; and furthermore, that the num- 
ber of such associate members should not exceed one third 
of the regular membership, nor should they have the power 
of holding office and voting, except in matters relating to the 
local work of the branches. The Association still had the 
conviction that as an organization it must continue to be a 
fairly homogeneous body of college women if it would speak 
with authority or exercise influence in the educational world. 

In accordance with the recommendations of Mrs. Sid- 
well's committee, it was voted in 1897 to merge the offices of 
secretary and treasurer into that of secretary- treasurer of 
the Association, this new office to be a salaried one. But 
even with the provisions made in the years just preceding 
this action, the financial resources of the Association were 
inadequate to meet this new strain upon its budget. Other 
items had already been voted, and were, like the provision 
for fellowships, obligations which it was felt must be met in 
any case, even if for the time being the Association had to 
dispense with the services of the new officer. The following 
year (1898) it was found possible to set aside a salary 
of $1000, and the first secretary- treasurer of the A.C.A., 
Kate H. Claghorn, took her office. 

All this time the Association had had an informal sort of 

28 Association of University Women 

organization adapted to its early needs, but one which was 
not adequate when it began to hold trust funds, or indeed 
when the policy of levying annual dues on all members was 
adopted. In 1898, therefore, arrangements were completed 
for the incorporation of the Association under the laws of 
the State of Massachusetts. As a special act of the State 
Legislature was necessary to secure such incorporation, such 
an act was passed and approved by the Massachusetts Legis- 
lature on April 20, 1899, and accepted by the incorporators 
October 28, 1899. With no changes, save the necessary one 
of a change of name when in 1921 the Association and the 
Southern Association of College Women united under the 
new name of The American Association of University 
Women, the original act of incorporation of 1899 is still the 
constitution of the larger organization. As a matter of 
history it is here given in full. 

Section i. Jennie Field Bashford, Florence M. Gushing, Alice 
Freeman Palmer, Helen Hiscock Backus, Bessie Bradwell Helmer, 
Annie Howes Barus, Martha Foote Crow, Marion Talbot, and Alice 
Upton Pearmain, their associates and successors, are hereby consti- 
tuted a body corporate by the name of the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae, for the purpose of uniting the alumnae of different institu- 
tions for practical educational work, for the collection and publica- 
tion of statistical and other information concerning education, and 
in general for the maintenance of high standards of education. 

Sec 2. Said corporation is hereby granted all the powers, rights 
and privileges and is made subject to all the duties, restrictions, and 
liabilities set forth in chapter one hundred and fifteen of Public 
Statutes, and in all other general laws now or hereafter in force 
applicable to such corporations and not inconsistent with this act. 

Sec 3. Said corporation may by by-law or by vote provide that 
graduates of any college, university or scientific school specified in 
such by-law or vote, or that any person who has received a degree 
in arts, philosophy, science or literature from such college, university 
or scientific school, shall be eligible to membership in said cor- 

Sec 4. Said corporation shall have authority to determine at what 
times and places, within or without the Commonwealth, its meetings 
shall be held, and the manner of notifying the members to convene 

Organization Past and Present 29 

at such meetings; and also from time to time, in such manner as 
the by-laws may provide, to elect a president, vice-presidents, di- 
rectors, trustees, and such other officers as may be found necessary, 
and to declare the duties and tenures of such officers. Said corpora- 
tion may provide by its by-laws that its officers shall be chosen by 
ballots distributed by mail or otherwise, or may provide for any 
other manner of electing its officers. 

Sec. 5. Branch associations may be formed according to such 
by-laws as the corporation may adopt, and representation of such 
branch associations may be given in the said corporation for the 
election of officers and for such other purposes as the by-laws may 

Sec. 6. This act shall take effect upon its passage. (Approved 
April 20, 1899.) 

Following the constitution, a set of by-laws was adopted, 
embodying the procedure and rules in force in 1899. 

In 1901, a committee was appointed to choose a seal for 
the Association, and at the annual meeting held in Wash- 
ington in November, 1902, the recommendations of the 
committee were approved and there were adopted the seal 
and motto which have since been in use on all official docu- 
ments and publications.^ 

Notwithstanding the greater formality as well as* the in- 
creased detail which the new constitution and by-laws repre- 
sented, the principles upon which the Association had been 
founded, and by which it had unswervingly been guided, 
remained the same. The greatly increased membership (in 
1899, 2085), scattered the length and breadth of the United 
States, with the distances which separated the officers ac- 
cordingly greater also, had made impossible the personal 
bonds by which the earlier group had been drawn together, 
and more detailed information as to the duties of officers 
and obligations of members became necessary. Hence the 
strengthened document of 1899. 

Under the new sailing chart the Association set out again. 

* See article by Ethel Puffer Howes, Journal of the A.C.A. for Feb- 
ruary, 1909, p. 106. See also title-page of this book. 

30 Association of University Women 

But growing as the organization was in numbers and in com- 
plexity, other changes almost immediately became neces- 
sary. In accordance with its usual procedure, a committee 
was appointed in 1900 to make a study of the whole problem 
and upon that study to prepare recommendations for action 
by the Association. The chairman of this committee 'On 
Amendments to the By-Laws' was an able and experienced 
member of the A.C.A., Helen Hiscock Backus. After a year 
of work, a detailed report was made (1901) by Mrs. Backus, 
for her committee. In giving the background from which 
the present situation had developed, the report called atten- 
tion to the fact that when in 1895 Marion Talbot, having 
served thirteen years as secretary, had passed to the presi- 
dency, the need of a more comprehensive and balanced plan 
of organization became apparent. This had led, in 1898, 
to the establishment of a salaried secretary-treasurership. 
The successive incumbents of this office had contended for 
three years with perplexities and hindrances not foreseen in 
the plan which sought above all else to secure permanent 
tenure of office. The committee thereupon offered a solution 
of the difficulties involved in the situation. They recom- 
mended strengthening the working force through the ap- 
pointment of two new officers, the first to be designated as 
bursar, with few duties, but with important business respon- 
sibilities, who would be an intermediary between the perma- 
nent treasury of the Association and the detailed collecting 
and disbursing performed by the secretary-treasurer, and 
who would deal mainly with the major sums entering the 
treasury and leaving it by vote of the Executive Com- 
mittee. It was pointed out that a high order of business 
ability and much loyal self-sacrifice could be amply em- 
ployed in directing the business affairs of the Association, 
perfecting the routine and rendering suitable aid to the 
successive presidents serving for short terms, representing 
as they did in turn diverse localities and being presumably 
more or less preoccupied with their own professional and 

Organization Past and Present 31 

educational interests. The committee found that after the 
installation of a bursar, there still remained unfilled a large 
and important domain, viz., that of unifying the interests 
and guiding the work of allied groups scattered over a wide 
geographical area, a problem common to large and impor- 
tant national organizations. This work was to be provided 
for, according to the committee's plan, through the appoint- 
ment to office of a general secretary. 

These two recommendations of the committee were 
adopted and made the basis for amendment to the consti- 
tution whereby provision was made (i 901) for both a bursar 
and a general secretary. The first and only bursar was 
Elva Hulburd Young, ^ who served with great efficiency for 
fourteen years, until the office of bursar was in 191 5 com- 
bined with that of treasurer. The first general secretary 
(who was to be entrusted with power to direct and supervise 
the policy of the Association subject to the limitations 
implied in other by-laws, but was to represent a continuous 
policy for the organization) was very suitably Alice Freeman 
Palmer. It was with characteristic devotion and enthusiasm 
that Mrs. Palmer accepted this important new office and 
outlined at the outset what were to be for many years the 
main duties of its incumbent. For a year she served, until 
her departure on the trip to Europe during which her un- 
timely death occurred. The vacancy thus caused was filled 
temporarily by the appointment of Florence M. Gushing, 
who thereby added to the heavy debt the Association 
already owed her. The new secretary- treasurer was Eliza- 
beth Lawrence. Clarke, who had joined the Association upon 
her graduation from Smith College in 1883 and for several 
years had given freely of her time and services toward light- 
ening the mechanical duties of the secretary, as well as aid- 
ing in the less specific but more important tasks incident to 
the conduct of an educational organization working along 
untried lines. Mrs. Clarke's services as secretary-treasurer 

* Later Mrs. Van Winkle. 

32 Association of University Women 

— services which can never be overestimated — were given 
to the A.C.A. for eleven years, until 1912. All those whose 
membership in the Association dates as far back as 1901 will 
always think of Mrs. Clarke's name and signature as a sort 
of household word. 

At the same time (1901) that the Committee on Amend- 
ments to the By-Laws was making its report, another offi- 
cial document is found, which casts its light upon the situa- 
tion at the moment, and upon the selection of headquarters 
for the A.C.A. in Washington in 1919. This was the report 
of the then secretary-treasurer giving a summary of the 
various kinds of work which her office entailed, showing 
how many and growing her duties were, and for the first 
time an official plea was made for a permanent office with 
proper equipment. The time had passed when a bureau- 
drawer or a closet- shelf was adequate for the physical needs 
of the office. Even the trunk, which early became the de- 
pository of the written property of the Association ' and 
could be shifted from one secretary's home to that of the 
next one, was, as was emphasized year after year, totally 
inadequate. The vision of an official headquarters soon 
began to take shape in the minds of many members, but 
nearly a score of years passed before it became a reality. 

Although changes in detail were made almost every time 
the Association met, the next really fundamental changes 
did not come until 1912. In 1910 a committee called 'The 
Committee on the Future Policy of the A.C.A.' was ap- 
pointed, consisting of M. Carey Thomas, chairman; Alice 
Upton Pearmain, secretary; Eva Perry Moore, May Treat 
Morrison, and Helen Remington Olin. To these were, in 
191 1, added Vida Hunt Francis, newly elected general 
secretary; Mary Coes; Ellen F. Pendleton; Lucy M. Salmon; 

* This trunk, brass-bound and with a secure lock, is in the office of 
the Executive Secretary of the A.A.U.W. in Washington. It contains 
the early records, medals and diplomas awarded the Association, com- 
mittee reports, and the histories of branches, state divisions and sections 
which were used for this history. 

Organization Past and Present 33 

and Gertrude Shorb Martin, whereupon the committee 
became the Committee on Reorganization. 

In 1 91 2 the committee made its report, which with some 
changes in detail was adopted by the convention of that 
year, held in Ann Arbor, under the presidency of May Treat 
Morrison, with Eva Perry Moore acting as chairman of the 
Committee of the Whole for considering the important and 
detailed plan. In presenting the plan. President Thomas 
made an urgent plea for its adoption, stating courageously 
what she believed to be the shortcomings and failures of 
the Association, and pointing out clearly the need for more 
funds and a larger membership if the organization was to 
realize its aims, old and new. She felt that the new plan 
would achieve these objects, especially since it provided for 
closer relations between the alumnae of the institutions 
which belonged to the Association, as well as between the 
Association and the institutions themselves. 

In the reorganization of 1 912, the constitution of 1899 
remained, of course, as it was at its adoption. The by-laws 
were, however, radically changed. In the first place, a 
council was provided to be the ' directing power of the Asso- 
ciation,' to meet at least once a year — with the Association 
at its biennial conventions, and in the intervening years, 
meeting alone. It was to consist of the board of directors 
and of councillors representing the following membership 
in the Association : 

a. Representatives of branches of the Association duly elected by 
their respective branches. 

b. Representatives of general members at large of the Association 
duly elected by the general members at large. 

c. Representatives of affiliated members duly elected by their 
respective groups. 

d. Representatives duly elected by the Association from the 
governing boards and faculties of colleges and universities recognized 
by the Association. 

[The council was to] create special committees, appoint all stand- 
ing and special committees and conferences, and with the approval 

34 Association of University Women 

of the Association discontinue them;. . . transact such other business 
as the Association shall from time to time delegate to it, and . . . de- 
cide on such matters as may be referred to it by the board of 
directors or by the general secretary in the interim of meetings of 
the Association. 

The president of the Association shall be ex officio chairman of 
the council; the general secretary shall be ex officio the executive of 
the council; the secretary-treasurer shall be ex officio the secretary 
of the council. 

The country as a whole was to be divided into ten sec- 
tions, each of which was to have its own director, called a 
'sectional vice-president,* who was to be an officer of the 
Association, and thus a member of the board of directors 
and a councillor. 

The other officers provided by the report were a president, 
a vice-president-at-large, a general secretary, a secretary- 
treasurer, and a bursar. Of these the general secretary and 
the secretary-treasurer were to be the only salaried officers 
of the Association, the former to receive 

the highest salary paid by the Association. She shall give her entire 
time to the work of the Association and shall hold no other paid posi- 
tion. She shall be the executive officer of the Association, the 
council, and the board of directors, and shall consult with them 
as occasion requires. She shall be a regular member of all standing 
committees, except the Committee on Fellowships, and of all special 
committees and conferences; shall attend to all business not referred 
to special committees or otherwise provided for in the by-laws; she 
shall outline and present for the consideration of the council all 
matters to be acted upon by the council. She shall cooperate with 
the vice-presidents and with the branch officers in developing and 
planning the work of the different branches and shall represent the 
Association in all work with other societies, and at public meetings 
and conferences in the interval between the meetings of the council 
and board of directors, unless otherwise directed by the president. 

In case of her resignation or permanent inability to act, her duties 
shall devolve upon such person as may be chosen by the board of 
directors to act as general secretary until the next regular meeting 
of the Association. 

The secretary-treasurer shall be a salaried officer. She shall keep 
a record of all meetings of the Association, the council, and the 

Organization Past and Present 35 

board of directors; she shall keep an accurate list of the members 
of the Association; collect all annual and other dues and pay over 
all moneys received to the bursar; she shall perform such other 
duties proper to her position as the Association may from time to 
time designate. In case of her absence from any meeting a secretary 
pro tempore shall be chosen. She shall be a member of the board of 

Three classes of membership were provided : 

a. Branch members. 

b. General members at large. [These members were thus defined :] 
Any woman is eligible to branch or general membership who has 
received a degree in arts, philosophy, science, or literature from any 
college, university, or scientific school recognized by the Association; 
or who, though not a graduate of a college recognized by the Associa- 
tion, has received an advanced degree from an approved American, 
or foreign university. 

c. Affiliated members. [It was provided] that these members should 
be . . . women eligible to membership in the Association may be 
admitted as affiliated members under conditions prescribed by a 
two-thirds vote of the members present at any biennial meeting. 

Provision was also made for associate membership at the 
discretion of the branch, such privileges to be extended to 
college women not eligible to regular membership, upon such 
terms as the branches should individually determine.' 

Dues were continued at one dollar per year, with life 
membership possible by the single payment of twenty-five 
dollars. The provision for sub silentio remission of dues was 

Provision was made for standing committees on Recogni- 
tion of Colleges and Universities, Membership, Fellowships, 
Credentials, Finance and Publication, Educational Legisla- 
tion, Euthenics, and Vocational Opportunities, 

There were also to be conferences held in connection with 
council meetings and conventions, as follows: Women 
trustees (directors) of A.C.A. colleges, presidents and deans 
(advisers of women students), college professors, head mis- 
tresses of private schools, school teachers, social workers, 
presidents of alumnae associations. 

36 Association of University Women 

Provision was made for ample representation of branches, 
general members and member institutions, all of which had 
voting powers carefully defined. 

In 1 915, an amendment to the by-laws provided for the 
separation of the office of secretary-treasurer into two 
offices — one that of a recording secretary, the other that 
of a treasurer, with the consequent abolishing of the office 
of bursar. The office of the general secretary was also 
strengthened, and it was provided that at the president's 
request she might represent that officer 'in all work with 
other societies and at public meetings and conferences.' 
The treasurer's office was necessarily strengthened, and 
defined as follows: 

The treasurer shall be a salaried officer. She shall keep an accu- 
rate list of the members of the Association, shall collect all annual 
dues and other moneys due the Association, and shall make dis- 
bursements as directed by the council or by the board of directors. 
She shall be the custodian of the title deeds, bonds, and other 
securities and business papers belonging to the Association. She 
shall be bonded by a recognized company and shall engage a certified 
accountant to audit the books annually and shall present such 
certificate to the council. She shall be a member of the Committee 
on Finance.* 

Following the World War and the organization of the 
International Federation of University Women, new pro- 
blems arose which the Association of Collegiate Alumnae 
faced courageously in 192 1. At the convention held in April 
of that year in Washington, the Southern Association of 
College Women became an integral part of the older organ- 
ization,' and the larger group thus formed took the new 
name of The American Association of University Women. 
The assimilation of the Southern group with the national 
organization, together with the necessity for financing the 
new national headquarters and clubhouse at Washington, 
the securing of an educational secretary and making a 

* Since 1923 the treasurer has accepted no salary. 

' See Chapter V for a full account of this important change. 

Organization Past and Present 37 

policy not only for her work, but for the whole educational 
program of the Association, together with the plans for the 
International Federation, made an annual instead of a 
biennial convention seem imperative. It was accordingly 
voted in 1921 to abolish the council as provided in 1912, 
and to hold conventions annually. It was further provided 
that branches might at their discretion accept associate 
members and local members — the first-named to be women 
who had ' taken one full year's academic work in any college 
or university on the accredited list of the National Associ- 
ation or of the section,' the last-named to be women ' holding 
approved degrees from any college or university recognized 
by any of the sectional committees on recognition.' 

At this same time the annual dues of national members, 
which were raised to two dollars in 1919, were retained, and 
the life membership fee was raised to fifty dollars in a single 
payment, except in the case of graduates who apply for life 
membership within one year from graduation, in which case 
the fee was to remain twenty-five dollars. At the same time 
it was provided that twenty-five cents of each annual fee 
should be set aside for the fellowship fund. In each national 
membership, a subscription to the Journal of the Association 
was, as in the past, included in the fee. 

The experience during the war had shown that state or- 
ganizations had a distinct and permanent value, and in the 
case of New York, the state federation of A.C.A. branches 
had shown the way to effective work throughout the coun- 
try. In the territory of the Southern Association of College 
Women, however, it was strongly felt by such leaders as 
Miss McVea, Miss Keller, and Miss Harkness that the 
Southern States needed for the present the sectional organ- 
ization because of the local and individualistic view which 
was perhaps indigenous to that region and needed to be 
counteracted in this case at least. President Thomas solved 
the problem by her motion that ' the ten sections with their 
sectional vice-presidents be retained but that the States be 

38 Association of UNivERsii^ir Women 

organized within their respective sections' — a motion 
which was seconded and carried. Following this action, 
provision was made for the forming of state divisions under 
a state president, a plan which has worked out especially 
well in California, Wisconsin, Oklahoma, and Texas, where 
the States are large, transportation is none too simple, and 
a large number of branches are in existence.' 

With the increase in dues which was voted in 191 9, it was 
definitely determined that the Association should have an 
educational secretary, and in 1921 provision was made in 
the by-laws for her office and duties, and in the budget for 
her salary. In order that she might be truly the executive 
of the educational work of the Association with adequate 
backing for her program, a committee of seven, to be called 
'The Committee on Educational Policy,* was established.^ 

There was also provided in 1921 a 'Committee on Stand- 
ards,* with the especial duty assigned of 'reviewing the con- 
ditions now existing in our accepted institutions with a 
view to suggesting improvements where there is a falling 
away from the standards obtaining' when the institutions 
became members of the Association of Collegiate Alumnse, 
now become the American Association of University 
Women. In 1927 the committee was named 'The Com- 
mittee on Maintaining Standards,' to be made up of seven 
members — a chairman elected by the Association, the 
executive secretary and five members at large. 

Another important result of the abolition of the council 
and councillors was the specific designation of the president 
of each and every branch ' as the national representative of 
the branch and the official channel of communication be- 
tween the branch and the national Association.' 

With these changes the board of directors became more 
important than in the past, especially when, in 1925, it was 

» See Chapter XXI. 

" See Chapter XXIII for a complete account of this committee and 
its work. 

Organization Past and Present 39 

voted to return to the plan of a biennial convention for the 
Association as a whole, the alternate years being utilized for 
sectional conventions. In addition to these meetings, most 
state organizations have an annual meeting, while branches 
have monthly meetings from September through June, with 
study groups usually meeting between the monthly meet- 
ings. The board of directors of the American Association of 
University Women at the present time (1931) consists of the 
president, the first and second vice-presidents, the treasurer, 
the nine sectional directors, the chairman of the Committee 
on International Relations, the executive secretary,' the 
educational secretary and acting director of the Association, 
and the comptroller, the last three without voting power. 
This board must meet at least twice a year, and in a conven- 
tion year one meeting must be held immediately before the 
national meeting. Thus the organization has a well-knit 
fabric, with unusual facilities for concerted action in emer- 
gencies or as part of a routine program. 

In the growth and development of the last ten years, the 
standing and special committees have played a large part. 
In 1931, the standing committees are as follows: Educational 
Policies, Membership,^ Fellowships, International Relations, 
National Club, Legislation, Economic and Legal Status of 
Women, Publications, Publicity, and Maintaining Stand- 
ards. The special committees are those on Fine Arts, and 
the National Appeal Committee of the Million Dollar 
Fellowship Fund. 

In addition there is the Million Dollar Fellowship Fund ad- 
visory committee, made up of nearly fifty men and women. 

* Formerly the general secretary, now the headquarters secretary. 
For officers and committee chairmen, 1930-31, see Appendix, pp. 449-50. 

^ Changed in 1929 from the precieuse and unfortunate one of ' Recogni- 
tion of Colleges and Universities,' under which it had suffered since 
1912, to the happier and simpler one it had borne in the earlier days. 

The charter and by-laws of the Association, information as to member- 
ship, formation of branches, etc., can be obtained in bulletin or pamphlet 
form at 1634 Eye Street, N.W., Washington, D.C., on application 
to the headquarters secretary. 




The group in Chicago, organized December I, 1883, 
under the name of 'The Western Association of Collegiate 
Alumnse,' were unable to harmonize their plans with those 
of the older Association of Collegiate Alumnae. They, there- 
fore, reconsidered their request to be a 'branch association/ 
and in October, 1884, arranged their organization as an 
independent one. They further suggested a plan for the 
formation of distinct associations, coordinate in jurisdiction 
over well-defined territory, and cooperating in a general plan 
by which there should be later organized a national associa- 
tion. To a student of frontier history, the individualistic 
West against an East considered to be too conservative, the 
old war of federal versus national as a basis for union, are 
here vividly recalled. But the parent association had been 
national in its purpose from its inception three years before, 
and had in 1884 members in nine States west of the Missis- 
sippi River, with forty-six per cent of its total membership of 
three hundred and fifty-six residing outside of New England. 
Its members, therefore, voted unanimously that since 'the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae does not feel justified in 
making such radical changes in the Constitution under 
which it was organized and has successfully worked for three 
years, as would be necessary in order to acquiesce in the 
plan proposed, that the president and secretary ... be .. . 
instructed to state that the words "Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae" belong by right of precedence to this organization 
and its branches. . . .' 

The Western Association of Collegiate Alumnae thereupon 
organized as an independent entity, and continued to work 

The Western Association 41 

on that basis until 1889. Its membership was always con- 
fined to a comparatively small region around its head- 
quarters in Chicago, yet in its short life it made such a 
notable contribution to higher education for women, and 
had a program of such distinction that a short history of its 
plans and achievements are of importance. 

The first president of the Western Association was Jane 
M. Bancroft,' who held that position until she moved from 
the West in May, 1886, whereupon May Wright Sewall 
filled out the unexpired term. In 1887, Esse Bissell Dakin^ 
became president, and was succeeded later in the same year 
by Louisa Reed StowelL In October, 1888, May Wright 
Sewall was elected president and served until the union in 
1889 of the Western Association with the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae. During the six years of its existence the 
Western Association held ten meetings in Chicago, one in 
Indianapolis, one in Ann Arbor, and one in Evanston. 

At the outset, acting upon the suggestion of its first 
president, the Association divided itself into five com- 
mittees, each under the direction of a chairman, who was 
requested to secure the cooperation of her members, either 
by personal meeting or by correspondence. 

To the first committee, Amelia E. Holcomb, chairman, 
was assigned the practical application of the fine arts, includ- 
ing music, painting, sculpture, decorative art, also designing 
and engraving as applied to manufactures. 

The second committee, Mary Whitney Chapin, chairman, 
was to consider outdoor occupations, such as horticulture, 
bee culture, and silk culture. 

The third committee, Mary Bannister Willard, chairman, 
concerned itself with domestic professions, such as co- 

» Miss Bancroft received her degrees of Ph.B. 1877, Ph.M. 1880, 
and Ph.D. 1884, at Syracuse University. She became Mrs. George O. 

» Mrs. Dakin is still an active member of the branch in South Bend, 

42 Association of University Women 

operative laundries, neighborhood cooking establishments, 
and schools for the training of nurses. 

The fourth, the press committee. Miss Hunt, chairman, 
brought to the knowledge of the Association the work 
women did and could do as printers, reporters, editors, and 
proprietors of newspapers. 

The fifth committee, Mary A. MIneah, chairman, was to 
consider the higher education of women in the West, and to 
report the opportunities for study in each of the Western 

To the program thus inaugurated were added recom- 
mendations, of which one looked to the forming of a sixth 
committee to be formed to bring into communication insti- 
tutions desiring well- prepared teachers, and women gradu- 
ates seeking positions as teachers — in other words, an 
appointment bureau. 

Another recommendation of great interest to the historian 
is that providing that a Bureau of Correspondence be 
formed to open communications with societies on the Con- 
tinent and in England concerned with the university educa- 
tion of women, more especially with those which were inter- 
ested in Girton College and Newnham College at Cam- 
bridge, and Somerville College at Oxford. It was hoped 
that the Western Association of Collegiate Alumnae might 
become international, so that students who had completed 
the prescribed courses of study at Girton, Newnham, and 
Somerville and the women graduates of the University of 
London might make common cause with their American 
sisters. Here is the first printed indication that the college 
women of America were looking forward to an alliance with 
women graduates of colleges and universities in Europe, and 
is undoubtedly a factor in the plan which years after resulted 
in the International Federation of University Women. ^ 

* See also the Association of Collegiate Alumnae's interest in Miss 
Burstall's plan for a British Federation founded on the lines of the 
American organization, Chapter XXI, p. 277. 

The Western Association 43 

But what was perhaps the most notable piece of work of 
the Western Association was the establishment of a fellow- 
ship for women, to be used by an outstanding scholar for 
further study. This work the Association began in 1887, 
when the members determined to raise for a fellowship a 
fund of $500 a year. In 1888, a fellowship of $350 was 
awarded to Ida M. Street, a graduate of Vassar College in 
the class of 1880, who proposed to do a piece of research at 
the University of Michigan. Here is, so far as we know, the 
first fellowship of its kind in any country — a fund offered 
by a group of organized college and university alumnae for a 
woman in competition with other women, for the purpose 
of pushing out farther the bounds of knowledge and truth. 

In accordance with its purpose, the Western Association 
laid out, as a further earnest of future work, the following 
projects: (i) Consideration and investigation of the occupa- 
tions of women in outdoor employments, in the domestic 
professions, in the press, in higher education, and in the fine 
arts was undertaken. (2) An investigation was made of the 
need of a reform school for girls in Illinois, and as a result 
there was presented in the Legislature a bill to establish 
such a school in which a majority of the trustees should be 
women. Although this bill was defeated, one introduced at 
a subsequent session was passed. (3) Information was col- 
lected concerning the industrial education of women, an 
investigation conducted by Lucy M. Salmon. (4) A me- 
morial was sent each year to Johns Hopkins University ask- 
ing that its opportunities for post-graduate study be ex- 
tended to women. (5) A petition was sent to the National 
Mute College at Washington asking that its doors be opened 
to women. The request was at once granted. (6) Careful 
investigations were made on behalf of the Western Associa- 
tion by May Wright Sewall as to opportunities for post- 
graduate work in colleges and universities open to women. 
(7) A Foreign Correspondence Bureau was established, but 
its records, if such there are, are not available. 

44 Association of University Women 

The Western Association had a distinct vision of the 
necessity for keen realization by college and university 
women, that a degree does not mean the end of intellectual 
effort or growth. Adult education is throughout the world 
a matter of concern to thoughtful people, as it was in 1887 
to the Western Association when it adopted as the defini- 
tion of its object — 'The Intellectual Growth of College 
Alumnae.' In accordance with this definition, there were 
read from time to time before the Association papers of 
intellectual significance, among which were the following: 

Occupations and Professions for College-Bred Women, Jane M. 

Post-Graduate Study at Michigan University, Louisa Reed 

Concerning Higher Education, Mary A. Jordan. 
The Relation of College Women to Domestic Science, Lucy M. 

Women and the Social Question, Frances E. Willard. 
The Social and Domestic Effects of the Higher Education of 

Women, May Wright Sewall. 
George Eliot as a Representative of Her Times, Ida M. Street. 
The Post-Graduate Question, Anna R. Haire. 
The Story of the Struggles and Triumphs of Emma Aertron of 

Finland (who received her degree of Ph.D. from the University 

of Helsingfors in Finland in 1882), Mary Bannister Willard. 
Women as a Power Militant in the War of the Rebellion, Ezra B. 

Advantages for Women in the University of France, Jane M. 

The Unity of Science, Leila G. Bedell. 
Coeducation the Education of the Future, Rena M. Michaels. 

In addition to its practical educational work, emphasis 
was also given to the social side, and many pleasant recep- 
tions, luncheons, and banquets were held in connection with 
the meetings. When the National Education Association 
held its annual meeting in Chicago, a reception was given by 
the Western Association to the alumnae in attendance. 

Thus five years of eager planning and achievement passed 

The Western Association 45 

on their way. During this time, however, there had been 
borne in upon members of the Western Association the 
realization that a closer bond between their organization and 
its older sister would strengthen the hands of both, and in a 
meeting of the Western Association in Ann Arbor, in Decem- 
ber, 1887, a committee consisting of May Wright Sewall, 
Bessie Bradwell Helmer, and Louisa Reed Stowell was 
appointed to confer with a committee of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae to the end that 'steps... [might] be 
taken to bring about such a union.* Word of this action was 
received during a session of the Executive Committee of the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae, and immediately there 
was appointed a committee of the latter organization con- 
sisting of Alice Freeman Palmer, Helen Hiscock Backus, and 
Marion Talbot, who were to confer with the committee of 
the Western Association. The negotiations carried on by the 
joint committee resulted in a report which was first adopted 
by the Western Association and soon after by the Associa- 
tion of Collegiate Alumnae. The manifest desire for union on 
the part of members of both Associations greatly lessened 
the difficulties arising from technical details and made more 
easy the making of concessions on both sides. The aniended 
constitution of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae was 
adopted January 12, 1889, and took effect in October, 1889, 
when the two Associations met as one in Buffalo, New York. 
Thus was effected a union which made the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae more nearly nation-wide in its scope, 
and paved the way for further effective work. 




At the annual meeting of the Association of Collegiate 
AlumncE held in Milwaukee November 5, 1903, the presi- 
dent, Elizabeth M. Howe, after referring to the effective 
work done by the branches in their different communities, 
spoke of the valuable work of the small groups of alumnae 
and even isolated alumnae in the Southern States, in arous- 
ing an interest in education, in promoting libraries, in raising 
and administering scholarships, and in recommending good 
secondary schools for girls. She then announced the forma- 
tion the preceding summer of the Southern Association of 
College Women at Knoxville, Tennessee. Thus was intro- 
duced to the A.C.A., an organization which for nearly 
eighteen years did almost single-handed a distinguished and 
unique work. When in 1921 it joined its membership and 
resources in numbers and in ideals to the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae, it brought added strength and wider 
scope to the American Association of University Women — 
as the enlarged organization was named.^ 

On a July afternoon in 1903, during the session of the 
University of Tennessee Summer School at Knoxville, a 
little group of women met on the porch of the home of one 
of the University professors in response to the invitation of 
his wife and a few other women that there might be com- 
pleted the formation of the organization which for nearly 
eighteen years was known as ' The Southern Association of 
College Women.' The hostess of the occasion was Mrs. 
Charles A. Perkins (Angle Warren Perkins), the first woman 

» The material for this history was collected by Emily Helen Dutton, 
dean of Sweet Briar College, Virginia, at the request of the authors. 

The Southern Association 47 

to receive a degree from Wesleyan University, Middletown, 
Connecticut. The preliminaries had already been arranged 
by three women then connected with the University of 
Tennessee, Emilie Watts McVea, a member of the English 
faculty; Lilian Wyckoff Johnson, assistant professor of his- 
tory; and Celestia W. Parrish, of Athens, Georgia; so that 
when the July afternoon came to a close the tentative plans 
had become the basis of a permanent organization, with 
officers elected and a constitution provided. Miss Parrish 
was made president, Miss Johnson, vice-president, and Miss 
McVea became secretary- treasurer. Associated with these 
officers were seventeen charter members — women holding 
degrees from Cornell, George Washington, Radcliffe, 
Randolph-Macon Woman's College, Smith, University of 
Michigan, University of Tennessee, Vassar, Wellesley, and 
Wesleyan University, and representing, as the membership 
always did, three classes of women — Southern women 
graduates of Northern colleges, Northern graduates of 
Northern colleges resident in the South, and Southern grad- 
uates of Southern colleges. As has been said by one of the 
presidents of the Southern Association of College Women, 
* to bring into close touch with each other these three classes 
of women had an effect upon the women themselves, in 
broadening their sympathies, enlarging their knowledge of 
educational conditions, and firing their enthusiasm, which 
probably even the charter members but dimly foresaw.' 

It might seem that a separate organization for the South- 
ern States was unnecessary, since the Association of Collegi- 
ate Alumnae had already for twenty-one years been working 
in other parts of the country upon many of the questions 
which were now for the first time seriously faced in the South 
by the seventeen women who organized the Southern Asso- 
ciation. But it was largely for that very reason that the 
charter members felt the need of a separate organization — • 
not because of any lack of sympathy with the national asso- 
ciation, of which some of them were and continued to be 

48 Association of University Women 

members; but because they believed that 'an organization 
at closer range, devoting all its energies to Southern educa- 
tional problems, would accomplish more in the South than 
the national organization with its wider field of interest and 
of service.*' Also, 'to promote most effectively the higher 
education of women in the South, it seemed wiser to have 
an association that would recognize the graduates of the 
twelve higher educational institutions then belonging to the 
Southern Association of Colleges, as well as the graduates 
of the institutions on the eligible list of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae.' * 

As defined in the constitution, the objects of the Southern 
Association were: 'First, to unite college women in the 
South for the higher education of women; second, to raise 
the standard of education for women ; third, to develop pre- 
paratory schools and to define the line of demarcation be- 
tween preparatory schools and colleges.' 

There were in 1903 more than a hundred and forty 
Southern institutions bearing the name 'college for women,* 
with not more than two of them doing four years of college 
work, *a fact which indicates the important and difhcult 
task which lay before the Southern Association of College 
Women — the task of making the general public distinguish 
between nominal and real colleges.' ^ The development of 
the public high schools of the South during the past twenty 
or twenty-five years has been phenomenal, but in 1903 the 
third object of the Southern Association of College Women 
in its twofold aspect expressed a fundamental need. The 
leaders of the Association throughout its history, side by 
side with the Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools 
of the Southern States, fought vigorously to establish a 
clear-cut distinction between different types of schools and 
to uphold those maintaining honest standards. They bore 

* E. A. Colton, Southern Association of College Women, Proceedings, 
1917, p. II. 
» Ibid, 3 Ibid. 

The Southern Association 49 

no ill-will toward preparatory or private schools of any 
grade, provided their work — important and vital as it was 
— was sincerely done in accordance with recognized stand- 
ards. What they objected to most seriously was the situation 
created when schools of high-school grade and 'finishing' 
schools of no grade at all masked themselves under the 
name of college and conferred degrees whose worthlessness 
their recipients were at the time too ignorant to know. The 
'so-called Southern college for women' was a stigma upon 
higher education for women in the South which has not even 
yet been wholly overcome. It was to rectify this situation 
that the Southern Association set to work. 

The records of the early years of the Association are 
meager,' yet they show the formation of the first branch — • 
that of Knoxville, Tennessee, with the initial meeting in 
July, 1903. The following summer (1904) a second meeting 
was held in Knoxville. In March, 1905, a branch was 
formed in Atlanta, Georgia, where a number of women who 
had made futile attempts for an Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae branch welcomed this opportunity to unite for 
common aims the college women in their locality. In No- 
vember of that year the third meeting of the Association was 
held in the basement of the Carnegie Library in Atlanta, 
when Grace Warren Landrum was elected president of the 
Association, and Beall Martin became secretary. In Janu- 
ary, 1906, a new branch was formed at Lexington, Kentucky, 
and in a little more than a year branches were formed in 
Montgomery and Birmingham, Alabama, and in Nashville. 

The Association met in Memphis in April, 1908, and again 
in July, 1908, at Knoxville, when Emma Garrett Boyd,^ of 
Atlanta, a Vassar graduate, was elected president. At the 
time of her election, Mrs. Boyd was first vice-president of 

^ The first secretary's book, after being carefully cherished for its 
historical value, has disappeared, 'probably owing to its being in the 
possession at the time of her death of the one who valued it most highly.* 

* Now Mrs. Morris. 

50 Association of University Women 

the Association of Collegiate Alumnae and president of the 
Georgia Branch of the Southern Association of College 
Women. Thus she brought an unusually wide knowledge of 
the two organizations to her official duties. During her 
presidency Mrs. Boyd visited practically every branch of 
the Association and the number of branches was more than 
doubled, new ones being formed in New Orleans, San An- 
tonio, Richmond, Raleigh, Little Rock (Arkansas), and 
Columbus (Mississippi). Annual meetings were held in 
Atlanta in April, 1909, and in Nashville in April, 1910. 
Active campaigns for compulsory school attendance and the 
physical examination of school children, which had already 
begun, were continued. The Association and its branches 
worked energetically in behalf of social welfare and legisla- 
tion throughout the South, and a paper on Child Labor pre- 
sented at the Nashville meeting attracted considerable 
attention in the Nashville newspapers. The Atlanta branch 
maintained an educational column in the Atlanta Constitu- 
tion during the years 1907 and 1908, and Mrs. Boyd pub- 
lished and circulated throughout the entire South many 
articles on compulsory education and allied subjects. 

An agreement was also made between Mrs. Boyd and 
Laura Drake Gill, then president of the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae, that the two organizations should each 
cover a certain territory and work in harmony, neither try- 
ing to overlap the other. Baltimore was taken as the divid- 
ing line between the two organizations, though the Wash- 
ington (D.C.) branch, of course, continued on its way as an 
A.C.A. group. This understanding was repeatedly renewed 
in various forms during the next thirteen years, so that the 
efforts of the two organizations were constantly directed 
toward working in cooperation and avoiding rivalry. 

In the years following Mrs. Boyd's presidency, branches 
were established at cities in Louisiana, Texas, and North 
Carolina, until, in 1921, the number stood at thirty- three 
active branches and eight branches discontinued, with eight 

The Southern Association 51 

hundred members grouped in branches in every Southern 
State except Florida. 

The work of the Association, Hke that of the Association 
of Collegiate Alumnae, was carried on through committees of 
the general Association assisted by local committees in each 
branch. Beginning with 191 3, each issue of the Proceedings 
was prefaced by the statement of the objects of the Associa- 
tion quoted from the constitution, and by the following 

In order to carry out its purpose effectively, the Association 
has appointed standing committees to do the following definite work: 

1. To arouse an interest in attending college by organizing college 
clubs and by establishing college day exercises in city and rural high 

2. To secure scholarships in the leading colleges for women to be 
awarded to high school students on the basis of competitive exam- 

3. To investigate the standards of Southern colleges, and to 
inform the public — especially prospective college girls — of the 
actual standing of all institutions in the South bearing the name 
college for women. 

The Association is trying in every way possible to create such 
public sentiment as will demand throughout the South (i) college 
work for college degrees, and (2) larger appropriation for rural and 
city schools, better trained and better paid superintendents and 
teachers, better buildings, more effective supervision of the physical 
welfare of children, and, finally, a much larger enrollment of the 
school population. 

These objects should appeal to all educated women; we, therefore, 
invite all college women living in the South to join our Association. 
As there are, however, many preparatory and finishing schools in the 
South calling themselves 'colleges,' the Southern Association of 
College Women has found it necessary to limit its membership to 
graduates of colleges recognized by one of the following organiza- 
tions: The Association of Collegiate Alumnae, the Carnegie Founda- 
tion, and the Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools of the 
Southern vStates. A list of the colleges whose graduates are eligible 
will be found in this bulletin. 

With the first printing of the Proceedings in 191 2, and the 
report made at that time by Elizabeth Avery Col ton, chair- 

52 Association of University Women 

man of the Committee on Standards of Colleges, what Miss 
Colton used to describe as 'the distinctive work of the 
Association ' took on new importance. Miss Colton's report, 
which was published in full in The School Review of Septem- 
ber, 1 912, and reprinted for private circulation, marks the 
beginning of an epoch in the history of higher education for 
women in the South. One has merely to read the titles of the 
publications of the Southern Association of College Women, 
and of the papers and addresses given at its annual meetings 
thereafter, to realize something of the unceasing emphasis 
and unremitting effort given to the raising of the standards 
of Southern women's colleges, and to the education of public 
opinion as to the distinction between a real college and a 
merely nominal college, as well as to various other types of 

In 1911, Miss Colton had given before the Association of 
Colleges and Secondary Schools of the Southern States a 
valuable paper on 'Southern Colleges for Women' which 
was reprinted from the Proceedings of that Association. Her 
paper represented searching investigation of the many insti- 
tutions in the South calling themselves colleges for women 
(in 191 2 there were one hundred and forty-two), and pitiless 
publicity for the weaknesses of every kind of institution that 
made extravagant claims and yet knew not what a college 
was. The closing paragraphs of her 19 12 report are revealing 
as to the conditions the Southern Association of College 
Women was facing and the campaign of education which it 
carried on. 

Miss Colton continued to collect and publish 'data, show- 
ing the actual standing of all Southern institutions bearing 
the name "college," especially the name "college for 
women.'" Her reports and papers followed one another in 
rapid succession: Improvement in Standards of Southern 
Colleges since 1900 (191 3); Approximate Value of Recent 
Degrees of Southern Colleges (1913); the Junior College 
Problem in the South (1914); The Various Types of South- 

The Southern Association 53 

em Colleges for Women (191 6). This last paper was not 
only published as an S.A.C.W. bulletin, but was reprinted 
by permission as a college bulletin both by Meredith Col- 
lege and by Tennessee College, thus making available more 
than five thousand copies for distribution among prospective 
students of women's colleges in every Southern State. When 
Miss Col ton became president of the Association in 19 14, 
she was succeeded as chairman of the Standards Committee 
by Emily Helen Dutton, who had been a member of the 
committee since 1913 and who had assisted in collecting the 
data for the 191 6 bulletin. 

The publications of the Southern Association were nu- 
merous and important. The Proceedings were published 
first in 1912, and consist of eight volumes issued annually 
until 191 7, and biennially in 1919, and 1921, when the South- 
ern Association joined the Association of Collegiate Alum- 
nae. Of bulletins whose publication extends from 191 1 to 
19 1 8 seven were printed, of which six were by Elizabeth 
Avery Colton, Of leaflets there were four published, 


The list of papers and addresses covering the years 1912 
to 192 1 is long and significant. Here again Miss Colton's 
name is outstanding, always attached to a piece of research 
with a vision and a courage unsurpassed. Mary Leal 
Harkness,' Eleanor L. Lord, Emilie Watts McVea, May 
L. Keller, Emily H. Dutton — all these names of women 
prominent in the Southern Association — appear as speak- 
ers on programs, as do various college presidents North and 
South, and two presidents of the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnse — Laura Drake Gill and Caroline L. Humphrey. 
The subjects discussed covered a wide range, but always 
had as a theme some phase of women's education. 

Any historian of college education for women in the South 
would find these papers not only a mine of information, but 
would necessarily largely base her work upon them, supple- 

* Now Mrs. Black. 

54 Association of University Women 

men ting them by Miss Dutton's committee reports pub- 
lished in the Proceedings of the Southern Association of Col- 
lege Women from 19 14 to 1921. The steady, persistent 
effort of the Association, under the leadership of Miss Col ton 
and of the Standards Committee, inevitably had an effect, 
and its constant support of the work of the Southern Asso- 
ciation of Colleges strengthened the power of both associ- 

There was no legislation in any Southern State restricting 
the granting to educational institutions of charters with 
degree-conferring privileges, so that in 191 8 there were in the 
South three hundred and seventy-five institutions with the 
legal right to confer baccalaureate and higher degrees of 
which only forty-two conformed even to the minimum re- 
quirements of a standard college as formulated by the South- 
ern Association of Colleges. A few others approximated 
this standard, but, writes Miss Colton, 'a large number that 
have not sufficient equipment to do even good high-school 
work are (to quote the advertisement of one of them) 
"decorating their graduates with the highest college 
degrees."' With the hope of improving this situation, the 
Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools of the South- 
ern States and the Southern Association of College Women 
appointed in each Southern State a joint committee to try 
to secure legislation restricting for the future the indiscrim- 
inate granting of charters with degree-conferring privileges. 
In December, 191 8, the Southern Association of College 
Women published for this joint committee a bulletin con- 
taining a form for a proposed bill suggested by the com- 
mittee, extracts from the laws of Pennsylvania and New 
York in regard to degree-conferring institutions, a discus- 
sion by Miss Colton of the need for such legislation in the 
South, the names of the joint committees in each State, 
endorsements of the bill by leading Southerners, the mini- 
mum requirements for a college as set by the North Central 
Association and by the Southern Association of Colleges, a 

The Southern Association 55 

list of the forty-two Southern Standard Colleges and a re- 
print of a paper by Chancellor James H. Kirkland on 'Col- 
lege Standards — A Public Interest.' Miss Colton and the 
Standards Committee worked very earnestly with the 
special committess to secure this legislation, but for the 
most part met with disappointment. A bill was passed in 
North Carolina, but so changed from the form proposed as 
largely to fail of the desired purpose. In Tennessee, on 
whose committee Miss Dutton was the state representative 
of the S.A.C.W., a very good bill passed the Senate, the 
Educational Committee of the House voted unanimously to 
recommend it, and its passage seemed assured when opposi- 
tion developed at the eleventh hour from an unexpected 
source and it was killed by an unfortunate bit of politics. 
Although in other States success came even less near, all this 
agitation doubtless had more effect in educating public 
opinion than could be measured by the actual results in 
legislative action.' 

The most important standing committees were the Com- 
mittee on Standards of Colleges, on College Clubs and 
College Days, and on Scholarships; for the promotion of the 
interests of the Association itself there were standing com- 
mittees on Extension and on the Press, and special com- 
mittees on Finance, Recognition of Colleges, Constitution 
and By-Laws, and Standardization of Methods for branches, 
with various others appointed from time to time as need 

Throughout the existence of the Southern Association of 
College Women, the Committee on College Clubs and Col- 
lege Days worked enthusiastically and in cooperation with 
the Standards Committee to inspire Southern girls with a 
desire for a real college education, to teach them to discrim- 
inate between nominal and standard colleges and to influ- 
ence them to choose the better institutions. Nearly every 
branch once a year invited high-school seniors, and some- 

* See Chapter XIII for similar work by the A.C.A. 

56 Association of University Women 

times their parents, to a 'College Day* meeting at which an 
attractive program was presented including talks on 'Why a 
Girl Should Go to College,* information about the standard 
colleges both in the North and in the South and reasons for 
choosing them, brief talks by different members about stu- 
dent life at the various colleges, with exhibitions of pictures, 
banners, annuals, etc., and a pleasant social hour. Such 
meetings were held even in some towns where there was no 
branch of the Southern Association of College Women and 
similar programs were effectively given by the committees at 
meetings of the Parent-Teacher Associations. 

The Committees on Scholarships and on Loan Funds also 
worked energetically toward stimulating and helping South- 
ern girls to attend standard colleges. The branch in Mont- 
gomery, Alabama, led the way in securing from Agnes 
Scott, Barnard, Goucher, Mount Hoi yoke. Smith, Sophie 
Newcomb, Wellesley, and the University of Chicago, re- 
spectively, the promise of a tuition scholarship open under 
certain conditions to Alabama girls. In 1914 the Mont- 
gomery Branch, with a membership of fifteen, was sponsor- 
ing seven girls holding these scholarships, six of them Mont- 
gomery girls. A few other branches had secured similar 
scholarships before the Association appointed a Standing 
Committee on Scholarships in 1912. This committee, of 
which Mary Leal Harkness was chairman from 1912 to 
1914, and Mary C. Spencer from 1915 to 1921, was able to 
report in 191 5 that seventy scholarships, varying in value 
from seventy-five to three hundred dollars, were offered 
through the Association, and that it also had the privilege 
of nominating candidates to one or two others of greater 
value. As some of the best candidates proved unable to use 
the scholarships without further financial aid, loan funds 
were inaugurated and a committee appointed to raise and 
administer such funds. Here again the Montgomery Branch 
took the lead, with Mrs. Julian Rice, of Montgomery, serv- 
ing as chairman of the committee from its appointment in 

The Southern Association 57 

191 5 until 1 92 1. The general fund was always small, but 
from 191 7 to 1 92 1 some ten branches were assisting worthy 
college students by loans varying from one hundred to six 
hundred dollars. Most of them are still administering these 
local loan funds. 

Able and faithful work as chairman of the Press Com- 
mittee from 1 91 5 to 1 92 1 was done by Penelope McDuffie, 
Professor of History at Converse College, Spartanburg, 
South Carolina, and one of the vice-presidents of the Associ- 
ation. She wrote monthly news notes from the Association 
for the Association of Collegiate Alumnae Journal, numerous 
newspaper articles on the work of the Association and news 
letters to the branches, and carried on various other activi- 
ties to which she gave self-sacrificing effort even while en- 
gaged in graduate study in New York and struggling against 
ill health.' 

For several years the School Patrons Committee, under 
the chairmanship of Mrs. Prentiss B. Reed and Mrs. Charles 
Perkins, studied the problem of illiteracy in the various 
Southern States and carried on campaigns on behalf of com- 
pulsory education and local taxation for school purposes. 
Here again the initiative and activity of the Alabama Oivi- 
sion were particularly noteworthy.* 

The reports of the branches throughout their history 
show not only earnest work toward the improvement of edu- 
cational standards, but also leadership and participation in 
all sorts of movements for the betterment of the com- 
munity, especially in the direction of social welfare and 
health conditions. The influence exerted by these groups of 
women in their home communities can never be measured, 
but lives on in the institutions they established and in 

^ Miss McDuffie's death (In 1923) was a distinct loss to the American 
Association of University Women which nevertheless received tangible 
evidence of her deep interest in its work by her bequest to the Associa- 
tion. See Chapter IX, p. 131. 

* See Chapter XVI for similar work by the A.C.A. 

58 Association of University Women 

improved health and living conditions especially for chil- 

The Committee on Recognition in 1914 recommended 
that eligibility to membership be extended to graduates of a 
supplementary list of institutions of good standing outside 
the Southern territory and not recognized by the Association 
of Collegiate Alumnae or the Carnegie Foundation. These 
institutions were to be recommended by the Recognition 
Committee and confirmed at the annual meeting by a three- 
fourths vote. Such additions from year to year brought the 
list of institutions to a point where it did not differ greatly 
from the approved list of the A.A.U.W. It is rather in- 
teresting that the S.A.C.W., which consistently supported 
a liberal arts education, after 191 5 limited its approval for 
membership in the Southern territory to graduates of col- 
leges belonging to the Association of Colleges and Secondary 
Schools of the Southern States 'which require a minimum 
of four units of foreign language for entrance and a minimum 
of six year hours of foreign language for graduation.' Eligi- 
bility for membership began with the year of admission to 
the Southern Association of Colleges. In the South the 
struggle had centered about the scholastic standards, and 
the recognition of and provisions for women stressed by the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnse had not been especially 
considered. Therefore, when the two organizations united, 
institutions not fulfilling the special A.C.A. requirements 
concerning women were continued as members of the 
A.A.U.W. and given a period of five years in which to meet 
those requirements, a period which for some of the institu- 
tions was finally extended to ten years. 

For years the Association of Collegiate Alumnae and the 
Southern Association had had the friendliest relations, and 
many college and university graduates in the South were 
members of both organizations. As the work developed 
under the leadership of Miss Colton, the purposes and labors 
of the two associations came year by year more nearly to 

The Southern Association 59 

coincide. When in 191 7, upon invitation of the Association 
of Collegiate Alumnae to the Southern Association to hold 
its fourteenth annual meeting in Washington (D.C.), at the 
same time as the biennial convention of the former organ- 
ization, the first actual step toward a union of the two groups 
was taken. At this meeting the S.A.C.W. Committee on 
Cooperation recommended that the A.C.A. appoint a similar 
committee for conference as to the possibility of devising 
some method of affiliation by means of which the college 
women of America and Canada might form one great inter- 
national body. In 1919, when the International Federation 
of University Women was in its initial stages, the Southern 
Association under the presidency of Mary Leal Harkness 
took definite steps for union with the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae, partly because of the coinciding of work 
and ideals, and partly because of the decision which had 
been made by the sponsors of the International Federation 
of University Women that only one national organization 
could in each country become a member of the international 
organization. The Association of Collegiate Alumnae as one 
of the two first members of the International Federation was 
therefore already in that place. 

Committees of the two organizations were thereupon ap- 
pointed: the presidents of the two organizations, Lois K. M. 
Rosenberry for the Association of Collegiate Alumnae and 
Mary Leal Harkness for the Southern Association of College 
Women; Gillie Larew and Mrs. Glen Swiggett for the Asso- 
ciation of Collegiate Alumnae; Penelope McDuffie and May 
Keller for the Southern Association of College Women. ^ Of 
this committee Mrs. Rosenberry was chairman, with Kath- 
arine Puncheon Pomeroy (treasurer of the A.C.A.) and 
Gertrude Shorb Martin (executive secretary of the A.C.A.) 
present at some of the meetings. The task of the committee 
was greatly facilitated by the fact that all members of both 

* Miss Colton had been appointed on the committee, but was too ill 
to serve. She died in 1924. 

60 Association of University Women 

committees were either members of A.C.A. or were eligible 
to membership. Moreover, of the paid-up membership of 
the Southern Association on January i, 192 1 — eight hun- 
dred in all — four hundred and fifty-three were at that time 
eligible to A.C.A. Of the three hundred and forty-seven 
remaining^ one hundred and forty-seven became eligible 
when at the 192 1 convention of the A.C.A., Agnes Scott 
College, Sophie Newcomb College of Tulane University, 
and the University of Kentucky, on recommendation of 
the Committee on Recognition became members of A.C.A. 
Another group of fifty from other colleges were accepted by 
A.C.A. in 1 92 1. Only about one hundred and fifty members, 
therefore, at the maximum estimate, would be taken in 
merely because of their membership in the Southern Associ- 
ation, where it was to be remembered they had cooperated 
in the splendid work done in that region for the education of 
girls and of women. After endorsement by both boards of 
directors, the recommendations of the joint committee 
(which was the basis for the resolution by which the two 
associations joined forces) were brought before the Associ- 
ation of Collegiate Alumnae at the Convention held in Wash- 
ington, March 28- April i, 192 1, with slight amendments 
were adopted, and the Southern Association was invited to 
come into the Association of Collegiate Alumnae. The invi- 
tation was sent by messenger to the Southern Association, 
then likewise in Washington assembled in convention. It 
is of interest to know that Miss McVea, one of the three 
women who sent out the call for its first meeting, asked the 
privilege of making the motion by which the Southern Asso- 
ciation of College Women in 1921 accepted the invitation 
of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae to become an 
integral part of the latter organization. 

The resolution by which the Southern Association of 
College Women united with the Association of Collegiate 
Alumna was offered by Mrs. Glen Swiggett, long a member 
of both associations, and in 1921 vice-president of the South 

The Southern Association 61 

Atlantic Section of the A.C.A. It was seconded by Laura 
Puffer Morgan, vice-president at large of the A.C.A. , and 
read as follows: 

Moved, that the Southern Association of College Women be made 
an integral part of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae and its 
membership received into the membership of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae on the terms of the invitation voted in conven- 
tion assembled on March 30, 1921, and accepted by the Southern 
Association of College Women in convention assembled on March 31 , 
1921, provided the members of the Southern Association of College 
Women subscribe to the constitution and by-laws of the Association 
of Collegiate Alumnae. 

' The record reads that after the unanimous adoption 
of this motion, 

at this point the delegates to the convention of the Southern Associa- 
tion of College Women entered the room and their ofificers were pre- 
sented to the President. The President welcomed them into the 
Association and expressed the pleasure of the Association in the 
union of the two associations. Miss Harkness, President of the 
Southern Association, responded in similar vein. 

Mrs. Pomeroy then ofTered a motion that the Committee on Re- 
solutions be asked to draft a resolution expressing on behalf of both 
associations their deep appreciation of the value of the work done 
by Miss Colton, the former President of the Southern Association, 
which had had so large a share in making this consummation pos- 
sible. This was seconded by Miss Maltby and passed unanimously. 

In the amendment of the by-laws which followed, it was 
provided that the name of the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae be changed to 'The American Association of Uni- 
versity Women,* thus conforming more nearly to the names 
of similar federations in other countries which were or were 
to be members of the International Federation of University 
Women. ^ Provision was also made whereby the territory for- 
merly covered by the S.A.C.W. was divided into the South 

^ This recommendation of change of name was made effective by a 
change in the charter shortly after the convention, upon application to 
the proper authorities in the State of Massachusetts, where the charter 
had originally been granted. 

62 Association of University Women 

Atlantic and Southeast Central Sections of the American 
Association of University Women, with May L. Keller as 
director of the former, and Mary Leal Harkness as director 
of the latter. On the new standing committees of the 
A.A.U.W., the former S.A.C.W. members were represented 
by the appointment of Emilie Watts McVea on the Com- 
mittee on Fellowships, of Emily H. Dutton on the Com- 
mittee on Recognition of Colleges and Universities, and of 
Juliet J. Poynter and Emily H. Dutton on the Committee on 

Thus ended the separate existence of the Southern Asso- 
ciation of College Women after eighteen years of devoted 
and constructive service, the spirit of which is well expressed 
by Miss Keller in these words: 

We did nothing spectacular. It was hard, often unpleasant work. 
...To-day the girls in our schools and colleges are enjoying the 
results of this pioneer work of standardization undertaken by the 
Southern Association of College Women, which was their greatest 
achievement and that for which the organization should be remem- 



The acceptance in January, 1882, of two new institutions — 
Connecticut Wesleyan University and the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology — has been recorded.^ Quite simply 
were they admitted to membership on an equal footing with 
the institutions which had been charter members. Two 
policies were thereby inaugurated — that of accepting new 
institutions on an equality with those already members, and 
that of accepting individuals as members because of the 
fundamental provision that institutional membership was 
the basis and reason for personal membership. The pro- 
cedure thus far seemed simple, just, and fair. 

But the situation speedily became complicated, for re- 
quest after request came in from alumnae of other colleges 
and universities who, either for personal reasons or for the 
prestige membership would bring to their Alma Mater, 
wished their institutions enrolled as belonging to the Asso- 
ciation. The Executive Committee realized that it was con- 
fronted 'with a condition, not a theory,' and that the neces- 
sity for determining a policy for the admission of institu- 
tions must be met, and met soon. On May i, 1882, the first 
Committee on Admission of Colleges was appointed, con- 
sisting of Alice E. Freeman, Florence M. Gushing, and 
Margaret Hicks.^ In the records of the meetings of the 
Executive Committee may be found the brief story of their 
struggles. Under date of October 9, 1882, is the minute: 
* It was decided to bring before the Society the difficulties of 
the committee in regard to admitting colleges, and Miss 

' See Chapter II. 

" Mrs. Volkmann, who died in January, 1884. 

64 Association of University Women 

Gushing was requested to make a general statement to the 
Society.' To how many past chairmen of that committee 
and to how many present presidents of state divisions of the 
American Association of University Women will that brief 
note bring a smile, and a hope for the future! 

On recommendation of the committee, Syracuse Univer- 
sity and the University of Kansas were admitted to full 
membership on December 15, 1882. A group of Chicago 
women having urged the admission of Northwestern Univer- 
sity as an aid to forming a branch, the Association voted on 
October 27, 1883, on recommendation of the committee, 
to accept this Illinois institution. The institutions thus 
admitted brought the number of institutional members on 
January i, 1884, to thirteen. 

A problem had meantime arisen. What requirements 
were made for graduation in these thirteen institutions and 
in others which might apply for admission? Were these re- 
quirements uniform? Or were such different requirements 
made for different degrees as to raise a query as to the valid- 
ity of some of them? A Committee on College Work was 
thereupon appointed, consisting of Helen Magill,^ Mary H, 
Ladd, and Edith Talbot, to inquire into the situation and 
report later. It was fast becoming apparent that caution 
and deliberation were needed in dealing with the question of 
degrees and other matters which new applications for mem- 
bership were raising. The members were not finding it easy 
to make some decisions already made square with their 
rapidly crystallizing views as to the possible influence of 
the Association in promoting high standards in collegiate 

It was becoming clear that the question of institutional 
membership was of sufficient importance to require consid- 
eration and action by the Association as a whole. However, 
a unanimous vote for recommendation to the Association 
was proving more and more impracticable because of gradu- 

» Later Mrs. Andrew D. White. 

Admission of Institutions 65 

ally diverging views of members of the Executive Com- 
mittee as to the significance of the ' Hberal policy ' which the 
Association in October, 1882, had recommended. It was 
therefore decided that a three-fourths vote of the Executive 
Committee should be sufficient basis for recommendation to 
the Association, with only three fourths of the members of 
the Association present at a regular meeting considered 
necessary for confirmation, providing notice of the proposed 
action had been given with the call for the meeting. 

The new procedure was put into operation for the first 
time in 1886. At the meeting held on January 26 of that 
year the following statement was read: 

The Executive Committee desire to report the receipt of an appli- 
cation for admission of graduates of the University of California to 
the privileges of membership in the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae. The request was considered by the Sub-Committee on 
Colleges, who reported unanimously in favor of granting it. The 
Executive Committee, having passed the necessary three-fourths 
vote in the affirmative respectfully submit their decision to the 
Association for final action. 

(Signed) Marion Talbot 


On March 13, 1886, the Association voted to admit the 
University of California. At the same meeting and as an 
undoubted corollary of this action, the Pacific Branch was 
recognized. Again, as in the case of the proposed Chicago 
Branch and Northwestern University, the advantages to be 
gained in strengthening a local group through the admission 
of an institution in the vicinity proved to be a dominant 
factor in the admission of such an institution. 

Meanwhile various rumors regarding the Association and 
its procedure were circulating about the country, the most 
annoying of which proved to be the assertion in some 
quarters that the Association was made up of all graduates 
from colleges and universities in the United States which 
received women as students. This led the secretary, in her 
annual report for the year 1886, to call attention to the 

66 Association of University Women 

fact that the Association had a Hmited membership and to 
state that 'many institutions besides those united in the 
Association were doing honorable service in behalf of the 
education of women and it would be as presumptuous for 
the Association to attempt to represent all the collegiate 
work of women as to maintain that its membership list 
typifies exceptional intellect or attainment.' 

It was clear that no well-defined policy could as yet be 
formulated. As a consequence, at the same meeting at which 
this statement of the secretary was made, the Executive 
Committee was instructed to place on file all applications 
which should come in during the ensuing year requesting the 
admission of new institutions. The reason for this action 
was the necessity for a thorough organization of the branches 
and a careful study of their relations to the General Associa- 
tion. During that year applications were received from 
individuals and organizations representing five different in- 
stitutions; but the uncertainty of the situation, especially 
with regard to the Western Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae, led the Association at its meeting on January 14, 
1888, to pass the following measure: 

Resolved, that in view of proposed measures which may affect 
the organization of the Association and which are now receiving the 
attention of its members, it is at present inexpedient to add to the 
number of institutions represented in the membership of the Asso- 

Already a question, still unsolved at the end of half a 
century, loomed large; namely, the removal of an institution 
from the list of members for failure to comply with the re- 
quirements by which it had been in the first instance ad- 
mitted to the Association. The Association was therefore 
determined, in view of the impracticability of taking what 
might be a backward step, to run no risk of complicating the 
problem further by hasty action at this juncture. Yet the 
pressure on the committee was very great. For instance, 
the president of one college, when told that the standards of 

Admission of Institutions 67 

his institution were too low even were the Association dis- 
posed to enlarge its membership, replied that could he gain 
the admission of his college, he could then count on the 
support of his church to strengthen the institution in the 
ways the committee indicated. The response of the chair- 
man of the committee was naturally and logically that the 
time for such support was precedent to the admission of a 
college rather than after such action, and that the argu- 
ments given by him to bolster up his contention were far 
stronger for keeping his institution out than for letting it in. 
An interesting situation then arose — unofficially recorded 
and probably unique — for this man president, finding his 
arguments futile, resorted to tears and begged the woman 
arbiter to have pity on him. She, however, confident that 
the answer she had given was the best for all the different 
interests involved, did not allow her judgment to yield to 
her compassion for his grief. 

From what has been said it is clear that the first institu- 
tions were admitted on a purely personal basis because 
certain graduates of these institutions had expressed a wish 
to belong to the Association. But the Association was gain- 
ing in recognition by the public and a different view eftierged. 
Local interests came into the picture and the institution 
whose graduates could strengthen a local group became the 
center of attention, although it was clear that no group 
should be dominated by the alumnse of any single institu- 
tion. During the earliest years the policy followed was in 
general to carry out the aim of the Association and not to 
sit in judgment to determine rank or standards in the 
collegiate world. Such an attitude would have been, under 
the circumstances, the height of arrogance. As time went 
on, however, the Executive Committee had forced upon 
them the realization that the membership of the Association 
consisted of certain colleges, and, whether it was intentional 
or not, the list was recognized here and there as one pri- 
marily setting forth certain generally accepted standards. 

68 Association of University Women 

When the attempt was made to formulate these standards, 
the Executive Committee, after careful consideration, 
recommended and the Association voted (October 25, 1889) 
that 'a college desiring membership shall show (i) that its 
faculty are not called upon to give preparatory instruction; 

(2) that its requirements for admission are equal to those 
adopted by the colleges already belonging to the Association ; 

(3) that it has conferred degrees in arts, philosophy, science 
or literature on twenty-five women prior to its application 
for admission to the Association.' ' 

In 1889, the situation was as follows: in addition to the 
original eight institutions which were the charter members 
of the Association, six had been added, four had been re- 
jected, and action on sixteen had been deferred. Florence 
M. Gushing, as chairman, in making the report of the com- 
mittee in that year outlined with clarity the reasons against 
the policy of indiscriminate admission which in some quar- 
ters had been strongly urged. ^ Most important was the 
provision for future procedure: 

The committee . . . recommend that a special committee of five on 
the Admission of Colleges be appointed from the Association at large 
by the Executive Committee. It shall be the duty of the committee 
to receive all applications for membership made on the basis adopted, 
conduct the necessary correspondence, and report the results of such 
investigation into methods and characteristics of the colleges as will 
enable the Executive Committee and the Association to make a wise 
decision. Election shall take place as now provided in the constitu- 

In 1890, the committee recommended the admission of the 
fifteenth institution, Bryn Mawr College, and by unanimous 
vote of the Association the recommendation was adopted. 

* The reason for the last condition was that two of the institutions 
already admitted had a practically negligible enrollment of women and 
the impossibility of including them in any consideration of educational 
problems in connection with women gave rise to a difficult situation. 

" See full report, a most interesting and illuminating one, in Publica- 
tions of A.C.A., Series II, Number 16, dated May 24, 1889. 

Admission of Institutions 69 

The secretary made the following statement in her report in 
October, 1891: 

The problem which confronts the Association of choosing between 
a broad and generous spirit of fellowship and a policy of rigid dis- 
crimination strikes at its very life. On the one hand is the inevitable 
result of a ponderous organization with more and more heterogeneous 
elements, and on the other the possible justifiable charges of narrow- 
ness and exclusiveness. Looking at the matter in another light, the 
time has come when we must choose between working for the indi- 
vidual good of as large a number within the Association as possible 
and holding the standard of collegiate education for women so high 
that the influence of the Association may be felt not only by all 
college women, whether within the Association or not, but by all 
collegiate interests in the country. Strong arguments can be brought 
forward on both sides. Whatever decision is reached will bring em- 
barrassments of a more or less temporary character to local con- 
stituencies and to individual members, but it is not too hazardous to 
predict that the faithful loyalty of the members to the principles of 
the Association will abide and indeed be strengthened just in 
measure as those principles are steadfastly and valiantly upheld. 

At the same meeting the Association expressed its ap- 
proval of the policy outlined by the committee in the report 
adopted in 1889, by which the ample and obvious fulfillment 
of the general requirements for admission were emphasized. 
The complexity of the problem is evidenced, however, by 
the fact that in 1892 the Association voted that 'for the 
present the Executive Committee should not receive applica- 
tions for the admission of new institutions to the Association, 
but should provide for a method of nomination through 
members of the Executive Committee.* The Committee on 
Admission of Colleges, acting on these instructions, made in 
1893 the following recommendation: 'New institutions shall 
be nominated for membership in the Association by any 
five members of the Executive Committee who shall repre- 
sent five different institutions already enrolled as corporate 
members of the Association.' In making this proposition, 
the committee stated that it had 'had in mind two distinct 
ends, regarded by them as of equal importance. First, to 

70 Association of University Women 

provide for the Association a safeguard against irresponsible 
nominations, which force the Executive Committee to an 
examination of the institutions in question and to a definite 
decision concerning them; and, second, to afford by this new 
method of nominations as full an opportunity as possible for 
a wise extension of the corporate membership of the Associa- 
tion.' The recommendation was adopted, but the success 
which it was hoped would follow such action was not com- 
plete. The members of the Executive Committee were still 
solicited, in season and out of season, to make nominations 
with great resulting embarrassment to themselves. It was 
evident that the problem of procedure was not yet solved. 

In 1895, the president and secretary were instructed to 
appoint a Committee on the Unification of Collegiate 
Standards with reference to institutional membership in the 
Association, whose members should confer with college 
presidents and other educational authorities regarding the 
views of the institutions themselves as to the standards 
which the best colleges and universities maintained in 
common. This committee was made up of three distin- 
guished women, Florence M. Cushing, Annie E. Allen, and 
Ellen E. Garrigues. In 1896, they made an extended report 
in which they attempted to interpret existing public opinion 
on the question, 'What constitutes a college?' That report 
is still good reading for any one interested in that subject, 
whether he live in Madison, Wisconsin, Boston, Massachu- 
setts, or San Francisco, California. Summing up the results 
of a long discussion over the report, which took place in the 
Executive Committee, Miss Cushing, as chairman for her 
committee, made recommendations which were accepted by 
the Association. They were as follows: 

That a standing committee be appointed to be known as the 
Committee on Corporate Membership. 

That the limiting duties of this committee be defined by the 
Executive Committee. 

That the Committee on Corporate Membership be instructed in 

Admission of Institutions 71 

their work of deciding upon the additions which from time to time 
may be made to the list of institutional membership, to pursue the 
following lines of inquiry: 

First, as to the educational qualifications of the corps of instruc- 

Second, as to the financial status — 
a. Endowments exclusive of buildings, equipment, etc. 
h. Average available income; 
Third, as to equipment — 
a. Buildings. 
h. Libraries. 

c. Laboratories. 

d. Apparatus. 

That the Committee on Corporate Membership be instructed to 
consider no institution eligible to membership in the Association in 
which it cannot be shown: 

First, that its faculty are not called upon to give preparatory in- 

Second, that it nas fifty graduates who desire to become members 
of the Association. 

The decks were now cleared for action, and in 1897, ^^ 
recommendation of the Committee on Corporate Member- 
ship, of which Alice Freeman Palmer was chairman, the 
Association admitted RadclifTe College, the University of 
Chicago, the University of Minnesota, and Leiand Stanford, 
Jr., University. In recommending these institutions a clear 
statement, giving the principles according to which the 
committee had proceeded and enumerating the points which 
it was deemed wise to consider in recommending institu- 
tions, read as follows: 

First: An institution is invited to join the Association for the edu- 
cational strength it can bring. The policy of admitting weak institu- 
tions on the ground that they are growing rapidly and that admis- 
sion to our membership would hasten that growth has not been 
borne out by results in the past. 

Second: An institution is invited to join the Association for the 
benefit of educational standards in the whole country and not for local 

The power of our Association lies in the help it may give toward 
lifting up and unifying standards of education in the country at large 

72 Association of University Women 

and not in aiding this branch and that institution at the sacrifice of 
such standards. 

The chief points considered have been: (i) The standard of en- 
trance requirements; the care with which this standard is guarded, 
in entrance both by examination and by certificate, and in the 
admission of special students. (2) The standards of graduation re- 
quirements; the grade of work and the amount of work demanded; 
the breadth of the curriculum; its organization and correlation; the 
safeguards provided against narrowness or dispersion of force in the 
freedom of the optional system. (3) Faculty; their training, experi- 
ence and pedagogical force; their number in proportion to the num- 
ber of students and of courses; their organization and unity; the 
executive force of their president. (4) Finance; the free income- 
bearing endowment; the average income from all sources; the build- 
ings, laboratories and libraries, and the modernness and complete- 
ness of their equipment. 

It is evident that the committee had not been vague in 
interpreting its general instructions, nor was there any dis- 
satisfaction expressed with their action. Their statement 
was passed on to succeeding committees and became for a 
number of years almost traditional policy. 

While the Committee on Corporate Membership had been 
at work, it had prepared some very elaborate schedules. 
The committee reported in 1898 that it had secured detailed 
reports from the nineteen institutions in the Association 
concerning their requirements for admission, their curricu- 
lum, finances, and equipment, and their faculty and stu- 
dents. The committee had further found a general increase 
in efficiency, in wealth, and in numbers, as well as a general 
improvement in the quality of work done and in the widen- 
ing of opportunities offered. At the same time the committee 
reported frankly and fearlessly that there were serious de- 
fects in individual institutions — 'perhaps the most wide- 
spread and mischievous being the non-enforcement of 
nominal standards, the loose administration of entrance 
examinations and of the certificate system of admission.' 
The committee further found 'need of effective leadership, 
inertia of trustees or, more serious still, the interference of 

Admission of Institutions 73 

boards of government with no technical knowledge of 
educational needs, lack of adequate endowment — all 
leading to lack of proportion in organization. There were 
examples of too many courses of instruction offered in pro- 
portion to the teaching force, too large a proportion of the 
instruction, especially of the younger students, given by 
young teachers on temporary appointments and far too 
little by the well-paid professors of large acquirements and 
experience.' The study of the committee with regard to 
state universities showed notable improvements, especially 
in the matter of abolishing preparatory departments and 
establishing their finances on a more stable basis. When one 
looks at the proposed budgets of great state universities like 
the University of Wisconsin, asking in 1929 for $11,500,000 
for the biennium ending 1931, and getting it, the report of 
the committee thirty years ago shows the tremendous strides 
made in the matters upon which they looked with prophetic 
vision. Yet, although the committee looked forward to the 
admission of several of these state universities within the 
next year or two, their expectations were delayed, only three 
being admitted between 1898 and 1906. 

The study made by the committee under the able chair- 
manship of Alice Freeman Palmer was continued, and in 
1899, at the annual meeting of that year it was reported 
that seven important institutions had inaugurated new presi- 
dents within a few months of the meeting. All of these, even 
the one which did not confer degrees on women, had never- 
theless invited women as delegates to the inaugurations. 
The committee recommended the admission of Barnard 
College, the Woman's College of Western Reserve Univer- 
sity, and the University of Nebraska, at the same time 
recommending for associate membership in branches those 
women who had taken higher degrees in Yale University, 
London University, Zurich University, the Sorbonne, and all 
German universities which gave the Ph.D. degree to women. 

The committee added at the close of their report that they 

74 Association of University Women 

had made a careful study of fourteen institutions. Their re- 
port was accepted.^ 

In 1903, the general secretary of the Association, Florence 
M. Gushing, gave a sketch of the various stages in the admis- 
sion of colleges to the Association, following her introduction 
by the statement that in spite of the publicity which the 
matter had been given through various printed and circu- 
lated official reports setting forth the policy of the Com- 
mittee on Corporate Membership, nevertheless the impres- 
sion seemed to be general that any institution which had 
an endowment of $500,000 and no preparatory department 
was entitled to membership. She had found further that in 
some quarters there was a determination, in true democratic 
fashion, to give the members of the Association an oppor- 
tunity to vote on institutions which the Committee on 
Corporate Membership was unwilling to recommend. Miss 
Gushing outlined therefore the method of procedure: 

By February of each year, the chairman inquires of each member 
of the committee what institutions she believes should be studied 
during the current year, at the same time making known to the 
committee the names of such institutions as during the past year 
have opened communication with the desire to be considered. Those 
institutions which receive a majority vote of the jseveral members 
are enrolled as candidates for study. Apart from the information to 
be secured from catalogues, reports of presidents, the information 
given by means of replies to the committee's schedules, an effort is 
made to get the consensus of opinion of those In touch with general 
educational progress and familiar with conditions holding in the 
institutions scrutinized. A vote is taken only after careful considera- 
tion of all Information obtained and in most cases after reports made 
by some member of the committee who has visited the institution. 
The result of such study is shown in the recommendations of the 
committee in its annual report. 

^ The report of the chairman of the committee, Annie Howes Barus, 
which was presented in 1900, was referred to the Committee on Publica- 
tion to be used at its discretion, but there is no further record of it. In 
1901, Mrs. Barus for the committee again emphasized the need of 
greater endowments to enable the universities to accomplish their task 
and recommended the admission of the University of Illinois. 

Admission of Institutions 75 

In the previous year the Philadelphia Branch had pro- 
posed an amendment to Article V of the constitution of the 
Association as follows: 

The name of any such institution may be brought before the 
Executive Committee either through the Committee on Corporate 
Membership or by any member of the Executive Committee. 

When this proposition came up for discussion in 1903, the 
Association upheld its Committee on Corporate Member- 
ship. At the same time it was suggested that possible 
grounds for criticism might be avoided if, as the general 
secretary recommended, there were a more exact method 
of appointing all committees of the Association as well as 
adhering to the principle of rotation in office. The proposed 
amendment was lost by a practically unanimous vote, and 
in its place the following resolution was passed: 

Whereas the forms of instruction given to the several types of 
membership committees which have in the past served the Associa- 
tion have been the result of careful study on the part of specially 
appointed committees as to conditions prevailing in educational 
methods and ideals at the time such standards were adopted; there- 
fore, be it moved that a committee be appointed by the president, 
general secretary, and secretary-treasurer to report to the Associa- 
tion what changes or additions in their opinion it is for the best 
interest of the Association to make to the instructions given the 
Corporate Membership Committee in 1896. 

The following year this new committee, of which Mary 
Goes* was chairman, reported in part as follows: 

The committee now submits for consideration certain recommen- 
dations showing what changes or additions it is, in its opinion, for the 
best interest of the Association to make to the instructions given the 
Committee on Corporate Membership in 1896. It is taken for granted 
that the committee will keep clearly in mind that the object of the 
admission of new corporate members is to promote the work of the 

I. Administration — The board of trustees shall be so consti- 
tuted as to support sound financial and educational methods. 

* Miss Coes was dean of Radcliffe College 1910-13. She had been secre- 
tary of the College from 1894 to 191 o. Her death occurred in 1913. 

76 Association of University Women 

2. Material Resources — 

a. Laboratories, libraries, and other facilities adequate for the 
courses offered; 

b. A total property, exclusive of the productive endowment, at 
least as large as the average total property of the institutions 
admitted up to the time of each new application; 

c. A liberal productive endowment, exclusive of scholarship and 
other special funds not available for direct educational uses. 
(This should be distinctly higher than the $500,000 standard 
fixed in 1896.) 

In a state institution appropriations from State Legisla- 
tures or percentages on the total valuation of the State shall 
be considered; in an endowed institution tuition fees shall be 
counted in case they are large enough to be a stable source of 

3. Faculty — 

a. The number of full professors shall be at least as large as the 
average number in institutions of the same type already 
admitted to membership; 

b. The ratio of the number of instructors to the number of stu- 
dents and courses shall be such as to provide adequate 

o instruction; 

c. The salary of a full professor shall be liberal in proportion to 
the cost of living in each institution, and such as to attract 
and retain teachers of recognized ability. The salary of 
associate and assistant professor shall be as large as the 
corresponding average salary in institutions of the same type 
already admitted; 

d. All the members of the teaching staff, unless adequate reasons 
can be given for a few possible exceptions, shall hold degrees 
from colleges of recognized standing; 

e. A distinctly large proportion of the full professors shall hold 
degrees based on graduate university work; 

/. There shall be no preparatory department under the govern- 
ment or instruction of the college faculty. 

4. Degrees — 

a. The Bachelor's degree shall be based on scholarly attainment 
represented by the following general conditions: 
(i) Entrance requirements such as demand at least four 

years of serious secondary school work for preparation, 
(2) Class sections restricted to such numbers as ensure 

proper individual instruction, except in the case of purely 

lecture courses, 

Admission of Institutions 77 

(3) A residence of at least two years in the college conferring 
the degree or in a college of equally high grade, 

(4) Graduation requirements which correspond to the 
amount of work ordinarily included in four years of seri- 
ous college study; 

b. The Master's degree shall be given only for resident graduate 
work, or in the case of the honorary degree, for original work 
of high distinction; 

c. The degree of Doctor of Philosophy shall not be given catisa 

In the hope that a certain stability may be insured for such 
standards as may from time to time be adopted, the committee 
recommends that when new institutions are admitted there should 
be a definite statement of the date from which graduates are eligible. 

Up to the present time the Committee on Corporate Membership 
has been instructed to investigate the eligibility of an institution as 
a candidate for membership only of its own motion or on request of 
five members of the Executive Board. The Committee on Standards 
recommends . . . that applications for membership be received from 
institutions themselves. In former instructions minimum require- 
ments were stated; under such instructions an institution felt that it 
had a right to claim admission as soon as it reached this minimum. 
In the present report a definite statement of a reasonable average 
requirement is proposed. This ought to prevent applications from 
institutions which, under the minimum as formerly stated,, might 
have regarded admission as a right. 

The Committee on Standards recommends that the Committee on 
Corporate Membership be composed of four members, and the 
general secretary, ex-officio; that the term of office of the members of 
the committee be made definite, ultimately a term of four years; 
and that the members of the new committee (in addition to the 
ex-oficio member, the general secretary) be elected for terms of one, 
two, three, four years, respectively, with the provision that no mem- 
ber elected for the full term of four years be eligible for reelection 
until a year after the expiration of her first term of office. The com- 
mittee will thus be at once flexible and responsible — will acquire a 
considerable degree of experience, and at the same time may be made 
to respond to the changes of opinion among the alumnae. The mem- 
bers must be chosen for their broad knowledge of educational institu- 
tions of different types, and for their sound judgment. Though the 
proceedings of the meetings of this committee must be confidential, 
one member of the committee, preferably the general secretary, 
should be the authorized representative of the committee, and 

78 Association of University Women 

should convey its decisions to such officers of institutions under con- 
sideration as ought to be informed of them. 

In formulating its recommendations the committee has tried to 
interpret present conditions only. It hereby recommends that the 
report here submitted be made known to institutions that inquire 
as to the standards for admission to the Association. 

It is impossible to make identical standards which can be strictly 
enforced for the separate women's college, the affiliated college 
which draws largely from the resources of the university with which 
it is connected, and the state university; for the three kinds of insti- 
tutions present widely diverse conditions. All the committee can 
hope to do is to propose by way of advice certain limitations and 

There were a few amendments to the recommendations, 
but the only one of importance was to the eflect that the 
responsibility of taking the initiative in matters of admis- 
sion should be left to the Executive Committee and its 
agent, the Committee on Corporate Membership. 

In 1905, the Committee on Corporate Membership re- 
ported that it had been necessary to prepare new forms for 
the study of institutions which were under consideration 
and asked for an extension of time within which to make 
their report. In the following year, 1906, the University of 
Missouri was recommended and accepted for membership, 
and it was further voted that thereafter individual member- 
ship should not become effective until fifty alumnae of an 
institution which had been admitted should register their 
names and pay their fees. Here again is an early instance of 
a difficulty which the Association still encounters, and 
doubtless always will find obstinate. Having obtained the 
prestige so highly sought by gaining admission to the Asso- 
ciation, now and again a college is found which does not 
recognize a quid pro quo and regards its obligations to the 
Association so lightly as not to have even one member come 
into the Association. It is still necessary to follow up admis- 
sion of institutions In order to see that they, like individuals, 
meet their responsibilities in whole-hearted fashion. 

Admission of Institutions 79 

In 1907, the committee presented data from the state uni- 
versities and women's colleges in the Association with regard 
to the points they had been instructed to use as a basis for 
comparison when considering new institutions. In its report, 
the committee said : 

The original report of the Committee on Standards stated that 
'it is of the utmost importance to leave a certain degree of freedom 
to the Committee on Corporate Membership in regard to the par- 
ticular recommendations as to measurable resources,' but they 
recommend ' that so far as possible the requirements defined in the 
report be maintained.' The members of your committee have not 
been willing to ignore the general tenor of the instructions which is 
that a new institution shall have a standard as high in certain 
measurable respects as the average of the type. They believe also 
that experience shows that measurable resources are a very fair 
indication and in some cases an entirely adequate indication of the 
general qualifications of an educational institution. The institutions 
considered fell so far below the average that any further considera- 
tion of them along the line of qualifications which cannot be numeri- 
cally estimated seemed to exceed the bounds of that ' freedom ' which 
was specifically granted to the committee. 

Your committee, therefore, acting in accordance with definite in- 
structions and at the same time exercising its prerogative of freedom, 
as far as it conscientiously can, presents no recommendation'for ad- 
mission of new institutions. Nor does it see how in the near future 
any such recommendation can be made. The Association has set a 
high standard which has been consistently maintained. While there 
has been in the Association at large eager and persistent advocacy 
of a more liberal policy, each committee — sub-committee and 
executive — with changing personnel has given its adherence to the 
high standard after careful study and investigation. . . . 

The Association voted approval of this report with the 
additional instruction that the committee should obtain and 
include in its statistics the salaries of instructors and those 
who ranked above instructors. But from the discussion 
which took place on the floor it was evident that many 
members desired a more liberal policy in the matter of the 
admission of institutions. As a consequence of this discus- 

80 Association of University Women 

sion, the Executive Committee instructed the Committee 
on Corporate Membership to report at a later time on a 
possible substitute for the averages prescribed on the points 
designated in their instructions. 

When the twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding of the 
Association came around, the situation was as follows: 
There were twenty-four institutional members of the Asso- 
ciation, not including foreign universities which gave higher 
degrees to women. In accepting new institutions, the provi- 
sion for women in the student body, on the faculty, and on 
the boards of trustees was made a matter of first interest in 
considering these new institutions. Already it had been 
demonstrated that if women were not to be fed at a second 
table, so to speak, a body of women of standing and achieve- 
ment organized together must stand back of the pioneers 
who were still working for the greatest possible intellectual 
achievement for women. It is only by a survey of this period 
of two decades and a half that one can realize what power, 
in subtle and quiet fashion, the Association had acquired in 
educational matters throughout the United States, or how 
intensive and far-reaching had been its studies in collegiate 
administration and standards. 

Already the investigation of the requirements which have 
been discussed in the preceding pages had proved to be a 
most arduous and burdensome task. Not only was the 
gathering of data diflficult, but the correlation and arrange- 
ment was growing increasingly hard of accomplishment. 
The day of the trained statistician was not yet here and yet 
the task of estimating institutions, especially on the mate- 
rial side, was fast becoming one of specialization. In 1905, 
Mr. Andrew Carnegie, a Scotchman by birth, who had 
become very wealthy by the development of the steel in- 
dustry in the country of his adoption, made a gift of 
$10,000,000, to endow a foundation for the advancement of 
teaching. In the program of the foundation the provision 
for pensions to teachers in colleges and universities who 

Admission of Institutions 81 

had grown old in their profession — a profession in which 
the material resources were, on the whole, too small to per- 
mit of any saving against a time of disability and failing 
powers — was one of the first concerns. In order to receive 
these pensions, an institution must be put upon the list of 
the foundation, after full investigation of all its resources, 
physical and intellectual. Moreover, any institution so 
accepted must be free from sectarian ties. It is clear that the 
investigations of the Carnegie Foundation and of the Associa- 
tion of Collegiate Alumnae overlapped, though they by no 
means coincided. 

In 1909, the Committee on Corporate Membership under 
the chairmanship of Marion Talbot made to the Executive 
Committee of the A.C.A. recommendations which were 
significant in view of the increasingly difficult task which 
each year brought to the committee. 

Your committee recommends [the report states] that in academic 
and financial matters the Association adopt, until further action, 
the collegiate standards of the Carnegie Foundation for the Ad- 
vancement of Teaching; denominational tests to be applied, how- 
ever, only when they interfere with intellectual independence. 

Any institution found to conform to these requirement^ shall 
be recommended to the Association for Corporate Membership, 
when fifty of its alumnae make formal application to be enrolled 
as members 

The report was not accompanied by the recommendation 
of any new institution in the United States for membership, 
since the committee wished to know what its course should 
be, but two Canadian Universities, McGill and Toronto, 
were accepted so far as their non-professional degrees went. 
The Executive Committee voted to ask the branches to con- 
sider the report of the committee, in order that in this way 
the will of the Association in the matter might be deter- 
mined. The branches showed great interest in the subject. 
The Convention of 1910, guided somewhat by the answers 
of branches to questions asked, voted to approve a plan pre- 

82 Association of University Women 

sented by the Committee on Corporate Membership 

the standardization of courses in academic and financial matters be 
now left to other agencies, and that the maintenance of suitable 
conditions for women in those institutions which admit them shall 
henceforth receive especial emphasis. To this end, an institution to 
be eligible to corporate membership shall have a reasonable recogni- 
tion of women in the faculty and in the student body, with material 
provision for their intellectual and social needs; salaries of women 
on the faculty to be approximately the same as those of men in the 
same grade; a coeducational institution to have a dean or adviser of 
women above the rank of instructor; weight to be given to the fact 
where women are on the Board of Trustees, especially in a women's 

college The plan . . . further recommends that in academic and 

financial matters the Association accept until further action the 
standards of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of 

The Convention further voted 

that the Corporate Membership Committee be given discretionary 
power in making its recommendations to the Executive Committee 
of the Association. 

At this convention another important step was taken by 
the Association. For some time a special committee had 
been working on a list of approved foreign universities 
whose advanced non-professional degrees should be accepted 
for membership in the A.C.A. An exceptionally able com- 
mittee, composed of Marion Reilly, Eva Johnston, and 
Helen Thompson Woolley, presented in 1910 a report with 
a list of foreign universities which until 1927, when the list 
of the International Federation of University Women was 
substituted, remained the basis for membership of women 
educated in foreign universities/ The committee 'felt quite 
incompetent to deal with the universities of the Latin coun- 
tries, or of Russia, or of the Orient,* but their report on the 
institutions and degrees of other countries was able and 

* The list of the International Federation of University Women, 1930, 
may be secured at the Washington headquarters of the A.A.U.W. 

Admission of Institutions 83 

impartial. As a result of their recommendation, their list 
of foreign universities received the unanimous approval of 
the convention, which further voted 'that the special Com- 
mittee on Investigating European Universities be continued 
to investigate the universities of the Latin countries, Russia, 
and the Orient.' 

The Association grew year by year, In membership and in 
strength, so that there came a time when a thorough re- 
organization of its by-laws became essential to progress. 
Among the changes made, when in 191 2 the new plan was 
adopted, was a change in name of the Committee on Cor- 
porate Membership, which then became the Committee on 
Recognition of Colleges and Universities. But the task of 
the committee continued along the lines worked out through 
thirty-one years of experience. At the Convention of 1912, 
Marion Talbot, chairman of the committee, made a report 
covering the thirty-one years of work of the Association in 
admitting colleges and universities. She brought to the 
attention of the Association the fact that at that moment 
the Government of the United States, through the Federal 
Bureau of Education, was attempting to make a study, 
thorough and impartial as possible, of the nature of colleges, 
and that her committee had had before it a few months pre- 
vious to this time, the report of the official agent of this 
bureau. This report had not, however, been made a public 
document, so that the committee had not been able to make 
actual use of its findings. Miss Talbot said further that if 
it were possible to use the report of the United States Bureau 
of Education, her committee would like to feel free to con- 
sider the colleges in Class I of its classification. It was there- 
upon voted that 'until the next meeting of the Association 
the Committee [on Recognition of Colleges and Univer- 
sities] ... be instructed to adopt Class I of the classification 
of colleges of the United States Bureau of Education, as the 
academic standard of admission to the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae.' But in the discussion it was made clear 

84 Association of University Women 

that inclusion in the Class A of the Carnegie list or in Class I 
of the Bureau of Education list did not automatically carry 
with such classification membership in the A.C.A. The 
policy of applying special tests still held. With these tests 
applied, the following institutions were in 1912 admitted to 
membership: Grinnell College (Iowa), Indiana University, 
Mount Holyoke College, Swarthmore College, and Lawrence 
College, with provisional action on Coe College and Drake 

In 1 914, the chairman of the Committee on Recognition 
of Colleges and Universities, Ada L. Comstock, presented 
the names of eight new colleges for acceptance by the Asso- 
ciation : Beloit College, the Women's College in Brown Uni- 
versity, Colorado College, Goucher College, Lake Forest 
College, The University of Colorado, the University of 
Washington (in Seattle), and Washington University (in 
St. Louis, Missouri). She asked at the same time for 
authority to use the list of Class I of the Federal Bureau of 
Education as the standard of academic rating until the 
biennial convention to be held in San Francisco in 191 5. 
This authority was given, but so difficult did the use of this 
list prove to be that the Convention voted in 191 5 to leave 
the committee entirely free in its study of academic ratings. 
In the mean time a new aggregation of institutions had come 
into being — the Association of American Universities. 
Here again was a rating agency, for a committee of this body 
passed upon the application of an institution for member- 
ship, as was the case with the A.C.A. The Association of 
American Universities laid especial emphasis upon the 
ability of a graduate of a given institution studying in a 
foreign university to take the master's degree in not more 
than one year, and the doctor's degree in not more than 
three years, thus proving the quality of training and attain- 
ment which the bachelor's degree which should precede 
graduate study should represent. The council meeting of 
the A.C.A. in 191 6, therefore, recommended to its com- 

Admission of Institutions 85 

mittee that 'for the present they use as the basis for aca- 
demic rating the Hst recommended by the Association of 
American Universities together with whatever other Hsts 
were at their disposal.* This action followed the report of 
the committee given by the chairman, Miss Comstock, that 
their experience proved that the Association could not set 
up and maintain its own standard, making its own study of 
the academic worth of the institutions under consideration 
as had been the case for the first twenty-seven years of the 
Association's history, because of the labor and tactical 
difficulties involved, to say nothing of the heavy respon- 
sibility thus entailed. She pointed out that the Carnegie list 
had been abandoned because of changed standards which 
its board had adopted, and because from the point of view 
of the A.C.A., some institutions not recognized by the 
Carnegie Foundation had proved, when the special tests of 
the Association had been applied, to rate higher in their 
attitude toward women's interests than did some included 
in the foundation's list. The list of colleges and universities 
which the Federal Bureau of Education had prepared was 
discontinued before it reached the step of actual publication. 
The list of the Association of American Universities was 
formed for an express purpose, hence had its limitations. It 
was after this report was made that the action of the council 
given above was taken. 

Marion Reilly, long a devoted and able worker in the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae, became in 191 7 chairman 
of this important committee. One of the insistent problems 
which confronted Miss Reilly's group was that concerning 
the admission of graduates of technical courses, such as 
architecture, medicine, law, and new courses in applied 
science, to membership in the A.C.A. Miss Reilly reported 
in 191 8 what one may well believe — 'that the whole ques- 
tion had proved incredibly complex'; and that her com- 
mittee had given not only careful consideration, but a very 
considerable amount of investigation to the end that their 

86 Association of University Women 

recommendations might be sound and at the same time fair 
to all concerned. She then presented the recommendation 
' that an alumna holding any bachelor's degree from any of 
our already accepted institutions should be accepted for 
membership provided the work required for the degree in- 
cluded at least two years of work which should be credited 
towards the arts degree,' and announced that since only an 
amendment to the Association's by-laws could compass this 
rather radical departure from tradition, she gave notice that 
action upon it would be asked at the biennial convention to 
be held at St. Louis the next year (1919). Miss Reilly's 
recommendation is especially significant in view of the tre- 
mendous impetus which the advancement of science had 
given to the development of technical courses for men and 
for women also, especially in the state universities. Already 
thoughtful people were wondering if these tax-supported 
institutions were not by way of becoming aggregations of 
vocational and technical schools, which might conceivably 
leave courses which were like the old ' humanities ' curricula 
almost entirely to the privately endowed institutions. The 
recommendation from her committee which Miss Reilly 
made, represented then and represents now a salvaging of 
two years of the broader courses in the interest of larger in- 
tellectual resources for the student, at the same time that 
it took cognizance of the necessity which underlay present- 
day conditions. 

When, in 19 19, F. Louise Nardin became chairman, the 
committee was in close touch with still another organization, 
of which Dr. Samuel P. Capen was the able director. He 
and his assistants felt that the regional rating agencies 
which had grown up in the several sections of the United 
States, while not uniform, were nevertheless at their best 
excellent aids to such work as that which the A.C.A. com- 
mittee had in hand. Those especially recommended by the 
American Council on Education were the list of the Univer- 
sity of California (which was composed of many schools and 

Admission of Institutions 87 

colleges up and down the Pacific Coast, and was not con- 
fined to California alone) ; that of the North Central Asso- 
ciation of Colleges and Secondary Schools; that of the 
Southern States; and that of the Association of the Middle 
States and Maryland. By this time it was clear that the 
list of the Association of American Universities was not 
wholly useful to the A.C.A., so that, while it was still con- 
sulted, it was not used without other aids. 

Furthermore, in 1920 the A.C.A. appointed, at the request 
of Miss Nardin's committee, four sub-committees which 
made their reports in 1921, all of which were concerned with 
some aspect of technical or professional education.^ At the 
convention of 1921, following the reports of these sub- 
committees, the Association (now become the American 
Association of University Women) adopted the policy of 
not undertaking independently the work of formulating 
standards for any type of technical or professional educa- 
tion, but instead decided to urge that each type create 
within its own field some agency which by its intimate 
knowledge of its own problems would be far better able to 
do the work of standardizing and rating for its group than 
could any other organization or agency.* When such a 

^ These committees were one on medical schools, one on technical 
schools, one on law schools, and one on library schools. 

* The Sub-Committee on Teachers' Colleges, appointed in 1925, re- 
ported to the 1929 Convention, which then voted that teachers' colleges 
would be eligible to apply for membership 'when the Association of 
Teachers' Colleges provides a list of institutions which meet all of its 
own requirements unconditionally.' The Sub-Committee on Law 
Schools never officially reported to a convention. After going into the 
matter, it discovered that there were only ten law schools on the list of 
the American Bar Association which were not on the approved list of the 
A.A.U.W. and four of these are for men only. This left only six schools 
to be studied by the committee. The Committee on Law Schools re- 
ported its findings, as related above, to the National Committee on 
Recognition in the spring of 1928. The chairman of the National Com- 
mittee in her report to the Board the following May requested that the 
Sub-Committee on Law Schools be dissolved because there apparently 
was nothing for it to do. 

88 Association of University Women 

group was ready to offer an approved list together with a 
summary of the standards by which the Hst had been pre- 
pared, the Committee on Recognition of Colleges and Uni- 
versities of the American Association of University Women 
would then decide whether to recommend the technical or 
professional schools so listed to be approved for membership 
in the A.A.U.W., provided, of course, that any institution so 
recommended should in addition to all other attainments 
have met also the special requirements which for the whole 
of its existence the A.C.A. had maintained. Miss Nardin 
then announced that the Association of American Medical 
Schools had an accredited list, as had also the American 
Association of Library Schools, both of which required for 
acceptance on these lists more than two years of liberal 
college work in an approved college as prerequisite to pro- 
fessional training in their respective fields. For the four 
years, 1919-23, the committee made an intensive and far- 
reaching study of its bases for action, at the same time that 
it was considering a large list of institutions which had for 
a longer or shorter time been knocking at the Association's 
door. Its work was further complicated by the fact that 
when, in 192 1, the Southern Association of College Women 
became an integral part of the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae, it was agreed that the national membership of the 
American Association of University Women (the new name 
of the enlarged organization) should include all individual 
members of the Southern Association of College Women and 
of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae in the region of the 
Southern States who were in good standing in 1921, as well 
as graduates within the next three or five years from institu- 
tions now on the list of the S.A.C.W. which, while not now 
on the list of the A.C.A. , yet in the opinion of the Recogni- 
tion Committee [of the S.A.C.W.] . . . will soon come under 
the purview of the Recognition Committee of the new 
organization. Furthermore, the Southern group asked per- 
mission to keep for a time at least, a sectional Committee on 

Admission of Institutions 89 

Recognition, and this request the national organization was 
only too glad to grant. Following this action, Committees 
on Recognition of Colleges and Universities in each of the 
ten sections of the A.A.U.W. were arranged for, these com- 
mittees to have only recommending power, recommenda- 
tions not to become in any way effective unless endorsed by 
the National Committee on Recognition and voted by the 
Association as a whole.^ The work of the national committee 
was summarized in a bulletin entitled 'Information Con- 
cerning Institutional Membership in the American Associa- 
tion of University Women,' issued in 1924, in which, in 
addition to other information, there was included a series of 
questions which any institution desiring consideration as to 
its possible inclusion in the A.A.U.W. list of members must 
answer to the satisfaction of the sectional and national com- 
mittees on recognition, before recommendation would be 
made to the Association for final action. The bulletin was 
in reality the epitome of the experience and policy of forty- 
three years, and was thus a most valuable contribution to 
the history of women's education in the United States. 

In the 1924 report for her committee. Miss Nardin re- 
commended to the Association the admission of tefi insti- 
tutions of the liberal arts type, and two technical colleges — 
Kansas Agricultural College and Oregon Agricultural Col- 
lege — which had no school of liberal arts nor did either 
confer the A.B. degree. 'In recommending colleges of this 
type,' said Miss Nardin, 'the committee is aware that it is 
adopting a new policy,' yet she felt sure that in studying 
these technical colleges, her committee was carrying out the 
expressed desire of the Association. Her resume has served to 
guide later committees, and so may well be given at length : 

The committee has borne in mind as it studied institutions of this 
type that our Association stands for a large liberal element in each 

^ This plan was in 1929 abandoned, and a sectional adviser to the 
Committee on Membership substituted for the committee provided in 
192 1. See Chapter XXV, p. 323. 

90 Association of University Women 

curriculum for women. It has been aware that the test of liberal 
subjects previously quoted in this report cannot be applied to these 
colleges. The possibility of a vocational slant to a course liberal in 
name is plain. Furthermore, even the growing desire to include 
liberal subjects in a vocational curriculum may seek gratification in 
two ways, only one of which agrees with the policy held by this 
Association. The curriculum may require very small amounts of 
many liberal subjects, each unit being too small to function in the 
student's education as would the ampler units which are required by 
colleges of liberal arts. Where the college of liberal arts is the 
strongest division of an institution both in variety of courses offered 
and in number of students enrolled, free electives by students in 
technical and professional schools tend to be chosen from liberal 
courses. This liberalizing tendency is of course lacking in such insti- 
tutions as are under consideration. All these considerations indicate 
the necessity for particular care on the part of the committee to 
make sure that the liberal elements are present in the curricula. 
After careful study the committee submits to the Convention a 
recommendation concerning two of these technical colleges, and 
recommends for national membership: 
. Kansas Agricultural College, Manhattan, Kansas and 
Oregon Agricultural College, Corvallis, Oregon. 

As has been said, the situation had been rendered more 
complex by the inclusion of the Southern Association of 
College Women, with their list of members not yet ready 
in their judgment for full recognition by the A.A.U.W. But 
that the problem was working itself out was evident from 
two other recommendations made by Miss Nardin for her 
committee. These were : 

1. The committee with advice from the Committee on Recogni- 
tion of the Southeast Central Section, recommends that the Univer- 
sity of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, be removed from proba- 
tionary status and be given full national membership in this Asso- 

2. The committee makes a final recommendation on advice from 
the delegates representing the South Atlantic and the Southeast 
Central sections: 

Action taken by the Association to end the probationary period 
of an institution shall remove also the date limit for eligibility of 
graduates and shall make all graduates of the institution holding 
approved degrees eligible for national membership. This action 

Admission of Institutions 91 

shall apply to institutions which the Association has previously 
removed from probationary status. 

In 1925, the committee went one step farther in the 
matter of recommending to membership in the Association 
the technical college pure and simple, and asked the conven- 
tion of that year to give instructions to its committee by 
voting yes or no upon the admission of two colleges, which, 
while standing forth as technical colleges, nevertheless in 
the opinion of the chairman and her colleagues, ' conserved, 
not grudgingly but willingly, the requisite liberal elements'; 
Margaret Morrison Carnegie College for Women of Carnegie 
Institute (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) and Simmons College 
(Boston, Massachusetts). These institutions the convention 
accepted, and thus was the work of the committee again 
extended and broadened. 

When in 1930 a new bulletin was issued containing the 
names of the one hundred and ninety-four colleges and 
universities in the United States,* on the accepted list 
of the A.A.U.W., there was also published the list of uni- 
versities outside the United States which had been approved 
by the International Federation of University Women. 
This list comprised three hundred and eighteen institutions 
in twenty-eight countries whose degrees (with in some cases 
special conditions attached) entitled their holders to mem- 
bership in the Federation of University Women of their own 
countries, and by virtue of this fact, to membership in the 
International Federation of University Women. One can 
readily comprehend what tremendous tasks these lists repre- 
sent, and that that of the United States was longer and 

' The list also included six Southern colleges whose women graduates 
with approved degrees from these institutions (which were recognized by 
the Southern Association of College Women, but had not yet completely 
met the requirements of the American Association of University Women) 
might for a probationary period of four years, beginning in 1927, be 
eligible for national membership in A.A.U.W. At the end of the proba- 
tionary period, those institutions which had not fully qualified would be 
dropped and their graduates no longer entitled to apply for national 
membership. See Appendix, pp. 429-34. 

92 Association of University Women 

larger than that of any other country means that the fifty 
years' work of the committees of the A.C.A., S.A.C.W., and 
A.A.U.W. has been a labor of incredible magnitude requiring 
skill, judgment, knowledge, and great devotion. It is with- 
out surprise, therefore, that we find provision made in 1927 
for a salaried secretary for the Committee on Recognition, 
whose task it should be to do the routine work for the com- 
mittee, and especially to keep in touch with the sectional 
committees which were to make the first investigation of 
institutions not yet ready to become members of A.A.U.W., 
and with the International Federation of University Women. 

One of the first recommendations made in 1929 was a 
proposal to return to the Association of American Univer- 
sities as a rating agency, since it had been found that that 
body had devised adequate facilities for prompt action, 
as well as for judging applying institutions by uniform 
standards. The committee recommended twenty-seven 
institutions for acceptance as institutional members, and 
announced that one of the seven colleges (former members 
of the S.A.C.W.), which had been given until 1931 to con- 
form to the standard of A.A.U.W., had cheerfully and fully 
met the new standards. Thus the membership of A.A.U.W., 
at the end of its half-century is one hundred and ninety-four 
institutions in this country, as over against eight whose 
representatives met on November 8, 1881, to form the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae. These one hundred and 
ninety-four institutions have brought in thousands of mem- 
bers — more than thirty-five thousand at the half-century 
as over against the seventeen who met in Boston in 1881. 

The change in name from ' Committee on Recognition of 
Colleges and Universities' to 'Committee on Membership' 
— a change in the interests of simplicity and clarity of 
language — took place in 1929 and was a happy revision. 
The tasks of the committee remained unchanged, however, 
and thus the committee under its fourth name is the most 
important of all standing committees of the Association. 

Admission of Institutions 93 

But it is not wholly by numbers that the work of half a 
century is to be judged. It is impossible to estimate what 
material and intellectual advantages for women in colleges 
and universities have been secured as a result of the honesty, 
frankness, fearlessness, and fairness of the committees 
working North and South, East and West, in the interests of 
higher education. A dormitory here, a women's building 
there, a dean of women finally secured, women asked to sit 
on boards of regents and trustees, a more nearly equal salary 
schedule for men and women, a better chance of promotion 
to a position beyond that of instructor, a more cordial atti- 
tude toward women students, a chance to present facts 
concerning needs of women students to legislatures and state 
governors — all these things have been brought about in 
some case or in some place by the committees on institu- 
tional membership of the A.C.A., the S.A.C.W., and the 
A.A.U.W. One case will illustrate many. Years ago, the 
University of Cincinnati — one of the first municipal uni- 
versities in the United States — was under consideration 
for inclusion in the A.C.A. list. The two authors of this his- 
tory were then on the Committee on Recognition of the 
A.C.A., the one as chairman and the other as a committee 
member. Never will they forget the session of this com- 
mittee at which the late Dr. Emilie Watts McVea (at that 
time dean of women in the University of Cincinnati and 
later president of Sweet Briar College) appeared. After 
ascertaining that the institution had met all requirements 
save that of a woman's building, she said: 

I beg you not to admit us without the building. Hundreds of girls 
are coming to us to-day and hundreds more will come in the future. 
There is not at present a single hook upon which a girl may hang up 
her hat, not a single locker where she may leave her load of books, 
not a single table in a sunny room where she may eat her luncheon, 
not a cot or a couch where she may lie down when she is ill, not a 
bit of apparatus by which her body may be trained and strengthened. 
Keep us out, and we can have a lever by which to secure these things. 
Take us in, and it may be years before we get them. I beg you not 
to accept us, and to give me a letter telling me why! 

94 Association of University Women 

In three months there came to the office of the Dean of 
Women in Lathrop Hall, the women's building in the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, a distinguished gentleman from 
Cincinnati who was a trustee of the university in his city. 
He explained that he was 'on tour,' so to speak, to find the 
best possible sort of building for the women students of his 
institution. ' It is a shame,' said he, 'that the trustees have 
delayed so long. The Association of Collegiate Alumnae will 
not accept our university, they tell us, till such provision 
has been made. They are right to throw down the gantlet 
to us. The building will be ready within the year ' — and 
it was. And the University of Cincinnati has been for nearly 
twenty years a devoted member of the Association. 

An instance from the South would make dramatic reading, 
when an enraged principal of a bogus school threatened to 
shoot the late Elizabeth Avery Col ton, president of the 
Southern Association of College Women and chairman of 
its Committee on Standards, and thrust his hand into his 
pocket apparently to make his threat good. Miss Colton 
looked calmly at him ; he dropped his eyes and retired before 
her steady, honest gaze. Shortly afterward he closed his 
so-called college. 

But imponderables are often the most valuable and sig- 
nificant factors in a history, and so it is with this one. The 
earliest rating agency in the country, the A.C.A. and the 
A.A.U.W., is also the one longest in continuous existence. 
It may be that its greatest work in this direction has been 
done. But machinery has been set in motion which will for 
long be valuable, not only for the higher education of 
women, but for the cause of college and university education 
as a whole, both here and abroad. The Association has fol- 
lowed the progress of women's education in this country — 
preparatory, collegiate, post-graduate, in liberal arts, and in 
technical courses — and has been ready to move forward 
as conditions have changed. But its standards have never 
been cheapened and one has only to read its history to 
believe in its fairness and integrity of purpose. 



It will be remembered that on October 25, 1884, the Asso- 
ciation added an article to its constitution which provided 
for the forming of separate units of the parent organization 
to be called branch associations, or branches as one speaks 
of them to-day. The conditions upon which branches might 
be formed were not onerous, the first and fundamental pro- 
vision being that ' they shall cooperate with the Association 
of Collegiate Alumnae in its general work while carrying 
on independent local work.* Regular membership was, of 
course, limited to graduates eligible to membership in the 
A.C.A., the president was to be ex-officio a vice-president of 
the general Association, while the recording secretary was 
to be ex-officio a corresponding secretary. The by-laws of 
the branches were to be of their own making, provided they 
conformed to the few rules thus made. 

By the adoption of this article the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae embarked upon a policy of expansion as 
far-reaching in its way as the adoption in the Federal 
Constitution of the provision for new States. No limits were 
set by the A.C.A. upon its growth save that the branches 
must be accepted by the parent Association, which would, 
of course, accept branches whose members were graduates 
of the colleges and universities on the list of accepted institu- 
tions of the A.C.A. itself. Moreover, the members must 
have degrees which were of the quality which the Associa- 
tion accepted — B.S., B.A., M.S., M.A., etc. Thus the 
policy which through half a century has been followed was 
clearly thought out and applied with courage from the very 
beginning. Individuals are members of the Association, but 
they become members by virtue of the acceptance of their 

« See Chapter II for a further account of the beginnings of the branches. 

96 Association of University Women 

Alma Mater by the national organization and by virtue of a 
degree which they themselves must hold. That at a later 
time associate members who had not completed a course of 
study, but who had entered upon one which had been carried 
for one or two years in an institution which belonged to the 
Association should be admitted in limited numbers does not 
violate the underlying conditions. 

At the same meeting of the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae at which the article providing for branches was 
accepted, a communication was read, signed by Emma S. 
Atkinson, Gertrude B. Darwin, and Marie D. Elliot, asking 
that alumnae residing in Washington and Baltimore be 
recognized as a branch society to be known as the 'Wash- 
ington Branch of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae,' 
with Lydia M. Dame as first president. It was thereupon 
unanimously voted by the A.C.A. that the proposed organi- 
zation be recognized as a branch upon its accepting the arti- 
cle just adopted. Thus the Washington Branch was the first 
regularly constituted local group exactly like the branches 
we have to-day. The second of such branches was the New 
York City Branch which dates its founding from January, 
1886. The third branch was the so-called Pacific Branch, 
later called the California Branch, and now for a number of 
years the San Francisco Bay Branch. The fourth branch was 
that of Philadelphia, organized in May, 1886, and the fifth 
was that of Boston, October, 1886. In 1889, the Western 
Association was incorporated into the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae. At the same meeting three new branches 
became members of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae — 
Chicago, Minnesota (comprising Minneapolis and St. Paul 
and the surrounding region), and the Central New York 
Branch with its headquarters in Syracuse. The Detroit 
Branch was accepted in 1890, as was the Western New 
York Branch (at Buffalo), the Indiana Branch (at Indian- 
apolis), and the Eastern New York Branch (at Albany). In 
1891, the Ohio Branch was formed at Cleveland, in the 

Admission of Branches 97 

following year the Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Los 
Angeles Branches, while the year of the World's Fair (1893) 
saw the Kansas City and the St. Louis Branches accepted. 
In 1895 came the Pittsburgh Branch, in 1896 the Milwaukee 
Branch, in 1898 the Colorado Branch (at Denver), in 1899 
the Virginia Branch, and 1900 saw the Southern New York 
Branch (at Binghamton) and the Nebraska Branch added 
to the group. At the Quarter-Centennial in 1907 there had 
been added since 1900 the following branches: Ann Arbor, 
Central Illinois (Urbana-Champaign), Des Moines, Co- 
lumbus (Ohio), Seattle, Oregon (later called the Portland 
Branch), Kansas, Omaha, Tacoma, Ohio Valley (later the 
Cincinnati Branch), and Central Missouri at Columbia — 
eleven in all. There were thus at the Quarter-Centennial 
thirty-five branches of the Association. At the Semi- 
centennial there will be more than five hundred. 

It would seem worth while to give a brief account of the 
early years of those branches which in the first decade of 
the Association's history began the pioneer work of branch 
organizations. Although the group in Philadelphia consid- 
ered organization first, it is the Washington Branch in the 
District of Columbia which has the honor of being the oldest 
pioneer. In 1924, this branch had its fortieth birthday and 
held a meeting of unusual character, where there was repro- 
duced the first meeting of the branch with its constitution 
to be adopted, its election of officers, its plans for future 
work, and a reading by a pseudo-Miss Atkinson of a part of 
her paper on 'The Relation Between the Home and the 
College.* It was assumed that the first meeting of the 
branch was held on the day of its recognition by the A.C.A., 
and those who belonged to a later day — the members who 
became for the moment the ten alumnae of forty years before 
— had met to begin the work which even at the end of forty 
years was not finished. 

98 Association of University Women 

Almost at once after its formation the Washington Branch 
inaugurated three study groups — one in political science to 
deal especially with socialism, the second group to read 
Latin at sight, and the third group to study living English 
authors. The first group presented a lecture course with the 
Honorable Carroll D. Wright, then Director of the United 
States Bureau of Labor, as one of their speakers. The 
records of the branch show that both for these groups and 
for its general meetings it was most fortunate in the dis- 
tinguished men and women who spoke either for the groups 
or under their auspices. 

Almost immediately after its organization, the Executive 
Committee of the branch proposed ' Occupations for Women ' 
as the field of investigation and research for the coming year. 
Each member was to make a special study of one of the 
following subdivisions: nursing, cooking, decorative art, 
house-furnishing, architecture, telegraphy, typewriting, 
stenography, wood-carving, engraving, printing, designing, 
cataloguing, sanitary plumbing, horticulture, raising of 
small fruits, pharmacy, bee and silkworm culture, boarding 
and room furnishing ; in professions, theology, law, medicine, 
authorship, journalism, bookkeeping; in the field of teach- 
ing, school supervision, professorships, school methods, 
special departments, kindergarten, common schools, and 
general academies ; while in the realm of the arts, stage and 
platform, draughting, artistic dressmaking, painting, and 
music (piano-tuners) were listed as subjects of research. 
The points to be particularly considered were talent, pre- 
liminary education, special training, how and where ob- 
tained, demand, remuneration, advantages, disadvantages. 
In this study they asked for assistance by any member of 
the A.C.A. The following year, 1887, there was a report of 
progress with the hope that results in the form of a treatise 
might later be published. This project is given in full as one 
of the most prophetic ones inaugurated by any of the early 

Admission of Branches 99 

An outstanding activity of the Washington Branch was a 
sanitary inspection of the pubUc schools, an undertaking 
carried on in 1899 with another local organization. The 
report of this inspection was printed by the Government as 
a public document. The conditions which then existed in 
the public schools of the District of Columbia were perhaps 
no worse than in other cities, but the value of the endeavor 
which this report represented, that of bringing facts before 
the Senate and the House of Representatives in order that 
an investigation might result in lessening the dangers in the 
spread of infectious diseases, could hardly be overestimated. 
The Washington Branch took a pardonable pride in this 
pioneer achievement. 


The second branch of the Association, that in New York 
City, has had, like many branches, from the outset a twofold 
program — that of carrying on educational work and that 
of providing social contacts for its members. The New York 
Branch not only from the moment of its founding in Janu- 
ary, 1886, cooperated with the National Association in all 
its educational work, but also kept a close watch *on the 
school situation in New York City and in the State so far 
as the Legislature at Albany could affect the schools. The 
branch worked in cooperation with the innumerable organi- 
zations which as the years went on came into being, taking 
over much of the work which in other cities was sponsored or 
furthered by the branches of the Association. In 1886, the 
New York Branch not only submitted a plan for sections 
which should meet more frequently than the branch itself, 
but also provided that two clubs should at once be formed — 
one for the study of political and social science, the other to 
consider educational work. In 1889-90, the branch con- 
tributed books to form the nucleus of the College Settlement 
library, thus signifying a broadening interest in adult educa- 
tion and constructive social welfare work. 

100 Association of University Women 
the san francisco bay branch 

The third branch of the Association was on the Pacific 
Coast, at the greatest distance from the Boston head- 
quarters. Marion Talbot, then secretary of the A.C.A., 
wrote in 1885 to her friend Sarah Dix HamHn, of San Fran- 
cisco, asking whether a branch could not be organized in 
California. Millicent W. Shinn, then editor of the Overland 
Monthly and later known to every member of the A.C.A. 
as the chairman of the Committee on Child Study, ^ offered 
her office for an informal discussion of the advisability of 
forming a branch. In October, 1885, representatives of 
Vassar College, the Universities of Michigan and California, 
and Cornell University met and completed the organization. 
The group took the name 'The Pacific Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae.' The new branch began at once to 
work for the admission of the University of California to 
membership in the Association. This state university was 
accepted in 1886. In the original by-laws of the branch, it 
was stated that ' all members of the Association stand ready 
to help, as they may find themselves able, in investigations 
regarding, and in efforts to extend and improve, the col- 
legiate education of women; and it shall be part of the 
regular duties of the Executive Committee to plan for and 
direct such investigation and efforts at their discretion.... 
Other educational work may be carried on by voluntary 
groups, by committees cooperating under guidance of the 
Executive Committee or by any other systematic method 
that may meet the needs of the Association; but all such 
results are to be strictly reported to the Association.' These 
corner-stones of the branch have always been retained. In 
many matters it has been rightly said that the San Francisco 
Branch ' has run ahead of its mother, but the wisdom of its 
choice and the far-sightedness of its vision have been attested 
by the fact that all its pioneer ventures have since been 
incorporated in the national program of educational work.' 
* See Chapter XII. 

Admission of Branches 101 

Engaged at first with the more restricted task of securing 
opportunities for women in colleges, and a little later with 
the appointment of a dean of women at the University of 
California who should have proper academic standing, the 
branch soon moved forward to a larger study of modern 
trends in education and the problems of adequate financing 
of school systems. It was the Pacific Branch that estab- 
lished the first bureau of education for the Pacific Coast and 
in the second year of its history participated in the organiza- 
tion of the Associated Charities of San Francisco. One of its 
early tasks was the petitioning for the appointment of a 
woman physician as examiner at the state university, thus 
making the gymnasium available to young women students. 
The appointment of Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst to be the first 
woman regent of the University of California was due to the 
efforts of the branch, as was the appointment of the first 
woman member of the San Francisco Board of Education. 
The first school playground in San Francisco was established 
and conducted under the supervision of Emma L. Noonan, 
a member for many years of the San Francisco Branch, who 
then taught in a tenement-house district. The branch 
assisted with a survey of housing conditions in San Francisco 
in 1908 and 1909, and brought Ellen H. Richards to the 
University of California summer session for a course in 
home economics with the result that home economics courses 
were offered at the University of California. 

The interest in philanthropies which has been perhaps the 
outstanding achievement of the Pacific Branch — of the San 
Francisco Bay Branch as it is known to-day — began in 1889 
with a piece of original work by Millicent W. Shinn on the 
programs and achievements of the various philanthropic 
societies then in existence in San Francisco. The Settlement 
Association of San Francisco and the first social settlement 
upon the Pacific Coast were the work of this branch. In 
1889 and 1890, the branch reported itself as standing back 
of one of the earliest educational bureaus — that conducted 

102 Association of University Women 

by May S. Cheney, a member of the branch, whose ideal 
was a higher standard for the preparatory schools of Cali- 
fornia and for the teaching staff of those schools. 

The Philadelphia Branch of the Association was not 
organized until May, 1886, although the first inquiries about 
the possibility of becoming a branch were made in 1882. 
When, in 1887, the branch made its first report, it told of 
two clubs already formed, one for sight translation of the 
classics and one for study in social science. In 1889, the 
social science club reported itself as studying the works of 
Mill, Ingram, and Blanqu6. Every member of this par- 
ticular club was listed in the University of Pennsylvania 
Catalogue as a matriculate in courses for the degree of 
Doctor of Philosophy. A third group had meantime been 
organized to study Anglo-Saxon prose, and to this English 
Club, as it was called, so-called associate members were 
received who did not belong to the A.C.A. 

In 1889 and 1890, the branch reported a teachers' bureau 
as one of its projects, a forerunner of the Bureau of Occupa- 
tions in which a number of years later the branch and the 
Philadelphia College Club became interested. A few years 
later, the Philadelphia Branch reported continuing an effort 
already begun to establish a free library in Philadelphia, 
and a project for 'ingrafting as a part of the public school 
system a course for girls preparatory to college.' Both these 
projects were by 1895 accepted, whereupon the branch set 
itself to study the treatment and provision for defective 
children in the public schools of other cities with a view to 
improvement in the conditions for these children existing 
in Philadelphia. 

Although the A.C.A. was organized in Boston and for a 
number of years maintained its headquarters in that city, 

Admission of Branches 103 

no branch was formed there until 1886. As branches were 
formed in Washington, New York, and Philadelphia, and it 
was clear that the Association had the possibility of becom- 
ing nation-wide, twenty-one members of the A.C.A., who 
lived in and near Boston, made in June, 1886, a journey to 
the woods of Jamaica Plain, where, at a basket picnic, they 
made plans for the foundation of a Boston Branch as such. 
On October 2, 1886, a more formal meeting was held in 
Boston and the group was definitely organized as the 
Boston Branch of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae. 
A constitution was adopted, officers elected, and the first 
president, Lucy A. Shannon, took the helm. In the forty- 
four years since that October day Mrs. Shannon has had 
twenty successors. 

From the first the Boston Branch was a working body, organized 
for serious purposes. Its earliest committees were for study on the 
part of groups of members of such subjects as modern fiction, sight- 
reading in Greek, and political science. There was some attempt at 
establishing a local bureau of collegiate information, and at the com- 
pilation of health statistics as regards both alumnae and non-college 

Definitely organized committee work developed in 1890, although 
in 1887 a movement had begun toward investigating health condi- 
tions, deplorable at that time, in the Boston public schools; and a 
committee of four had been appointed to confer with the School 
Board of the city. This enterprise, the most serious and scholarly 
undertaking of the branch in its early years, covered a number of 
seasons; and the fine public service it rendered brought the branch 
its first real fame. In 1894, a special committee of five, under the 
chairmanship of Mrs. Alice Upton Pearmain, was formed to investi- 
gate such matters as light, heat, ventilation, sanitation, and cleanli- 
ness in the schoolhouses. The annual report of the branch secretary 
for 1895 says: 'This committee was formed with no idea of sweeping 
all before us — though sweeping is a matter dear to our hearts.' 
(The period, it may be observed, was still in that 'mauve decade' 
where sweeping was still part of women's work!) This committee 
aimed rather to be helpful to the schools, 'to work,' continues the 
report, 'in harmony with all concerned, enlightening the taxpayers 
as to the conditions in the schools they were supporting, and arousing 
the intelligent interest of the community.' This committee was 

104 Association of University Women 

assisted by volunteer workers from the branch, and finally com- 
pleted its labors in cooperation with Mayor Quincy and a committee 
of experts. 

The effort resulted in a vast reform in health conditions and 
administration of the schools; in a new appropriation for schoolhouse 
improvement, in an increasingly active legislative committee for the 
reorganization of the school system, together with an intelligent agi- 
tation in the community on behalf of the schools and in the choice 
of the School Committee. So successful and valuable was the work, 
that in 1897, a similar campaign of sanitary reform was instituted in 
Philadelphia by the local Health Protection Association, and many 
other cities and towns throughout the country copied the example 
and methods of the Boston Branch in school sanitation and related 

One of the early investigations of the branch was proposed 
by Alice Freeman Palmer — a scientific investigation of the 
problems of domestic service. The study group which was 
thereupon formed proceeded on an outline supplied by an 
authority on the subject — Professor Lucy M. Salmon, of 
Vassar College. The work later evolved into the Home 
Economics Committee, where, under the skilled direction of 
Ellen H. Richards, it carried on a wider program on behalf 
of the pure food movement and scientific household manage- 
ment. This early program perhaps bore fruit when during 
the war the branch maintained the Liberty Bread Shop in 
Boston, and the Hostess House on Cape Cod. Another sig- 
nificant study of those early days was that of a committee, 
headed by Mary A. White, of Brookline, an investigation of 
conditions in public laundries. This investigation led not 
only to a widespread improvement in laundry standards 
in general, but, even more interestingly, to the establish- 
ment by Miss White herself of the highly successful Sun- 
shine Laundry in Brookline. 


The Central New York Branch situated in Syracuse, New 
York, was founded on January 8, 1889. In presenting its 
history, the historian has submitted the resolution adopted 

Admission of Branches 105 

by the branch when the request was made of it for a state- 
ment of its outstanding achievement: 

It has brought together and united women who have had similar 
education, but who have come from different educational centers; 
whose interests are so varied that they might otherwise never have 
come in contact; and thus brought about the inspiration of friendship 
and the possibility of the enlargement and carrying on of ideals of 
the educational world. 

Beginning with educational work, the Central New York 
Branch in its earlier years worked through three committees; 
the first a municipal committee working directly with the 
City Council of Women's Clubs; the Educational Com- 
mittee; and the Philanthropic Committee. The Municipal 
Committee was engaged in various kinds of civic work, 
holding itself in readiness to assist any project which the 
central organization of women's clubs at Syracuse should 
launch. The Educational Committee engaged in a campaign 
for manual training and for teaching of sewing and cooking 
in the public schools. It was also an early worker for play- 
grounds and better sites for the newer school buildings, and 
associated itself with the needs of the children when a park 
and playground commission for the city of Syracuse was 
appointed. The Philanthropic Committee for years inter- 
ested itself in conditions surrounding child labor of boys or 


The Minnesota Branch, which at first comprised members 
from Minneapolis and St. Paul, was organized in March, 
1889, with Frona M. Brooks as president and Alice V. Ames ' 
as secretary pro tern, Mary Harriman Severance was a 
member of the committee at once appointed to provide a 
constitution. Associated with these three were five other 
alumnae of four of the accredited colleges of the Association, 
Vassar, Smith, Wellesley, and the University of Michigan. 

* Now Mrs. Thomas G. Winter. 

106 Association of University Women 

It was certainly a pioneer group who, finding themselves far 
from their own colleges, nevertheless desired 'to express in 
their contacts with the community a sound reason for the 
existence of the college training which they had received.' 
All eight of the founders were recently graduated, and with 
the memory of their college days vivid in their minds they 
decided at once to form four study groups, one each in 
German, Latin, history, and social science. It was decided 
to hold monthly meetings alternately in St. Paul and 
Minneapolis with a program of practical educational work 
partly in cooperation with the national organization and 
partly for local purposes. To keep its original object clearly 
before the members, a paragraph stating that the branch 
stood for practical educational work was for many years 
placed upon the first page of the yearbook. Through the 
years many subjects of study appear in the records, with 
many speakers of distinction on the programs. From 1890, 
when the branch formed its first committee for the Fellow- 
ship Fund of the A.C.A., the branch has continued to sup- 
port the fellowship project to the present day. Dorothy B. 
Atkinson, a former president of the Minneapolis Branch, is 
now the of^cer of the A.A.U.W. in charge of the Million 
Dollar Fellowship Fund campaign. 

It was not until 1897 that the University of Minnesota 
was admitted to the A.C.A. as an accredited college, and a 
few years later, with the possibility of a wider membership 
which the acceptance of the state university made possible, 
a reorganization of the branch took place and the Minne- 
apolis College Club came into existence. In 1909, St. Paul 
members formed a college club in their own city where they 
might be of more service to their members and to the com- 
munity than through an organization serving the two cities. 
Since many of the St. Paul members were included in the 
early roster of the Minneapolis Branch, they too may be 
considered pioneers in the Northwest for the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae. 

Admission of Branches 107 

In the Minnesota Branch there was a continuous pioneer 
program of projects undertaken first by the branch, and 
when its work has been proved, each plan has been turned 
over to an organization better adapted to carry it on to a 
larger work. For example, the branch in 1891 inaugurated 
university extension courses in Duluth and in Minneapolis. 
These courses in history and English literature were given 
until 1893 when it was voted to hand the extension work 
over to the University of Minnesota. An extensive study of 
sanitation, plumbing, and lighting in the public schools, 
which was carried on over a period of years, resulted not 
only in cooperation with the bacteriology department of the 
University of Minnesota, but also in an entire reorgani- 
zation of the sanitary program of the city board of educa- 
tion. The Minnesota Branch brought Florence Kelley to 
speak before various meetings, with the result that a 
Minnesota Consumers' League was formed. 

The Chicago Branch began its work in the city where the 
Western Association of Collegiate Alumnae had from 1884 
to 1889 carried on its distinguished program.^ When this 
Western group was merged with the A.C.A., the members 
residing in Illinois assembled in May, 1889, on the call of 
Mrs. Helmer,=* state director of the A.C.A. for Illinois, and 
organized the Chicago Branch, which thereby became the 
eighth branch of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae. 
When in 191 7 Marion Talbot, as chairman of a committee 
appointed to prepare a history of the branch, published the 
results of the investigation, she said: 

Throughout the whole period . . . there is a continuous record of 
discussions and action relating to the following matters: 
I. Place of meeting. 

' See Chapter IV. 

' Mrs. Helmer was one of the early holders of the degree of Bachelot 
of Laws, as was her mother, Mrs. Myra Brad well, before her. 

108 Association of University Women 

2. Character of meetings. 

3. Methods of increasing membership. 

4. Means of securing funds and filling a depleted treasury. 

5. Changes in the constitution. 

6. Relations to the National Association. 

7. Development of social features. 

8. Means of carrying on ehective educational work. 

9. Form of publications. 

10. Arrangements for meetings of the National Association. 

11. Methods of interesting women graduating from colleges in the 

12. Cooperation with the committees of the Association and its 
Branches in special lines of work. 

One of the earliest interests of the Chicago Branch was 
the maintenance of the fellowships of the Association. This 
interest through the years was undoubtedly due partly to 
the inheritance through the Western A.C.A. of the project 
first sponsored by that organization, but also to the fact that 
Bessie Bradwell Helmer was for many years the chairman 
of the A.C.A. Committee on Fellowships and an active 
member of the branch throughout that time. When Alice 
Freeman Palmer came to the reorganized University of 
Chicago in 1892 as advisory dean of women, together with 
Marion Talbot, the interest of these two members greatly 
stimulated the interest of the branch in the maintenance of 

A second interest which has been continuous from the 
earliest days of the branch is social work. 

In the records of the first annual meeting, held November 3, 1889, 
appears for the first time the name of Jane Addams, of Hull House. 
*A committee of three ladies was appointed to communicate with 
Miss Addams and ask in what way the Association could be of 
assistance to her.' In February, 1890, this committee reported that 
Miss Addams wished a resident alumna to assist in her work. In 
May, Miss Addams was present by invitation and 'gave an ex- 
haustive account of her work with Miss Starr with the poor people 
in South Halsted Street.' In November, 1890, it was proposed that 
the branch should support a resident, but it was not until February, 
1893, that formal action was taken, and in March, 1893, Miss Julia 

Admission of Branches 109 

C. Lathrop was appointed as the Hull House fellow. Miss Jeannette 
C. Welch held the fellowship for the year 1893-94. 

Florence Kelley was another factor in the interest of the 
branch in social service. 

In December, 1893, Mrs. Florence Kelley, of Hull House, chief 
inspector of factories in the State of Illinois, spoke on the * Formation 
of a Purchasers' League to Protect Women and Children.' A com- 
mittee of three was appointed to confer with other committees in 
regard to the formation of such a league. The records show little of 
what action was taken until 1897, when, under the leadership of 
Mrs. Jane E. Smoot, the work organized by the joint committee was 
developed, and on December i8th, the provisions of a constitution 
for the Illinois Consumers' League were presented and the Branch 
expressed its approval of the formation of such a League. 


The Detroit Branch of the A.C.A. is the mother branch 
of Michigan. The Western Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae met in Ann Arbor in 1888, and as a result of that 
meeting the present Detroit Branch was, early in 1889, 
organized, with residents of Detroit and Ann Arbor as its 
first members. The first president, Maria Dickinspn Mc- 
Graw, was the first recipient of a diploma from Vassar 
College. Among the charter members were three other 
early graduates from Vassar — Harriette Warner Bishop, 
Helen Warner, and Martha Warner. The vice-president of 
the newly formed branch was Lizzie Parker McCollester, 
of Smith College, while Fannie Mulliken Thompson and 
Mary Thompson Stevens, both graduates of the University 
of Michigan, were, respectively, secretary and treasurer. 
'The original purpose of the organization was to bring col- 
lege women together for social intercoures and for united 
activity in educational affairs. With the increasing develop- 
ment of women's interests, the scope of the branch has 
broadened to include participation in civic, national and 
international movements.' 

Early in its history the branch began the interest which 

110 Association of University Women 

it has always maintained in the women students of the 
University of Michigan. At first in 1891-92 the branch 
raised money for the Barbour Gymnasium at the University 
and gave encouragement and assistance in the formation of 
the Women's League, which is the self-government associa- 
tion of the women students. From its earliest years the 
Detroit Branch has had a loan scholarship fund of five hun- 
dred dollars which has been administered since its founda- 
tion by Harriette Warner Bishop, one of the charter members 
of the branch. One of the first fellows of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae was Ruth Gentry, a graduate of the 
University of Michigan and a member of the Detroit Branch. 

In its early years the Detroit Branch became interested 
in social problems. In the fall of 1893, a large meeting 
was held to consider a woman's reformatory for the State of 
Michigan. At intervals ever since, the branch has sponsored 
a movement looking toward such an accomplishment, but 
Michigan is still without a woman's reformatory in spite of 
all the agitation for it. The Juvenile Court in Detroit owes 
the initiation of an agitation for it to the Detroit Branch, as 
does the social settlement work in the city. The historian of 
the Detroit Branch asks, ' Did somebody think child study 
is a recent development in the A.C.A. and elsewhere?' and 
follows this question with the list of study groups formed in 
the early nineties for reading French and German, in 1899 
for child study, and in later years for civics and equal suf- 
frage. The Child Study Committee of 1899 and the years 
following cooperated with Dr. Millicent Shinn and the 
results of their reports and photographs were incorporated 
in her classic work. 

In 1902, the Ann Arbor Branch split off from the Detroit 
Branch and has since that time had an independent exist- 
ence. But all branches in Michigan realize that the early 
course of the Detroit Branch, with its members from both 
Detroit and Ann Arbor, blazed the trail to to-day's signifi- 
cant achievements. 

Admission of Branches 111 

the western new york branch 

In October, 1889, in Buffalo, New York, the Association 
of Collegiate Alumnae and the Western Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae met, the latter organization merging with 
the former. At the time of this meeting, Mrs. George Town- 
send, president of the Buffalo Women's Educational and 
Industrial Union, called upon the college women of the city 
to assist her in entertaining the combined meeting. There 
were at that time only eight college women eligible to mem- 
bership in the Association of Collegiate Alumnae and of 
these eight, only three had gone to college from the city of 
Buffalo. With the meeting of this little group, the Western 
New York, now the Buffalo, Branch of the A.C.A. began its 
history. The five who attended the first meeting were 
Harriet Ransom Milinowski, Lena Hill Severance, Mary 
M. Wardwell, Maude Austin, and Ella C. Lapham. This 
group became the officers of the Association, with the excep- 
tion of Mrs. Severance, who became shortly the chairman of 
the Committee for Educational Legislation. In October, 
1890, the officers and eight other members were admitted 
as a branch to the Association. 

The first undertaking of the newly formed branch was to 
assist in every way the development of the University of 
Buffalo. Beginning with assistance to the endowment fund, 
its service has continued throughout the years, not only in 
the material way of furnishing rest and recreation rooms, 
but through scholarships and an annual meeting with the 
branch and the women students together. In 1893 and 1894, 
'the work of establishing home libraries in the poorer por- 
tions of the city of Buffalo has been continued with en- 
couraging results. Two libraries are now in operation.* 
Members of the branch visited them regularly once a week, 
spending an hour or two with the children over the books, 
and playing games. The Buffalo Branch considers as its 
outstanding achievement a work begun in 1902 in establish- 
ing a college creche. Early in that year an urgent appeal 

112 Association of University Women 

was made to the branch by the Charities Society of the city 
to establish a creche in a thickly settled part of Buffalo in 
order that working-women might leave their children under 
adequate care while they were at work during the day. 
After considerable deliberation, the branch decided to 
undertake this work, 'feeling that we could perhaps in 
no way render a greater service to the city than by giving to 
some of its needy children an opportunity to develop into 
healthy useful citizens.' In about three months from the 
time the creche was established, eleven hundred dollars had 
been secured as a result of appeals to the public. A desirable 
house had been rented and the work had begun with more 
than a score of children under the care of the creche. In 
1904, the branch reported that sixteen hundred dollars had 
been raised in the previous year. The branch continued to 
carry its support until, the need having been adequately 
demonstrated, the City of Buffalo took over the project and 
continued its support. 

The Buffalo Branch has always given assistance to educa- 
tional movements and needs, not only in the City of Buffalo, 
but in the State of New York, and in cooperation with the 
national organization. The branch assisted in adjusting a 
scale of salaries in state normal schools, and in 1931 is 
working for adequate compensation for the teachers in the 
city schools. 

Like the branches in Detroit and Chicago, the Indiana 
Branch (now the Indianapolis Branch) was in the beginning 
closely associated with the history of the Western Associa- 
tion of Collegiate Alumnae. May Wright Sewall, whose 
genius was one of the outstanding factors in the Western 
Association, invited all the women of Indianapolis who were 
graduates of the colleges eligible to membership in her 
organization to meet in the fall of 1887. Mrs. Sewall was 
then president of the Western Association and hoped by this 

Admission of Branches 113 

invitation to establish a branch. Of the many college 
women who responded to her invitation, only eight were 
eligible, but working as individuals they assisted Mrs. 
Sewall throughout her term of office. In November, 1889, 
through the invitation of Harriet Noble, Professor of Eng- 
lish at Butler College, the Indiana Branch of the A.C.A. was 
organized. Miss Noble was made president, Helen Pearson 
secretary, and Amelia Waring Platter treasurer, with a 
Constitution Committee consisting of May Wright Sewall, 
Mary E. Colgan, and Rose Foster, appointed at the same 
time. The branch voted at once to contribute to the support 
of a settlement house at No. 5 Rivington Street, New York 
(the Five Points Mission) in which the A.C.A. was inter- 
ested, to help support the fellowships of the Association, and 
to make university extension its especial work. As a result 
of the appointment of Mrs. Sewall as chairman of the 
University Extension Committee, in January, 1 891, the 
Indiana Branch sponsored a course of twelve university 
extension lectures on economics by Dr. Jeremiah W. Jenks, 
of Indiana University. This is one of the earliest university 
extension projects attempted west of the Alleghany Moun- 
tains. The Minneapolis Branch inaugurated its courses in 
the same year. 

While the Indiana Branch was interested in university 
extension, it also took cognizance of the necessity for raising 
the standard of the high schools of the State and thus raising 
the standard of Indiana University, DePauw, and other 
Indiana colleges which were in the nineties of such standard 
as to be admitted to an organization like the A.C.A. The 
Committee on Education and Educational Legislation 
worked vigorously, not only for higher standards, but also 
for fairer recognition of college graduates in the matter 
of teachers* licenses and in other educational work. The 
Indiana Branch throughout those years cooperated with the 
Child Study Committee, the Fellowships Committee, and 
many other projects of the National Association. The in- 

114 Association of University Women 

terest of the Indiana Branch in municipal, state, and na- 
tional affairs has continued until to-day. The Indiana 
Branch sponsored the Consumers' League of the State 'and 
mothered it until it became independent.' 


The Ohio Branch was organized in June, 1891, in Cleve- 
land at the suggestion of Susan Wade Peabody. At the 
first meeting, Professor Emma M. Perkins ^ presided in the 
absence of Miss Peabody. Alice Freeman Palmer, who was 
the guest at this opening meeting, gave a brilliant address 
on 'The Higher Education of Women.' The charter mem- 
bers — leading college women of the city — numbered 
thirty, but the membership of the branch came from the 
various towns and cities throughout Northern Ohio, since 
this first branch in the State was the mother branch for 
Ohio. Its work has always been as it was at the outset 
largely educational. Not only have members of the branch 
been active in educational affairs in the city of Cleveland 
itself, but have also appeared in Columbus in years when 
the state legislature was in session, and sponsored better 
education measures for the entire State. The branch has 
always been interested in fellowships which it has fostered 
now and again, and in scholarships and loan funds. It 
has had an especial interest in the cause of international 

From a survey of the work of these early branches, it 
must be clear to the reader that the early policies of the 
Association were carried out, not only by the moral support 
of branch members, but also by specific detailed work in the 
communities from which the branch drew its membership. 
From these early beginnings the branches have gone forward 

* Miss Perkins has been president of the Ohio Branch (now the Cleve- 
land Branch) from the beginning of its history. The Ohio Branch be- 
came the Cleveland Branch in 1924. 

Admission of Branches 115 

to larger endeavor, to financial undertakings of no mean 
sort, and have broadened their interest and the scope of 
their work almost without exception in order to face 
squarely the new responsibilities which the later years have 
brought to the fore. 



It is of especial significance that the first subject which the 
newly formed Association of Collegiate Alumnae made an 
object of study was health and its corollary, physical educa- 
tion. The obstacles which the young women who composed 
the first group of members of the A.CA. had met in their 
insistence upon a college education had been many, but 
none was more serious than the opinion prevalent well-nigh 
universally, that young women could not, except at a price 
physically not worth while, undergo the intellectual strain 
which their brothers seemed to find no strain at all. In 
some circles this view was confirmed by the opinion of Dr. 
E. H. Clarke, a distinguished Boston physician, who de- 
clared, in a book called 'Sex in Education,' that 'identical 
education of the two sexes is a crime before God and hu- 
manity that physiology protests against and that experience 
weeps over. It defies the Roman maxim which physiology 
has fully justified — me?is sana in corpore sanof In spite 
of the dire prophecies which they heard on every side, these 
young women, made of stout pioneering stuff, persisted in 
their contention that the regular life and engrossing interests 
of college work tended to give greater rather than less 
physical vigor and proceeded, therefore, to use all means in 
their power to extend the scope of collegiate education for 

But these young pioneers were quite cognizant of the fact 
that in no social group was the physical standard for either 
men or women what it should be. The day of gymnasiums 
and departments of physical education, in connection with 
all sorts of schools from coast to coast and from kindergarten 

The First Research Project 117 

to university, was still some distance away, and the country 
club — either as an adjunct to the community life or, as 
President Wilson once expressed it, 'a substitute for a 
college ' — was as yet not known this side of the Atlantic. 
Indeed, Vassar College at its opening in 1865 furnished 
bootjacks as a part of the equipment of the students' rooms, 
since horseback riding would be almost the only exercise in 
which refined young women would be likely to indulge. 
Mild gymnastics or so-called 'calisthenics' of the Delsartian 
variety or modified Swedish exercises (so-called) were novel 
even in the public schools in the nineties.^ But athletics for 
women, as we now know them, would have horrified the 
communities of the eighties, and probably have put an 
irrevocable bar across the door of many of the institutions 
which, albeit grudgingly, nevertheless did open a crack wide 
enough to let a few slender young women through. The 
founders of the A.C.A. believed that college women should 
be distinguished for their physical as well as for their in- 
tellectual development, and set themselves to transform 
their belief into reality. 

With this program in mind, the first topic suggested for 
serious study — and it is one of the most outstanding events 
in the fifty years' history of the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae — was that of 'physical education.' The first 
meeting following the ones which had resulted in organiza- 
tion was held in Boston on March 11, 1882, where a 
paper on the topic 'Physical Education for Women' was 
presented by Dr. Adaline S. Whitney. The presentation of 
the paper was followed by a discussion which led to the pub- 
lication of a circular, giving a schedule of the work done to 
promote physical education by the different institutions 

* The State Normal School course at Winona, Minnesota, in 1899 
considered the best west of the Mississippi River at that time, gave 
fifteen minutes a day to Delsartian exercise, and one of the authors of 
this book was considered very forward-looking in her program when she 
gave those same mild gestures to her second-grade pupils of the Faribault 
(Minnesota) public schools in 1890-91. 

118 Association of University Women 

represented in the Association. But the omissions proved to 
be the most significant part of the schedules; for example, 
the fact emerged that not a single one of the eight institu- 
tions provided a program of physical education. Along with 
these schedules went, therefore, a criticism of the very 
grave deficiencies which they disclosed, and constructive 
suggestions to parents, to the governing bodies of the insti- 
tutions granting degrees to members and to the women 
who were studying in these institutions. An edition of three 
thousand copies of this pioneer pamphlet was issued and 

Moreover, a standing committee on physical education 
was appointed with Dr. Whitney as chairman. Its first task 
was the investigation of certain cases of ill-health, publicly 
alleged to have been caused by overstudy in a leading pre- 
paratory school. The result proved that but one of the six 
cases cited could be referred to overstudy, and in that case 
the girl testified that the fault was entirely her own and that 
the school was nowise to blame. 

But aside from isolated instances the Association was 
determined to test the prevailing theory that the women of 
the country were being educated mentally at the expense of 
their physical health. It therefore undertook a research 
problem — that of making a series of investigations into the 
health of women college graduates, pledging itself that the 
work should 'be conducted on a broad basis of truth' as 
demanded by the Medical News, in order that steps might 
be taken to avert the evil in case the statements of theorists 
proved to be founded on fact. A committee under the chair- 
manship of Annie G. Howes prepared a series of questions 
which were heartily endorsed by physicians, teachers, and 
others, and which were then distributed to the 1290 gradu- 
ates belonging to the Association. In spite of the very 
considerable amount of labor needed to fill out the blanks, 
seven hundred and five replies were filled out and returned, 
^ See reproduction of the original pamphlet on pages 120-23. 

The First Research Project 119 

a proportion far above the average in similar attempts to 
secure information. Colonel Carroll D. Wright, chief of the 
Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor, deeming the 
inquiry one of great value to the Commonwealth, offered to 
tabulate and publish the statistics. This work was accord- 
ingly completed and published by the Bureau in 1885, and 
reprinted together with a report of the chairman in a 
pamphlet of seventy-eight pages. Mindful of the great 
assistance Colonel Wright had rendered, at the quarterly 
meeting held at Packer Institute, Brooklyn, New York, on 
October 31, 1885, resolutions were unanimously adopted; 
thanking Colonel Wright for his timely aid. The final sen- 
tence in the summary of results as formulated by the Bureau 
is as follows: 

In conclusion, it is sufficient to say that the female graduates of 
our colleges and universities do not seem to show, as the result of 
their college studies and duties, any marked difference in general 
health from the average health likely to be reported by an equal 
number of women engaged in other kinds of work, or, in fact, of 
women generally, without regard to occupation followed. 

Miss Howes's final paragraph in the report she presented 
for her committee is significant: 

Our investigations, presenting as they do the physical history of 
about one half the college alumnae in this country, should furnish a 
basis for renewed physical investigation into the powers of woman- 
hood and a better appreciation of her possible achievements. We 
have every reason to congratulate ourselves that our willingness to 
search for the truth and to bear the responsibility of its verdict has 
led to so encouraging and satisfactory a revelation. We can feel 
confident that a higher education for women is in harmony with that 
vast law of the survival of the fittest which guides the activities of 
the dim future. 

The pamphlets were widely distributed, not only among 
the members of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, but 
also among college women in general. They were sent to the 
leading educational and medical journals of the day, and 

120 Association of University Women 



The members of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae have had 
their attention drawn very forcibly to the present need for physical 
education among the women in our universities and colleges. They 
fully believe that college education per se is physically beneficial, and 
that college statistics show an average of health among women stu- 
dents higher than that among women at large; but they also realize 
that the physical status of American women of the educated class is 
painfully low, and they believe that the colleges ought to be among 
the first to take measures against this dangerous deterioration of 
physique. The following schedule, however, shows how fragmentary 
has been the work done hitherto in the nine institutions represented 
in the Association. 












" 5* 

.y § 


Skating, etc. 


Definite Coui 
of Physica 

Oberlin. . 


Oberlin . . 

Vassar . . . 

Vassar . . . 
Cornell . . 

Vassar . . 

Vassar . . 

Vassar . . 

Vassar . . . 

Cornell . . 


Cornell. . 

Cornell . . 




Boston. . . 

Smith. . . . 

Smith . 



Smith. . . 






Vassar, Smith, and Wellesley are conducted on the dormitory system, Smith maintaining 
separate ' cottage ' dormitories, and Wellesley giving choice of large or small buildings. 

Oberlin, Wisconsin, Cornell, and Wesleyan do not require students to board in college 

Michigan and Boston do not provide boarding places. 

One hour of physical exercise daily is required of students by Vassar and Wellesley. 

A knowledge of elementary physiology is required for admission by Cornell. 

The attainment of a certain standard of health is required for admission by Wellesley. 

The First Research Project 121 

In view of these facts, the members of this Association, as women 
college graduates, most earnestly and respectfully urge the following 
suggestions upon those interested in the higher education of women, 
and especially (i) upon parents, (2) upon the governing bodies of 
institutions which grant degrees to women, and (3) upon the women 
studying in these institutions. 


The members of the Association are convinced that the low 
standard of health among women in and after college life is largely 
due to their common lack of physical training and disregard of the 
laws of health before they enter college. At sixteen, it is often too 
late to undo all the mistakes made during the most important years 
of a girl's physical life. They therefore wish to call the careful 
attention of parents everywhere to the following evils among school- 
girls, which threaten every interest of educated women. 

1. Social dissipation, and excitement which is neither amusement 
nor recreation. 

Girls are too often stimulated to shine socially and intellectually 
at the same time. A mother proves her daughter's perfect health by 
saying, 'She has been able to go to parties or entertainments four 
or five evenings a week all winter, and she stands at the head of her 
class ! ' 

2. Habitual loss of sufficient and healthy sleep. 

In a New York Academy, a class of sixty girls, between the ages 
of twelve and eighteen, chanced to be asked by a recent visitor for 
the time they retired the night before. The average was found to 
be twenty minutes before midnight; but no surprise was manifested 
by teachers nor regret by pupils. 

3. Irregularity and haste in taking food, the use of confectionery 
in the evening, and the omission of breakfast. 

The principal of a large girls' school in Philadelphia lately said 
that so many habitually came to school without having taken 
sufficient breakfast, and taking little or no lunch, that he had been 
compelled, in order to obtain good mental work, to have a warm 
lunch furnished, and to insist upon the scholars taking it in the 
middle of the morning. 

4. Tight, heavy, and insufficient clothing, which frightfully in- 
creases the tendencies to consumptive and spinal diseases. 

A physician of wide experience confidently states that this cause 
alone has incapacitated more women than over-study and over-work 
of all kinds. 

122 Association of University Women 

5. The lack of sufficient outdoor exercise. When a proper amount 
of time is devoted to such exercise, no time will be left for over-study. 

6. The ambition of parents and daughters to accomplish much in 
little time, which sends students to college either hurriedly and im- 
perfectly prepared, or with a thorough preparation gained at the 
expense of health. 

7. The usual postponement of instruction in the laws of physiology 
and hygiene to a college course. Thus, daughters go out from their 
mother's care wholly ignorant of the common laws by which they 
may increase and preserve the health upon which every hope and 
ambition depends. 


The members of this Association believe that these faults in home 
and school training, as well as those found in college schemes, can 
be reached most effectually through the colleges. And, while recog- 
nizing the efforts already made in this direction, they respectfully 
recommend to the consideration of college governing bodies the 
following remedies for existing evils: — 

1. The introduction of a consistent, thorough, and scientific course 
of physical education for women. 

2. The appointment of a thoroughly competent woman as an 
instructor in this department, who shall superintend the gymnasium, 
give practical courses of lectures, and be, so far as possible, respon- 
sible for the general health of the women in her classes. 

Where the dormitory system obtains, the appointment of a resi- 
dent physician is also urged. 

3. The provision of an adequately equipped gymnasium. 

4. The provision of one or more courses of lectures by non-resident 
specialists on physiology, hygiene, sanitation, heredity, athletics, 
gymnastics, etc. 

5. The provision of special libraries on subjects pertaining to 
physical education. 

6. Careful study in the construction of buildings for recitation and 
dormitory purposes, with special reference to counteracting the 
acknowledged evils of the dormitory system. 

7. The requirement (whenever practicable) that candidates for 
admission shall reach a certain standard of attainment in physical 
education. Physical health is already required for admission by 
Wellesley College, and a knowledge of physiology by Cornell Uni- 

The First Research Project 123 


The women studying in our colleges are urged by the women 
graduates of these colleges: — 

1 . To bear constantly in mind in their own work the fact that the 
best intellectual results cannot be attained without perfect physical 

2. To maintain a constant and sensible watch over their own 
habits as regards sleep, exercise, food, dress, etc. Failure to take the 
requisite amount of sleep, food, or exercise should be lamented as 
much as failure in recitation. 

3. To form athletic associations for the promotion of wholesome 
exercise and the stimulation of public opinion. 

4. To collect comparative statistics relating to the age, height, 
weight, size of waist, breadth of chest, weight of clothing, etc., of 
women college students. Such statistics should be taken at regular 
intervals throughout the college course. As taken by Dr. Sargent, of 
Harvard University, in his Ladies' Gymnasium at Cambridge, they 
have proved valuable as well as interesting. 

The Association hopes to publish a series of short, practical mono- 
graphs on these and similar subjects at some future time. Mean- 
while, information in regard to the practical working of these sugges- 
tions, many of which are already in operation, may be obtained on 
application to any of the officers of the Association. 


Mrs. J. F. Bashford, University of Wisconsin. 

Auburndale, Mass. 


Miss F. M. Gushing, Vassar College. 8 Walnut Street, 

Boston, Mass. 


Miss Marion Talbot, Boston University. 66 Marlborough 

Street, Boston. 


Miss Margaret Hicks, Cornell University. Cambridge, Mass. 


Miss A. E. F. Morgan, Oberlin College. Wellesley, Mass. 
Mrs. E. H. Richards, Vassar College. Jamaica Plain, Mass. 
Miss A. E. Freeman, University of Michigan. Wellesley, Mass, 
Miss K. E. Morris, Smith College. Hartford, Vt. 
Miss H. M. Peirce, Wellesley College. Newton Centre, Mass. 

124 Association of University Women 

members living in the principal cities of the country took 
an active and eager part in presenting the subject to the 
public through editorials and articles in influential news- 
papers and periodicals. They were the more eager to do 
this, as the formation of branches had been hindered in 
more thaii one city by the same contention as to the physical 
injury to women resulting from a college course which had 
been provocative of the investigation which had led to the 
preparation of the pamphlet itself. For instance, the branch 
in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, was organized specifically to com- 
bat the allegation that 'finishing' schools were adequate 
for the education of those young women who intended to 
marry, a college education being necessary only 'for girls 
who wished to become teachers, or for pedants, or for the 
socially unattractive.' In New Haven, the organization of 
the branch was largely due to the desire on the part of college 
women to befriend the young women who came to avail 
themselves of the opportunities for post-graduate work 
which the opening in 1892 of the Graduate School of Yale 
University made possible for them. The Connecticut 
Branch (as the group drawn from New Haven and the sur- 
rounding country called itself) found their chief duty was to 
urge some sort of adequate housing for these graduate 
students, who were for the most part 'women who had 
accumulated small savings from years of teaching, and were 
obliged to live very simply to make both ends meet.' The 
question of health was here brought home to the branch, as 
was the question of recreation. 

The results of the health investigation were presented by 
Marion Talbot, secretary of the A.C.A., to the American 
Social Science Association at its annual session in September, 
1885, at which time several persons present in the audience 
called attention to their value and importance. 

One of the results of the health inquiry was the conviction 
that an effort must be made to secure better physical condi- 
tions for girls attending preparatory schools. Characteristi- 

The First Research Project 125 

cally the Association of Collegiate Alumnae set about the 
task of stimulating this effort. In May, 1886, a committee, 
consisting of Ellen H. Richards, Annie E. Allen, and Emma 
Culbertson, was appointed to prepare a leaflet on the subject 
of 'Health in Preparatory Schools,' together with a series 
of questions which might serve as an aid in keeping record 
of the physical and social conditions under which schoolgirls 
work. The committee compiled a report which was pre- 
sented at the meeting held in October of the same year at 
Bryn Mawr College, and which was accompanied by a 
group of papers: 'Habits of Sleep,' by Ida Wood; 'The 
Relation of Diet to School Life,' by Lydia M. Dame; and 
'Physical Training as a Factor in Liberal Education,' by 
Dr. Mary Taylor Bissell. Discussion followed the reading of 
these studies and the foundation was laid for a large piece 
of work in an extensive survey and a large piece of research. 
But here, as has too often been the case throughout the half- 
century of its existence, the Association had no resources 
adequate to the effective administration of such a compre- 
hensive plan, and although there was abundant evidence 
that much good seed had been sown, no summary of the 
records was ever presented to the Association. 

Closely connected, however, with the investigation of 
1886, was a sort of symposium presented in April, 1887, at 
the quarterly meeting held in Washington, D.C. The gen- 
eral theme under discussion was ' The Effect of the Amuse- 
ments and Occupations of Girls on their School Life' — a 
forerunner assuredly of all the debate on extra-curricular 
activities which still keeps deans of women awake o' nights, 
and makes college and university teachers gray before their 
time. Different points of view were presented by Alice H. 
Luce, Alice Goddard, Mary M. DeVeny, Emma S. Atkin- 
son, and Laura J. Wylie. 

The following March (1888), one finds a suggestion also 
pertinent to the general inquiry upon which the Association 
had embarked. The question of withdrawal of students 

126 Association of University Women 

before the completion of their course was raised, with 
special reference to the point as to how far health conditions 
entered into the matter. Acting according to its usual pro- 
cedure, a committee, consisting of Annie Howes Barus, 
Emma Culbertson, and the chairman, Mary S, Case, was 
appointed to do a bit of research on the question. No defi- 
nite results of the work of the committee are on record, per- 
haps because the problem then as now was an extremely 
complicated one, and led into the field of economics and of 
psychology, quite as much as into that of health. 

From a beginning in the realm of investigation of the 
health of college students, the Association had thus found 
the necessity of research into conditions in those preparatory 
schools from which young women went to college. But 
back of the preparatory schools lay the elementary schools, 
and the Association already sensed what the educational 
experts later emphasized — the fact that the trend of one's 
life is fairly well fixed long before the preparatory school or 
college is reached. Through the chairman of the committee 
which had been considering the withdrawal of students from 
college, a report was made in 1890 which led to the forma- 
tion of a new committee to review what had already been 
done, and to ascertain if possible how the Association might 
best concern itself with the basic problem of the individual 
in childhood. For it was assumed in 1890, as it would be 
to-day, that all inquiry into the nature of child life and the 
development of the child would be germane to any study of 
health and of physical education. Thus, although the origi- 
nal investigation had apparently been abandoned, in reality 
it became part of a basic problem in research seen in a dif- 
ferent perspective, against a larger background. The Asso- 
ciation, therefore, asked Mrs. Barus, ^ with Mary Sheldon 
Barnes and Martha Foote Crow, to become members of a 

* It was Mrs. Barus who, as Annie G. Howes, had made the able survey 
on health statistics. She later moved to Washington, D.C., and was for 
long a distinguished and honored member of that branch. 

The First Research Project 127 

'committee on the Development of Childhood,* under the 
chairmanship of Mrs. Barus. Here was launched a move- 
ment which, forty years later, is still one of the chief inter- 
ests of the Association and one of its greatest powers in the 
communities where its branches are at work. 

In 1900, the Publication Committee of the A.C.A., Presi- 
dent M. Carey Thomas, chairman, with Mrs. Pearmain, 
Mrs. Backus, Mrs. Palmer, Dr. Mary Sherwood, Professor 
Mary Roberts Smith, and Professor Abby Leach working 
with her, sent out questionnaires to 10,400 graduates of 
institutions belonging to the A.C.A. An attempt was made 
to ask in these schedules all questions that might be needed 
in a final tabulation of results ; and in order to secure a basis 
of comparison, the health, occupation, marriage rate, and 
number of children of women college graduates were com- 
pared with corresponding data obtained for their sisters or 
women cousins nearest in age who had not been to college, 
and of their college-bred brothers or man cousins. A cir- 
cular letter signed by the presidents of all the institutions 
accompanied the schedules. One third, or 3636, of the 
women graduates filled out and returned their schedules. 
The total number tabulated was 6196. These schedules were 
tabulated by the Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of 
Labor, but were unfortunately not published until 1 91 7, 
when they were prepared and printed privately subject to 
the approval of the Publication Committee, by Dr. Isabel 
Maddison. The study, therefore, never received the circula- 
tion to which it was entitled. A copy of this study was 
presented in July, 1930, to the A.A.U.W. headquarters in 
Washington by Mrs. Pearmain. This copy is one of the 
few in existence. 

For many years the subject of health and physical educa- 
tion disappeared from the records of the Association as a 
separate research problem. When it reappeared, it was 
under a different aspect, for in 191 5, at the convention of the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae held in San Francisco, 

128 Association of University Women 

Dr. Adelaide Brown, a member of the California State Board 
of Health, presented a paper entitled 'Public Health: A 
normal field of interest and work for college women.' Dr. 
Brown pointed out the undeniable fact that the great 
problems of public health — foremost among which were 
water supply, disposal of sewage, pure-food laws, and the 
protection of the community against contagious disease — of 
necessity involved the health of every home in the country. 
She made clear that 'between the contributions of science as 
developed in the laboratory, and a practical use of this 
knowledge, there lies a gap which the physician, the nurse, 
and the teacher must bridge.* She made a plea for more 
workers trained scientifically for the public health service 
and urged the Association not only to bring before its mem- 
bers, institutional and individual, the need for courses which 
should provide this training, but also to carry to under- 
graduates the possibilities for service and for a livelihood 
which this new field offered. ' On a plane with public educa- 
tion stands to-day,* Dr. Brown concluded, 'this new child 
of democracy, public health.* 

Many things come round in a circle after many years, and 
so it was with ' health and physical education ' — the first 
subject of research by the Association of Collegiate Alumnae 
in 1882. Besides the pioneer paper of Dr. Brown in 191 5, 
there was passed in 1919, at the convention in St. Louis, the 
following significant resolution: 

(i) That the Association of Collegiate Alumnae shall make every 
reasonable effort to further the enactment of laws providing for the 
physical education of all children of six to eighteen years of age. . . . 

(2) That the Association hereby authorizes its president to 
appoint a committee ... to consider methods by which the Associa- 
tion of Collegiate Alumnae, either through its general organization 
or through its branches may cooperate with existing agencies in 
carrying out the above resolution. 

Throughout the years the committee, which had in charge 
the work of recommending new institutions for inclusion in 
the list of colleges and universities belonging to the Associa- 

The First Research Project 129 

tion, had also taken cognizance, along with its other special 
tests as to adequate concern for the welfare of women stu- 
dents, of whether or not provision was made for their health 
and physical education. Nor had the Association been will- 
ing to accept colleges and universities which made no such 
provision. More than one institution had found its way 
blocked by its failure to see the importance of keeping its 
women students fit physically for their work, and had been 
compelled to build a women's gymnasium either as a sepa- 
rate building or as a part of the building devoted to recrea- 
tion and social life which is often in coeducational institu- 
tions called 'The Women's Building.* 

But another aspect of the question had in later years 
presented itself in many quarters, and to this new problem 
the attention of the Association was directed when, as a 
part of the report of the Committee on Recognition of Col- 
leges and Universities, made in April, 1924, the chairman, 
F. Louise Nardin, asked on behalf of her committee 

the attention of the Association to another requirement which it is 
stressing in its correspondence with applying institutions: i.e., health 
service for the college community. Such communities should, in the 
judgment of the committee, be centers where young people could 
form the habit of thinking intelligently on public health problems, 
and of holding for the individual the ideal of preventive medicine 
and a high standard of health. 

Again in 1925, Miss Nardin said: 

A modest survey of the work done during the term of office of the 
present committee would show that our Association has through the 
cooperation between the committee and colleges, affected educa- 
tional progress. For example, colleges have developed a system of 
medical care which gives the student the idea and the habit of pre- 
venting disease and of recognizing that the maintenance of health 
is a matter of community interest. The committee here wishes to 
make personal mention of the work of Miss Eleanor Lord in de- 
veloping and presenting standards for college health service. 

Miss Nardin closed this part of her report by a reference 
to the serious problem of housing college women, especially 

130 Association of University Women 

in state-supported institutions — certainly a matter of 
health if ever there was one! To-day, as in 1882, though 
from a different angle, the A.A.U.W. views health, training 
in hygiene, and physical education as matters of concern 
to every college woman, whether she be an undergraduate 
or an alumna working for advancement in higher education 
for her fellow-women. 



The purchasing power of the dollar has changed mightily 
since the days when the Association of Collegiate Alumnae 
began its idealistic career. When one reads, therefore, that 
the treasury on January 6, 1883, contained a balance of 
$15.99 from a total of $117.13, which had been the receipts 
for the year 1882-83, and that there were no dues per mem- 
ber, but only voluntary contributions, one is a little appalled 
at what it was possible to do in the way of outstanding work 
with such a tiny sum. To be sure, the purchasing power of 
the dollar was perhaps four times in 1883 what it is nearly 
fifty years later, but even that fact does not make the fig- 
ures in the first treasury report seem anything but meager. 
The $500 fellowships went farther in 1893 than the $1500 
ones do now. Nevertheless, it is amazing to read through 
the years what this little group did on such slender re- 
sources. For at first all the support given was the voluntary 
contribution of individual members who believed so strongly 
in the possibilities of such an organization that they were 
willing to give in actual money sums to make the experiment 
which was to them so worth while. Thus the A.C.A. lived, 
it might be said, * from hand to mouth,' and rejoiced at 
what could be done with so little money. When it was de- 
cided to adopt the plan of levying an annual fee of one 
dollar upon each member, a step forward was from a finan- 
cial point of view at that moment taken. But it was dis- 
tinctly understood then — and the policy has never been 
changed — that members who cannot pay the annual dues, 
but who wish to share in the work, are to have those dues 
sub silentio remitted. Whether this be a democratic or an 
aristocratic policy, one may perhaps determine philosophi- 
cally to one's own satisfaction; but the fact remains that 

132 Association of University Women 

poverty of purse has not been any bar to membership in the 
A.C.A. or in the A.A.U.W. 

It was not until January, 1889, that the first appropria- 
tion for any expense in administration was made by the 
organization, when fifty dollars was voted for that purpose. 
By 1896, almost one thousand dollars had passed through 
the hands of the treasurer in the course of a year, with a 
balance of $83.66 on hand at the end of that fiscal year. 
The Finance Committee recommended at the same time 
that it gave this statement of receipts and disbursements 
that, first, the provision be made that upon payment of 
twenty-five dollars any member of the Association might be 
granted life membership; and that, second, these payments 
constitute a permanent fund, the interest of which might 
be devoted to fellowships or to any other purpose of which 
the Association might approve. The committee further re- 
ported that they felt that the establishment of a permanent 
salaried secretary was of the highest importance to the 
future of the Association. 

In 1899, the Association was incorporated under the laws 
of Massachusetts. In Section 2 of the Articles of Incorpora- 
tion whereby the Association was granted all 'the powers, 
rights and privileges, and made subject to all the duties, 
restrictions and liabilities set forth,* in Chapter 115 of the 
Public Statutes of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, 
the following was appended as a footnote and appeared in 
the printed copies of the constitution and by-laws until 
192 1 : 

The corporation may hold real and personal estate, and may hire, 
purchase or erect suitable buildings for its organization to an amount 
not exceeding $500,000.00, to be devoted to the purposes set forth 
in its agreement, and may receive, hold in trust, or otherwise, funds 
received by gift or bequest to be devoted by it to such purposes. 

This amount must have seemed to the incorporators as un- 
attainable as a billion dollars would have been, and quite as 
far beyond the dreams of avarice. 

Financing the Association 133 

On December 6, 1902, the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae suffered an irreparable loss by the death in Paris, 
France, of their gifted leader, Alice Freeman Palmer. Al- 
most immediately there was appointed by the Association 
a committee to raise funds for a memorial fellowship by 
which Mrs. Palmer's distinguished services might in some 
small way be signalized and in a sense perpetuated. 

Thus, two permanent funds, growing not rapidly but 
steadily, became the concern of the treasurer of the Associ- 
ation. It was obvious that some method must be adopted 
which would adequately safeguard these monies. When the 
Association came together for its annual meeting in 1904, a 
committee was appointed to investigate how similar organ- 
izations cared for their trust funds and to recommend to the 
A.C.A. what would be for them a wise policy. Of this com- 
mittee Mary Duguid Dey was chairman. Mrs. Dey's com- 
mittee recommended that, as the A.C.A. was incorporated 
under the laws of Massachusetts, a reliable trust company 
doing business preferably in Boston be selected as trustee. 
The Executive Committee thereupon voted that the Asso- 
ciation should decide on securities, making the trust- com- 
pany the custodian to collect and remit the interest upon 
these securities. There was also provided a Trust Fund 
Committee with Florence M. Cushing as chairman, Caro- 
line Hazard and Elva Young Van Winkle (bursar of the 
organization), to serve with her. In 1906, this committee 
reported the purchase of securities amounting in value to 
$2927.20, with an uninvested balance on hand of $863.26. 
The Association had, as stated above, reserved the right to 
supervise the investment of trust funds, but this arrange- 
ment proved impracticable, and it was voted in 1907 to give 
full control in the matter to the Committee on Trust Funds, 
and to authorize the chairman of that committee to secure a 
safety-deposit box in Boston to hold the securities already 
purchased. It was decided at the same time that the life- 
membership fees should be kept as a separate permanent 

134 Association of University Women 

invested fund. Thus in 1907, at the twenty-fifth anniver- 
sary of its founding, the A.C.A. had in trust two funds 
amounting to $4033.18, which had been accumulated while 
the Association carried on from year to year other projects 
which entailed expenditures of sums not always small, in 
addition to its fellowships which had been every year the 
means of sending some young woman on her way to greater 
usefulness. Certainly this was a worthy and stimulating 
record for a quarter-century of idealism. 

At the convention of 191 1, the secretary- treasurer, Eliza- 
beth Lawrence Clarke, reported dues from members of 
$495 5 » of which eleven life memberships (amounting to 
$275) were turned over to the Committee on Trust Funds 
for investment. The bursar, Mrs. Van Winkle, reported at 
the same time receipts of $6248.67, in which were included 
dues of all sorts, incomes from invested funds, special con- 
tributions to the fellowships awards, advertisements, and a 
profit on publications of $9.75. Mrs. Van Winkle reported 
disbursements to the amount of $5064.55, in which appear 
the items of appropriations for four committees of which 
the Committee on Fellowships received $4.88. To the 
Naples Table was made a contribution of $50, to the School 
Patrons Department of the National Education Association 
$50, to the Alice Freeman Palmer Fellowship $500, and to 
the European Fellowship $500. Miss Cushing, chairman of 
the Committee on Trust Funds, reported invested funds 
of the value of $9703.35 with $1022.02 uninvested. She 
reported, however, that the net income from the invested 
funds of the Alice Freeman Palmer Fellowship was only 
$336.04, still insufficient to allow the treasury to offer the 
full fellowship of $500. Miss Cushing added: 'The deficit 
of three years has been generously supplied by Mrs. C. A. 
Severance, of Minneapolis. Without her aid, the Association 
could have offered the fellowship for but one year.' 

It is interesting to note, in passing, how these funds were 
invested. The Association held in 191 1 nine bonds of the 

Financing the Association 135 

par value of $1000, each bearing interest at four per cent, 
and all invested in railroad bonds except one American Tele- 
graph and Telephone Company bond. The life-membership 
fee of twenty-five dollars yielded at this time sufficient inter- 
est to pay annually to the treasury the full amount of one 
dollar each for all living life members. 

In 191 5, an amendment to the by-laws provided for the 
separation of the office of treasurer from that of secretary, 
with a resultant abolishing of the office of bursar. At this 
time the treasurer became a salaried officer and a member 
ex-officio of the Committee on Finance. In 191 7, the 
treasurer presented a proposed budget of $5665, but re- 
ported that, including the fellowship awards and all other 
disbursements, $12,597.89 had passed through her hands. 
The executive secretary's salary had become $2000 and the 
treasurer's salary $500. Moreover, the president and execu- 
tive secretary were made traveling allowances of $475, and 
the office incidentals for the executive secretary and the 
treasurer were together $1256.92. Various committees and 
conferences were allotted small funds to carry on their work, 
as were the sectional vice-presidents. The Journal of the 
Association still entailed a heavy expense, for the number 
of subscribers was too small for advantageous advertising, 
and with the coming of the World War there was an increase 
in the cost of publication as well as an increased cost of 
third-class postage. 

The fellowship funds on March 31, 1917, showed a marked 
increase. The Alice Freeman Palmer Memorial Fellowship 
now had invested funds of nearly $2000. The Anna C. 
Brackett Memorial Fellowship gift in memory of a beloved 
teacher amounted, at the time it was turned over to the 
Association, to $8500 in invested funds. In 191 7 it had not 
yet been so given, and the Association made up from its gen- 
eral funds the amount lacking from the interest received so 
that the award would be $335 to the fellow holding this fel- 
lowship. In the life-membership fund the treasurer reported 

136 Association of University Women 

nearly $1500, in the Latin- American Fellowship fund the 
receipts were $850.16, in the Julia C. G. Piatt Fellowship 
Fund (which had been given in memory of a teacher of 
distinction) there was a small balance. Altogether, the 
treasurer reported on hand to pay stipends for fellowships 
the sum of $2268.18. 

It became necessary during the World War to make a 
number of hurried readjustments in investment. Mrs. Dey 
and Miss Gushing resigned from the Finance Gommittee in 
191 8 after years of devoted and unusually able service to the 
Association. A vote of thanks was passed unanimously and 
their resignations accepted with the greatest regret. Miss 
Gushing had become the chairman of the Gommittee on 
Trust Funds in 1904, and with unexampled devotion and 
financial acumen guided and cared for the investments of 
the Association until 191 5-16, when the securities were 
turned over to the treasurer of the Association as custodian, 
and the Gommittee on Trust Funds was at Miss Gushing's 
request merged with the Committee on Finance. On this 
latter committee. Miss Gushing continued to serve until her 
resignation in 19 18. She had thus given fourteen years to the 
financial interests of the Association. 

The Finance Gommittee as reconstructed consisted of 
Mrs. H. H. Hilton as chairman, with Mrs. Pomeroy as 
treasurer and Mrs. Mathews as president of the Association, 
and two past presidents, Mrs. Morrison and Miss Hum- 
phrey, these five constituting the committee. In 1921, when 
the Association was enlarged by the addition of the Southern 
Association of Gollege Women and became the American 
Association of University Women, an unusually full report 
of the investments of the Association was given. All the 
securities were of the highest grade and still consisted largely 
of railroad bonds, with $5000 worth of American Telegraph 
and Telephone Company bonds. With these were two 
Indiana Steel Company bonds, the bonds of several power 
and light companies, $5000 worth of other steel bonds, 

Financing the Association 137 

$5000 worth of Chicago Union Station bonds, $2000 worth 
of United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland bonds, 
and thirty-six Liberty Loan bonds of various issues. These 
bonds bore interest varying from four to six per cent, but 
as some of them had been purchased below par, the income 
from these investments was, of course, larger than would 
have been the case had they been purchased at par. 

In 1 9 19, the annual dues per member had been raised to 
two dollars with fifty cents of each fee going to the fellowship 
fund. In 192 1, this latter amount was cut again to twenty- 
five cents, at which point it has since that time remained. 
In 1 92 1, the life membership was raised to fifty dollars in a 
single payment instead of twenty-five dollars, thus making 
the payment correspond to the raise to two dollars in dues. 
Several alumnae associations and many institutional mem- 
bers also pay annual dues. In 1920, there was turned over 
to the Association invested capital to the amount of $11,000 
to constitute the Rose Sidgwick Memorial Fund. In 1921, 
the Julia C. G. Piatt invested fund stood at $6600 and the 
Anna C. Brackett fund at $8500. Moreover, the Association 
had during the year 1920-21 received gifts toward the 
furnishings and general expenses of the Washington head- 
quarters and clubhouse at 1607 H Street. As a consequence, 
greatly increased funds passed through the hands of the 
national treasurer. From that time to 1931, these sums 
have constantly increased. 

The first bequest to the Association came in 1919, al- 
though there is a record in the A.C.A. Magazine of February, 
1902, regarding the possibility of a bequest to be made later. 
In 1919, the treasurer of the Association reported that Ruth 
Gentry, the second holder of the European fellowship of the 
A.C.A. and one of the first women to be admitted to gradu- 
ate study in mathematics in the University of Berlin, had 
in her will left to the Association a legacy of $1000 to be 
used as the Association might direct. This touching witness 
to Miss Gentry's interest and belief in the Association was 
accepted with deepest appreciation, and in the belief that 

138 Association of University Women 

the Association would be carrying out the wishes of Miss 
Gentry and the purposes of her Ufe in adding this legacy 
to the permanent fellowship fund, the Association voted to 
make Miss Gentry's bequest a part of this fund. In 1923, a 
bequest of $300 from the Effie Serina Wager estate was 
received, and in March, 1925, in the Journal of the Associa- 
tion, with an extended notice of the death of Penelope 
McDufhe, was made the announcement that from her 
estate, subject to several life-interests, she had bequeathed 
$5000 to the A.A.U.W. to establish a fellowship in history 
to be awarded to graduates of Southern colleges. As Miss 
McDuffie had been one of the most devoted workers in the 
Southern Association of College Women as well as in the 
A.C.A., this earnest of her belief in the Association was 
quite as touching and inspiriting as was that of Miss Gentry. 

Until 1924 the Association had had, as has been seen, 
very little help in meeting its regular expenditures except 
from the dues of members. In 1924, the first aid from a 
foundation was received. The president of the Association 
at that time was Dr. Aurelia Henry Reinhardt, and by the 
representation which she and Helen Thompson WooUey, 
chairman of the Committee on Educational Policies, with 
Dr. Lois Hayden Meek, newly appointed educational secre- 
tary for the Association, were able to make, the trustees 
of the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial were so im- 
pressed with what the Association had in the past accom- 
plished and had in mind for the future that they were very 
willing to help out a program so worth while. Accordingly, 
there was awarded to the A.A.U.W. the sum of $27,000 
for a period of two years and three months. This fund 
was to be used for the furtherance of the work of the educa- 
tional secretary and included her salary and that of her 
assistant. In this way the study groups under Dr. Meek 
were made possible. 

Beginning with June I, 1926, the Laura Spelman Rocke- 
feller Memorial made an additional grant of $50,000 to the 
Association. This grant was made payable to the Associa- 

Financing the Association 139 

tion in the sum of $15,000 for the first year, but thereafter 
the annual payment was reduced by $2500 each year, ending 
with a payment of $5000 for the year 1930-31. The Laura 
Spelman Rockefeller Memorial also appropriated $2000 to 
be used as a publication fund during the period beginning 
June I, 1926, and ending May 31, 193 1. 

At the same time Dr. Reinhardt and President Ellen F. 
Pendleton, the newly appointed chairman of the Committee 
on International Relations, were able to secure from the 
Carnegie Foundation an annual appropriation of $5000 for 
five years for the work of the Committee on International 
Relations. By the terms of this grant, the Carnegie Corpora- 
tion granted $5000 a year from 1924 to 1929 for the work of 
the International Relations Committee. In 1929, the Car- 
negie Endowment for International Peace made a grant of 
$10,000 for 1929-30, half of which was designated for the 
development of the program of the International Federation 
and the other half for the international program of the Asso- 
ciation. It is possible that grants from other foundations will 
come to the Association as the character and quality of its 
work become more widely known. 

The financial report of 1930, when it is contrasted with 
that of 1883, shows an amazing progress in every way. The 
value of the headquarters of the Association in 1930 is 
estimated at $215,292.24. This includes the original cost of 
the clubhouse, the land upon which it stands, and the 
fixtures, furniture, and alterations. In the securities funds 
of the Association there were May 31, 1930: 

General Fund $16,008 . 55 

General Reserve Fund 12,711 .23 

General Fellowships Fund 1 1,1 18 . 83 

Alice Freeman Palmer Memorial Fellowship Fund. . . . 13,734.66 

Anna C. Brackett Memorial Fellowship Fund 9,242.34 

Julia C. G. Piatt Memorial Fellowship Fund 6,502 . 23 

Rose Sidgwick Memorial Fellowship Fund 10.552.55 

Sarah Berliner Research Fellowship for Women Fund. 33,586.25 

Million Dollar Fellowship Fund 73.141 .63 


140 Association of University Women 

The securities thus represented are with few exceptions on 
the Moody AAA rating list and thus represent what are con- 
sidered by experts the best possible investments. The bal- 
ance sheet of May 31, 1930, gives as assets of the Associa- 
tion : 

Cash and cash advances $24,792 . 84 

Securities 186,598.27 

Real Estate 165,000.00 

Furniture, Fixtures, and Alterations (original cost). . . . 50,292.24 
Special Trusts for Mortgages (of Record but liquidated) 131,200.00 


Cash Receipts 
June I, 1929, to May 31, 1930 


General Fund 

General dues $62,263 . 25 

Journal subscriptions 3»589 . 98 

Journal advertising 277 . 48 

Corporate dues 2,600 . 00 

Affiliated alumnae dues 595 . 00 

Interest and miscellaneous 2,041 .64 

Membership Committee revenues 200.00 

Refunds on expenses 975 . 64 

Life memberships 250 . 00 

Spelman Fund Accounts 

General 6,618.94 

Publications 891 . 72 

International Program 

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace 5,000.00 

Headquarters Building Accounts 

Washington Fund *I25 . 00 

Rent from Club 4,000 . 00 

Room rentals 9,189.19 

Refunds .75 

Miscellaneous Accounts 

Transmittal account 5,217.91 

Suspense account 500 . 00 

♦ Total Washington Fund Collections to date $227,709.86. 

Financing the Association 141 

Fellowship Funds 

General fellowships dues at 25^ 8,894 • 75 

General fellowships — other revenues 397 . 50 

Special Fellowships 7,672 . 88 

Million Dollar Fellowship Fund 57,091 .80 

Interest on Million Dollar Fellowship Fund 459.07 

Securities matured 23,500 . 00 

The Institute of Women's Professional Relations 11,275.60 

Total receipts $213,628. 10 

Balance May 31, 1929 37,232.58 


For the fiscal year May 31, 1929, to May 31, 1930, there 
was expended for Fellowship awards $14,500, with an ex- 
pense in administration of these Fellowships of only $684.04. 
To the International Federation of University Women the 
A.A.U.W. contributed 1929-30 in dues $7054.33, and to 
other organizations to whose work the Association con- 
tributes $272.50. The balance on hand May 31, 1930, was 
$24,792.84. The receipts for the year 1929-30 totaled 
$250,000, and the expenditures about $225,000, leaving a 
balance at the end of the year of almost $25,000. This is 
surely a large volume of business for any organization to 

During the years 1923-30, while the financial side of the 
Association has been stabilized and reorganized under the 
leadership of Vassie James Hill, with Yna R. McClintock 
as comptroller, the treasurer's office has assumed an impor- 
tance second to none other in the Association. With the 
centralization of all activities in Washington, and with the 
appointment, by the Board of Directors and the A.A.U.W. 
in convention, of the Washington Loan and Trust Company 
as trustee, the financial side of the Association has been safe- 
guarded as of old, but with added guaranties due to added 
responsibilities. Thus the Association ends its half-century 
with really a remarkable record of material achievement. 
In this long record one reads again and again of the devotion 

142 Association of University Women 

of Florence M. Gushing, Mary Duguid Dey, with the mem- 
bers of their committees; of the only bursar of the Associa- 
tion, Elva Young Van Winkle; and of the treasurers of 
the Association, Elizabeth Lawrence Clarke, Katharine 
Puncheon Pomeroy, and Vassie James Hill. 



The second subject for investigation by the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnse was 'Post-Graduate Study.' Here was 
an organization one of whose chief aims was to help wherever 
possible in securing for girls entrance to colleges directly 
from high-grade secondary schools. Logically, it followed 
that the Association undertook to see that, where these 
graduates were properly qualified intellectually and per- 
sonally, the way might be opened for them to become teach- 
ers not only in secondary schools, but also in colleges. 
Promising young men were being urged and assisted to take 
post-graduate courses to fit them for teaching positions in 
the colleges and universities throughout the country. Fel- 
lowships were already available — though not in any great 
number — whereby these young men might go to Germany 
or to some other European country for the advanced work 
in research which was not as yet obtainable in the United 
States. But there was no room in this masculine procession 
for young women, no fund available whereby they might, 
by virtue of their post-graduate training, become com- 
petitors for the college and university positions to which 
young men aspired. Very few graduate courses were open to 
young women, and no positions on college faculties outside 
of the women's colleges then developing. It was but natural 
that a problem which was an integral part of its original 
purpose should at the very outset engage the interest and 
attention of the A.C.A. At its second meeting, held in 
Boston, May 13, 1882, those present heard with interest the 
paper of Helen Magill * on 'Opportunities for Post-Graduate 

» Later Mrs. Andrew D. White, of Ithaca, New York. She took her 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Boston University in 1877 and was 
the first woman in the United States to hold that degree. 

144 Association of University Women 

Study,* The information which Miss Magill had brought 
together was compiled as a circular, and, together with 
statistics concerning graduate work and graduate students, 
was published. Her study was largely negative as to infor- 
mation, and the low grade of post-graduate work there 
revealed would astound a scholar of to-day. 'The Society 
to Encourage Studies at Home'^ — a forerunner of all the 
university extension work now forming so large a part of the 
program of many universities — offered to members of the 
A.C.A. special opportunities for advanced work, but it was 
obvious that there was a wide field for graduate study, resi- 
dent or non-resident. A meeting of the A.C.A. , held at 
Wellesley College in May, 1883, was devoted to a discussion 
of the ways and means by which post-graduate study might 
be carried on in one's own home. As a result of this meeting, 
two clubs were organized among the membership — one for 
the study of sanitary science (a subject especially closely 
allied to the interests of women), and a little later, one for 
the study of a subject which was later to be of great signifi- 
cance to women — that of political science. That graduate 
study was unusual at this time is clearly shown by the 
perusal of the first printed list of members of the A.C.A. — • 
issued in 1884 — where, of the 356 members there listed, 
only 26 had received a master's degree and but 4 held the 
degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Kate Morris Cone, Smith 
'81, Alice E. Freeman, Michigan '81, Sue M. D. Fry, Syra- 

^ 'The Society to Encourage Studies at Home' was organized in 
Boston in 1873 by Miss Anna Eliot Ticknor, daughter of George Tick- 
nor, who was a great historian of Spanish literature and Professor of 
Modern Languages at Harvard College. The purpose of the Society was 
' to induce ladies to form the habit of devoting some part of every day 
to study of a systematic and thorough kind.' The first rule of the Society 
read, 'Ladies joining the Society must be at least seventeen years old.' 
From her desk in her aristocratic home on Beacon Hill, Miss Ticknor, 
with the aid of able and highly trained friends, laid out and directed 
courses of study which were taken by women all over the country. After 
her death in 1896, the Society was disbanded, but certain phases of its 
work were carried on for a time by the Anna Ticknor Library Associa- 

Post-Graduate Study 145 

cuse '8i, Helen Magill, Boston '']']. Moreover, several of the 
masters' degrees had been, as was often the custom in those 
years, conferred in cursu^ and therefore did not represent 
research work and graduate study as is the case to-day. It 
was clear that not only were opportunities for genuine ad- 
vanced work beyond the bachelor's degree exceedingly 
meager where women were applicants, but that at a time 
when the advisability of offering to women even an under- 
graduate course was challenged on all sides, courage and 
confidence were demanded, not only in the individual, but 
in the A.C.A. as an organized body, if the claims of women 
to the right of entering the field of higher scholarship were to 
be allowed. The Association, convinced of the necessity for 
encouraging real scholarship among able women, set about 
its new task with intelligence and keen determination. At a 
meeting held in October, 1885, papers were presented on 
opportunities for study in foreign countries — opportuni- 
ties the more vital because of the meager offerings in gradu- 
ate courses for either men or women, which the American 
universities were able to make. Several members of the 
Association had already, on their own initiative and with- 
out financial aid in the way of fellowships, taken the pioneer 
step, and reported from their personal experience in fields 
where courses were open to women in London, France, 
Germany, and Switzerland, Young women had studied in 
France and Germany, and one (M. Carey Thomas) held a 
Ph.D. degree from Zurich, but none had held a fellowship, 
since no fellowships were available for women. At the 
meeting in 1886, an account was given of conditions favor- 
able to women who wished to study at Oxford University in 
England. Four years later (1890), the secretary reported as 
evidence of the influence of the Association, that the official 
circular of the Association for the Education of Women in 
Oxford University contained the statement that 'graduates 
of colleges included in the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, 
U.S.A., are admitted without further condition to the 
"Honour Examinations" at Oxford University.' 

146 Association of University Women 

In the mean time the Association had not been unmindful 
of the situation at home, and along with its efforts to extend 
the advantages of foreign study, it had worked steadily to 
make use of whatever opportunities might be available in 
the United States, at the same time helping to open new op- 
portunities for such women as were qualified to do advanced 
work. Cornell University was the first Institution in the 
United States to award a fellowship to a woman, and Its 
first woman fellow was Harriet E. Grotecloss, Cornell, 
1884.^ There Is no doubt that the persistent and tactful 
efforts of the A.C.A. played no small part In the movement 
for securing graduate study for women, and It felt a pride 
not unjustifiable when. In 1892, as a sort of culmination of 
pioneer work, the great universities of Chicago, Yale, 
Pennsylvania, and Leland Stanford, Jr., offered to women 
their advanced degrees. 

When the Western Association combined its forces with 
those of the A.C.A. in 1889, It found the soil already pre- 
pared to receive new seed, for It had become evident to 
thoughtful people that home study, no matter how well 
directed, was no substitute for work In library and labo- 
ratory under distinguished direction, and that fellowships 
must be secured If work of the highest quality was to be 
done by promising young women. Between 1884, when, 
as has been stated, but 26 out of a total roster of 356 mem- 
bers of the A.C.A. had advanced degrees, and 1892 — a 
short period of eight years — in addition to those members 
who had taken professional degrees of one kind or another, 
one eighth of the total membership of the Association had 
taken higher degrees. Probably the number would have 
been even greater had the old standards continued ; but the 
gain was significant in any case, since it had been made In 
the face of requirements which must be met if either the 
master's or doctor's degree was to be obtained. Back of the 
establishment of fellowships there lay, not only the obvious 

' Now Mrs. Charles D. Marx. 

Post-Graduate Study 147 

fact that by the aid of such funds the faciUtles for graduate 
work might be greatly enlarged, but there was a distinct 
feeling on the part of the leaders of the A.C.A. that the 
naturalness of the policy was quite as important as its advis- 
ability on other grounds. At a meeting of the A.C.A. , held 
at Cornell University in 1888, among other suggestions 
looking to new efforts in practical educational work which 
were laid before the membership 'in convention assembled,* 
one had especially captured the imagination of the audience. 
This was the report on the possible endowment of a Euro- 
pean fellowship, outlined ably and in detail by Christine 
Ladd Franklin, who was thereupon made chairman of the 
first Committee on Fellowships of the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae.* The following January, along with the 
announcement that the Western Association had estab- 
lished an American fellowship, the Committee on Fellow- 
ships reported, through Mrs. Franklin as chairman, that 
pledges had been received already to an encouraging amount. 
The Association of Collegiate Alumnae therefore voted to 
establish a European fellowship. In 1890, the first European 
fellow was appointed — Louisa Holman Richardson (Boston 
University, '83),^ who spent the year 1891-92 in Europe, 
devoting her time to classical studies. Every year since with 
but one exception, over a period of forty years, a European 
fellow of the Association has been appointed. In 191 7-18, on 
account of the World War, the fellowship was not awarded. 
Beginning with Miss Richardson's appointment in 1890, 
in all sorts of ways and at almost every meeting emphasis 

^ The members of the first committee on Fellowships, appointed in 
1889, were: 

Mrs. Christine Ladd Franklin Vassar '69 

Mrs. Ellen H. Richards Vassar '70 

Mrs. Mary Sheldon Barnes Michigan '74 

Miss Kate Stephens Kansas '75 

Mrs. Alice Freeman Palmer Michigan '76 

Miss Heloise E. Hersey Vassar '76 

Mrs. Anna Botsford Comstock Cornell '85 

' Now Mrs. Everett O. Fisk. 

148 Association of University Women 

was placed on the importance of maintaining fellowships. 
Thus the policy became firmly established — that aid to 
graduate study was a chief concern of the A.C.A., and that 
it could be counted on for aid to any organization which 
wished to further such a program. The years following the 
award to Miss Richardson did, indeed, see more and more 
opportunities of this kind offered both by universities and 
through private interest, and the aid and advice of the 
Association and its leaders was sought more than ever, as 
has been seen. An important result not foreseen at the out- 
set soon became clear also — that the effect on the under- 
graduate standards of this advance in scholarly ideals was 
acknowledged to be of vital importance. The influence of 
the A.C.A. policy upon the intellectual life of undergraduate 
women was impalpable yet real. That the project was 
appreciated, by the branches as well as by the Association 
as a whole, is evidenced by the fact that contributions were 
made by the Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) and Rhode Island 
branches, as a part of their budget for 1897 and in the years 

To the leadership of Alice Freeman Palmer, chairman for 
many years of the Committee on Fellowships, and to Bessie 
Bradwell Helmer, who succeeded her, the continued interest 
in graduate study on the part of the A.C.A. and of its 
branches was largely due. This interest was evidenced, not 
only in the support of the European fellowship of $500, but 
also of the American fellowship (which the Western A.C.A, 
had inaugurated) of $300. Furthermore, in 1892, a scholar- 
ship for the study of German, providing for tuition and 
residence in the American Home School in Berlin, was 
offered to the Association by Mrs. Mary Bannister Willard 
and Frau Dr. Hempl. Two years later the Woman's Edu- 
cation Association of Boston ^ asked for the cooperation of 

^ This Association, carried on by public-spirited women and for 
several years under the presidency of Alice Freeman Palmer, had initi- 
ated and supported many and varied educational enterprises. 

Post-Graduate Study 149 

the A.C.A. in administering a fellowship which that organ- 
ization was prepared to award. Mrs. Phoebe Apperson 
Hearst, all her life interested in the education of women and 
girls, and the first woman regent of the University of Cali- 
fornia, offered at this time her cooperation in the establish- 
ment of a fellowship. In 1905, through its Executive Com- 
mittee, the A.C.A. pledged its support for the year 1905-06, 
to the extent of $200 for the maintenance of a joint fellow- 
ship with the College Settlements Association. 

A survey of the publications of the A.C.A., beginning in 
1890, show from time to time reports of progress in the in- 
vestigation of opportunities for graduate study in foreign 
universities, both in the form of addresses and bulletins. 
Special interest was shown in the efforts made to open the 
universities of Germany to women, and in 1895 the thanks 
of the Association were tendered to Professor Klein of 
Gottingen, for his generous efforts to secure university 
privileges for women. 

But the matter of post-graduate study was affected by 
another condition. The numbers of young women entering 
college increased with unexpected and unparalleled rapidity 
in the years immediately following the panic of 1893. To 
the novelty of college education was now added the lure of 
graduate study abroad under conditions which made a great 
appeal to young women unfamiliar with life outside their 
own country. As a result, a good many untrained young 
women, with no real urge for advanced scholarship, began to 
seek admission to foreign universities, even where such ad- 
mission had been but a few years ago so hardly won. It was 
feared by many thoughtful women that courtesies extended 
to women whose training was not sufficient to give them 
admission to the colleges of the Association might result in 
experiences which would prove damaging to the chances of 
well-trained and earnest women of all nations who might 
later apply for the same courtesies. The Association, there- 
fore, took a step which required real hardihood. It was 

150 Association of University Women 

voted in October, 1895, to appoint a committee 'to consider 
the advisability of establishing a council which shall con- 
sider and pass upon the qualifications of women to pursue 
advanced work in European universities.' Laura D. Gill, 
Martha Foote Crow, and Florence M. Gushing were ap- 
pointed to serve as this Committee of Investigation. In 
October, 1896, the Association voted to adopt its recom- 
mendation that such a council be appointed. As organized, 
the council consisted of forty-three women members of the 
Association holding positions of distinction as scholars, 
teachers, and administrative officers, with an internal or 
executive committee of five and an advisory council of 
thirty-five men distinguished in different fields of scholar- 
ship. The following memorial and petition was drawn up 
and addressed to the governing bodies of European uni- 
versities : 

To THE Governing Bodies of European Universities the 
Association of Collegiate Alumna respectfully Submits 
THE Following Memorial and Petition: 

1. The privileges courteously granted to American women by the 
European universities are frequently claimed by women who are 
untrained or insufficiently trained, and who thus abuse the privileges 
of the universities and cast discredit upon the scholarship of Ameri- 
can women. 

2. The variable value of the Bachelor of Arts degree in the 
United States makes the presentation of a college diploma no guar- 
antee of sufficient preparation for advanced study. 

3. It is difficult for Academic Faculties to gain the information 
which will enable them to discriminate between worthy and un- 
worthy applicants for admission to the privileges of the universities. 

4. Therefore, the Association of Collegiate Alumnae respectfully 
petitions the governing bodies of the European universities to receive 
its official certificate, signed by its President and by the Chairman 
of its Council to Accredit Women for Study at Foreign Universities, 
as a guarantee of the sufficient training, good character, and serious 
purpose of any woman presenting said certificate. 

5. The Association also respectfully petitions the same governing 
bodies to grant to all women presenting said certificate any and all 
privileges which may at that time be open to any woman. 

Post-Graduate Study 151 

6. In return for this courtesy the Association pledges itself to 
recommend only such women as a thorough investigation shows to 
be worthy of such privileges. 

The Association also pledges itself to investigate the record of any 
woman who may apply for its certificate, thereby making it possible 
for every properly qualified American woman to procure the same. 

7. The Association respectfully urges a favorable consideration 
of this memorial and petition by the governing boards of the Euro- 
pean universities, in the hope that it will advance the interests of 
well-trained American women at these universities, and provide a 
safeguard to the professors against imposition upon their courtesy. 



The following is the form of the certificate which the 
Association issued: 

The Association of Collegiate Alumna of the United 
States of North America, through its Council to Accredit 
Women for Study in Foreign Universities, hereby certifies, that 
of has com- 
pleted a course of study, corresponding to the Bachelor of Arts 
standard in the Association; that she has satisfied the Council — • 
through written articles, advanced teaching, or examination — of 
capacity for advanced work; and that she is seriously undertaking 
a course of study with a definite object in view. 

The Association, therefore, recommends her to the courtesies of 
professors and instructors in the Department of 

President of the A.C.A, 

Chairman of the Council 

It is interesting to record the manner in which this courte- 
ous but radical step was received by the institutions to 
which it was addressed. Just as the privileges accorded to 
women by the universities varied from institution to insti- 
tution, so did the reception of the petition, which ran the 

152 Association of University Women 

gamut from an eager offer to cooperate with the Association 
by exacting such a certificate to the view that it was an im- 
pertinence to require of any woman such a certificate. From 
1896 to 1902, the committee each year issued a considerable 
number of the certificates for which the plan provided. But 
during these years two objections had manifested them- 
selves — the one a contention that a feeling prevailed among 
foreign university officials that the A.C.A. was limiting the 
liberty of women studying in Europe, the other that the 
Association through its council was confronted with opposi- 
tion raised to its recommendation that the work of certifi- 
cation be put upon a more official basis by being presented 
through the proper diplomatic channels. After mature 
deliberation, the Association decided not only to abandon 
the effort for official recognition, but on recommendation of 
its Executive Committee in charge of certification, to dis- 
continue the work entirely. The most devoted and discrim- 
inating service had been given with the utmost generosity 
by the committee serving under the chairmanship of Laura 
Drake Gill, who was followed by Ida H. Hyde,^ Julia W. 
Snow,^ and Margaret E. Maltby.^ While no final judgment 
could as yet be passed upon the effect which the work of 
A.C.A. had had upon the status of women in foreign uni- 
versities, yet the attention of the academic world both at 
home and abroad had undoubtedly been called to the im- 
portance of the whole problem of post-graduate study for 
women, and in the process there can be no question as to the 
enhancing of both prestige and influence in the educational 
work which, through this piece of pioneer work, had come 
to the Association, 

^ Ph.D. Heidelberg, European Fellow, long a Professor of Physiology 
in the University of Kansas. 

' Ph.D. Zurich, European Fellow, long a member of the Smith College 

3 Ph.D. Gottingen, European Fellow, a member of Barnard College 
Faculty. It is clear from these degrees and positions how competent 
these chairmen were to head the committee. 

Post-Graduate Study 153 

In the mean time, scientific investigation had been 
growing apace, and during the year 1897-98, the Executive 
Committee of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae pledged 
the sum of fifty dollars annually for four years toward the 
support of a Woman's Table at the Zoological Station in 
Naples, Italy. This station, founded in 1892 by Dr. Anton 
Dohrn for the collection of biological material and for the 
study of all forms of salt-water plant and animal life, had 
developed into an international institution for scientific 
research. Its tables for workers were for the most part con- 
trolled and paid for by governments, institutions, and asso- 
ciations. From a suggestion made by Ida H. Hyde, one of 
the early fellows of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae 
who had been impressed with the opportunities offered for 
the scientific training of women at Naples through the un- 
usual advantages which Dr. Dohrn's policy of admitting 
women and men to the tables on equal terms made possible, 
there had been formed the Naples Table Association for 
Promoting Laboratory Research by Women. The Associa- 
tion was supported by colleges and universities admitting 
women, by the Association of Collegiate Alumnse, and by 
individuals. In the belief that the opportunity thus ^.fforded 
for research was an important factor in promoting scholar- 
ship among women, the contribution of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnse was continued annually for many years. 
In 1906, the Association received a gift which enabled it to 
present a page in the Magazine to the Naples Table Asso- 
ciation for the purpose of making known the opportunities 
for research provided by the foundation of the Women's 
Table. In 1908, Nettie M. Stevens, the first holder of the 
Alice Freeman Palmer Fellowship just established by the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae, used her year for study 
partly at Naples, where she had been a student before, and 
where she had won in 1905 the $1000 research prize offered 
by the Naples Table Association. 

The world of scholars had been thrilled when the brilliant 

154 Association of University Women 

work of M. and Mme. Curie was made known many years 
ago. Women were perhaps especially rejoiced that so sig- 
nificant a discovery as that of radium had been the result of 
an experiment shared equally by a man and a woman work- 
ing shoulder to shoulder. Because of the death of her 
husband, because of the hardships entailed upon research 
everywhere in Europe as a concomitant of the World War, 
and lastly because of the prohibitive cost of radium itself, 
Mme. Curie found herself in 19 19 hampered almost abso- 
lutely in her work. It was then that American friends came 
to the rescue and made an appeal for funds adequate to 
help this distinguished French scholar continue her work. 
Although the amount contributed by the membership of the 
American Association of University Women was only a 
small part of the whole fund, the branches throughout the 
whole United States still recall with pride and emotion the 
privilege they enjoyed in making even tiny contributions to 
the 'Mme. Curie Fund* as it was called. When the gram of 
radium had been purchased, there remained a balance of 
$56,000, which was turned over as a trust fund to be cared 
for by the Equitable Trust Company of New York. The 
income of this trust fund Mme. Curie is to receive for her 
lifetime. The American Committee which had assisted in 
raising the fund was not completely disbanded, and in 
October, 1928, Mrs. William Brown Meloney, who had been 
the originator of the plan for the whole fund, wrote to 
Mrs. Edgerton Parsons as follows: 

Madame Curie... has not used that money for personal luxuries 
except to put in a bathroom and toilet in her old apartment. . . . She 
has used it to carry on some important experimental work in her 

She has been doing this work with Irene... who has been working 
with her mother for fifteen years. Irene has taken her doctorate 
from the University of Paris and is a Professor of Physics at the 
Sorbonne. Madame Curie's work would be carried on by Irene after 
Madame Curie's death, if the income from the trust fund continued 
to support the experiments. 

Post-Graduate Study 155 

Madame Curie has been ill, and she is worrying at the end of her 
life about the support of her work in the event of her death. Don't 
you think the university women should assure her that Irene's work 
at the laboratory will continue to have the support from the trust 
fund as long as Irene continues to work on American radium? 

She has been appointed assistant to her mother and will succeed 
as director of the Institute.... 

Mrs. Parsons communicated this letter to the other 
members of the existing committee, who voted unanimously 
to ask the American Association of University Women to 
undertake the disposition of the income of the fund when 
Mme. Curie herself should no longer need it. The Associa- 
tion accepted the trust, with the understanding that the 
income should be paid after Mme. Curie's death to her 
daughter, Irene Joliot Curie, as long as she continued to 
work with the gram of radium which had been presented to 
her mother. The further use of the income will be deter- 
mined by the directors of the Association, which thus still 
fosters distinguished work in the field of science. 



Forty-three years ago, in 1888, the Western Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae awarded its first fellowship for graduate 
study to Ida M. Street and in 1889 one to Arlisle M. Young. 
The next year this Western group joined its fortunes to the 
older organization, the Association of Collegiate Alumnae. 
One year later, in 1890, Louisa Holman Richardson, the first 
European fellow of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, 
went to England for study. From that day to this, there has 
been a continuous procession of women scholars from the 
United States to Europe, under the aegis of this association 
of college and university-bred women.' At the quarter- 
centennial anniversary of its founding, Bessie Bradwell 
Helmer (then chairman of the Committee on Fellowships) 
wrote : 

The success of your pilgrims of learning in opening doors of learn- 
ing heretofore barred to their sex has been largely instrumental in 
adding to the international reputation of the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae as a vital force in the educational world. Your 
candidates have been the flower of the women students in the fore- 
most graduate schools of the country. While the prodigy of learning, 
the monument of erudition, has been welcomed, your committee 
has been constantly on the lookout for the woman of original gifts 
who gives promise of being an inspired teacher, a great investigator, 
a leader in creative thought. While from the outset proficiency in 
research has been emphasized, broad attainments in scholarship 
have been demanded. 

Your fellows have trod the path of the pioneer: the first woman 
admitted to the laboratory of the United States Fish Commisvsion; 
the first woman to receive the Ph.D. degree from Yale University; 
the first woman admitted to Gottingen University; the first woman 
permitted to work in the biological laboratory at Strasburg Univer- 

^ For a list of all fellows of A.C.A., W.A.C.A., and A.A.U.W., see 

Fellowships Awarded 157 

Bity. The petition to the Ministerium asking that the University of 
Heidelberg might be empowered to grant your fellow the doctorate 
upon fulfilling the conditions was the first petition passed granting a 
woman this privilege of working for a doctor's degree in Germany. 
Your fellows were the first American women to receive the Ph.D. 
degree from a German university, and the first American women to 
receive the Ph.D. degrees from Gottingen and Heidelberg Univer- 

In 1929, Margaret E. Maltby, herself a fellow of the As- 
sociation, a member of the Committee on Fellowships for 
seventeen years, and for ten years its chairman, prepared a 
history of all fellowships awarded during the forty-one 
years during which the committee and the Association have 
furthered this great project. It is upon this accurate and 
complete history that the present chapter is based. Profes- 
sor Maltby has given the history of each fellowship, with a 
vita and list of publications of each holder of each fellowship.* 

The Committee on Fellowships was constituted by the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae in 1889 and has had in 
its forty years of history nine distinguished chairmen. The 
list is as follows: 

Christine Ladd Franklin 1 889-1 890 

Alice Freeman Palmer 1 890-1 891 

Bessie Bradwell Helmer 1 891-1907 

Florence M. Gushing 1 907-1 909 

Anna Palen 1 909-1 910 

Abby Leach 1910-1913 

Margaret E. Maltby 191 3-1 924 

Agnes L. Rogers 1 924-1 929 

Emilie J. Hutchinson 1929- 

^ There is also included in the history a summary of the distribution of 
fellows by their subjects or fields of work, their academic rank, their rank 
as administrators, statistics as to those now engaged in research, medical 
work, social service or public welfare work, literary or editorial work, the 
present gainful employment of fellows, their marital status, and an 
alphabetical list of all fellows named in the history published by the 
A.A.U.W., 1929. 

Only one fellow betrayed her trust in all these years. Her name was by 
vote of the Association stricken from the list of fellows and is not in- 
cluded in the one hundred and forty-seven listed in Professor Maltby'3 

158 Association of University Women 

With these chairmen have served from time to time many 
members of the Association — a list too long, however, for 
inclusion in this history. Through these chairmen, who 
have received the applications and, with the aid of members 
of the committees, have read the manuscripts, publications, 
and plans of work which the candidates have always filed 
with the applications, along with letters from their teachers 
or from other persons acquainted with them personally, as 
well as with the character of their work, the Association has 
acted in awarding these fellowships. 

One of the first questions which will arise in the mind of 
the reader is how, with the limited funds at their disposal, 
the Association has throughout the years maintained the 
fellowship funds. In the early days they were derived 
largely through the efforts of individuals interested in the 

. . . Three special fellowships were given in cooperation with the 
Woman's Education Association for 1891, 1895, and 1897. One was 
given by Mrs. Phoebe Hearst in 1894, and one in 1902 from a fund 
secured from the Western New York Branch of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae through the efforts of Mrs. Elizabeth M. Howe, 
president of the Association. And one year, when funds for fellow- 
ships were low, the stipends were secured by gifts from the president 
of the Association, Mrs. Alexander F. Morrison, from Mrs. Rumsey 
and Mrs. Albright, by sums raised by Professor Perkins, of the 
Women's College of Western Reserve University, and through the 
efforts of Professor Abby Leach, chairman of the committee. Judge 
James B. Bradwell, of Chicago, paid for the printing and stationery 
of the fellowship work during the fifteen years his daughter, Mrs. 
Bessie Bradwell Helmer, was chairman of the committee, to which 
she gave most loyal service.' 

In 1919-20, fifty cents from the annual dues of each na- 
tional member of the organization went into the fellowship 
fund. Beginning, however, with 192 1, an appropriation of 
twenty-five cents from the annual dues of each national 
member of the organization has been added to the amount 

* This and other quotations in this chapter are taken from the History 
of the Fellowships referred to above. 

Fellowships Awarded 159 

available, and with the greatly increased membership has 
made possible the increase of the stipends as well as the 
number of awards made. In some cases trust funds were 
turned over to the Association for administration, with the 
understanding that, where the trust fund itself did not 
afford an income large enough to make the fellowship desir- 
able, the Association should from its own funds supplement 
these incomes so as to make the sum desired. The Associa- 
tion has, however, had to adopt the policy 

of not accepting the award of a fellowship that does not carry an 
amount the committee considers the minimum for a fellowship, 
namely, $1000; and in order to have fellows of the highest caliber 
giving their best efforts to their work, the Association cannot give 
less than $1500 for research fellowships. The committee does not 
undertake the awarding of fellowships restricted as to eligibility or 
purpose in a way it does not approve. 

A glance at the list of the fellowships shows to what an extent 
the AsvSociation has become the custodian of memorial funds and 
also how its Committee on Fellowships serves other organizations 
supporting fellowships. An illustration of this was furnished when 
the board of trustees of the American University Union in Europe 
asked the Committee on Fellowships of the A.A.U.W. to nominate 
two graduate women for two fellowships offered by M. Petit Du- 
tailles, Directeur de I'Office Nationale des Universitds et ficoles 
Frangaises and Inspector-General of Public Instruction in France, 
in the name of the Minister of Public Instruction of the French Gov- 
ernment. These fellowships were for study at the ficole Normale 
Superieure de Sevres. They were awarded for the two years 1919-21. 
The chairman of the Committee on Fellowships also served on the 
committee of the American Council on Education on Franco- 
American exchange of scholarships and fellowships to select Ameri- 
can young women for the lycee and university scholarships and 
fellowships. This work was later taken over by the Institute of 
International Education. 

In 1889, as a bulletin of the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae there was published a list of fellowships and grad- 
uate scholarships offered to women by colleges, universities, 
and societies in the United States, and a list also of under- 
graduate scholarships offered to women by the nineteen 

160 Association of University Women 

colleges and universities which were then members of the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae. This bulletin was the 
first of its kind, and probably stimulated interest in graduate 
work in institutions at home. But the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnce was the first organization to stimulate the 
interest in graduate study abroad. This it did by its fellow- 
ship awards. 

The fellowship which has had a continuous history since 
1890 is the A.C.A. European fellowship, now known as the 
A.A.U.W. European fellowship. 

The conditions of its award have been practically the same since 
1890. It is open to any woman having a degree in arts, science, or 
literature, who has met all the requirements for the Doctor of 
Philosophy degree with the possible exception of the completion of 
the dissertation. This fellowship is awarded only to one who gives 
promise of distinction. 

The European Fellowship was for $500 up to 1920-21, when it was 
advanced to $600; for one year thereafter it was $750; in 1922-23 
it was raised to $1000, in 1926-27 to $1200, and in 1927-28 to $1500, 
its present amount. 

. The next fellowship to be established was in memory of 
one of the group of founders of the Association — Alice 
Freeman Palmer. 

One chairman of the committee for raising this fund was Mary 
Harriman Severance,^ and it was through her personal guarantee of 
the $500 stipend that it was possible to make the first award in 
1908-09. In 1910, the Association undertook to offer it annually, 
supplementing the interest on the fund raised by the committee. By 
1 91 6 the stipend had become quite inadequate for the type of fellow 
the Association wished. Dr. Olive C. Hazlett, who received the 
award in 1 916-17, resigned it to accept the $1000 Wellesley College 
[Alice Freeman Palmer Memorial] Fellowship. The Committee on 
Fellowships recommended that thereafter the stipend be raised to 
$1000 and that it be awarded biennially or as often as the funds 
permitted. The next seven awards were for this amount. In 1926- 
27, it was increased to $1200, and in 1927-28 to $1500, which 
amount it now carries. 

* Mrs. Severance left by will in 1914 the sum of $5000 to the Alice 
Freeman Palmer Fellowship Fund. 

Fellowships Awarded 161 

From the first it has been a research fellowship. As announced, 
'Candidates for this research fellowship of $1500 must not only have 
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy or Doctor of Science, but must 
also present evidence of distinctive subsequent accomplishment in 

The Boston Branch of the A.C.A., one of the first branches 
established after the Association was formed, offered, in 
1 9 12-13, the fellowship known as the Boston Alumnae Fel- 
lowship. The Boston Branch, aided by 'the Radcliffe 
Alumnae Association, the Boston Alumnae Club of Smith 
College, and by alumnae of Bryn Mawr, Vassar, Wellesley, 
and Boston University, offered a graduate fellowship of $500 
for the purpose of stimulating scholarship among women. 
They announced that the holder of the fellowship must be 
a woman "who is a graduate of an approved college, of good 
health and excellent character, and who has proved her 
ability and initiative. The fellowship must be used in 
Europe or America for one year of constructive work and 
not for the purpose of general culture." This fellowship has 
been offered at intervals ever since. The amount of the 
fellowship remained $500 until 1927-28, when it was $800 
and in 1929-30 $1000. With a higher stipend support 
comes from the original group and the Boston alumnae clubs 
of Mount Holyoke, Wheaton, Simmons, Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, and Radcliffe College, and private 
donors.' The announcements more recently have added this 
statement: 'This fellowship may at the discretion of the 
committee on award be given to an applicant who submits 
a report of a limited amount of investigation, provided the 
work is of a high quality and shows exceptional promise.' 

When two fellowships in memory of teachers of distinction 
were established by their friends and pupils — the Anna C. 
Brackett Fellowship in 1913-14, and the Julia C. G. Piatt 
Fellowship in 19 18-19 — they were entrusted to the A.C.A. 
for award. ^ The funds of each allowed the award of $640 

* The trust funds themselves were later turned over to the A.A.U.W. 

162 Association of University Women 

only in alternate years. It was evident that the stipend 
should be increased in order to make them adequate, and 
the Association has therefore supplemented the fund to bring 
each fellowship at the present time to $1000. These fellow- 
ships are awarded, the one biennially, the other triennially, 
and on the same terms. 'The fellowships are open to any 
woman having a degree in arts, science, or literature, who 
intends to make teaching her profession. In general, prefer- 
ence is given to those applicants who have had successful 
experience in teaching and in addition have completed at 
least two years of graduate study. The award is based upon 
evidence of character and ability of the candidate and pro- 
mise of success in teaching.* 

The United States has long been in communication with 
its neighbors to the south, and at the time of the second Pan- 
American Scientific Congress ' some members of the Women's 
Auxiliary Committee of the United States of that Congress 
who were also members of the A.A.U.W. (then A.C.A.) were 
convinced that acquaintance was the first essential in 
friendly relations and that they could be furthered best by 
fellowships.* ' Since more than forty fellowships had been 
established for men students, the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnse decided to establish an annual fellowship open to 
women coming from the Latin-American Republics and who 
wished to study in the United States. It was first awarded in 
191 7-1 8. The applicants must be nationals of the Latin- 
American republics. The fellowship, which at the outset car- 
ried only the amount of $500, is at present $1500 annually. 

In 1908, no report was presented by the Committee on the 
Joint Fellowship of the College Settlements Association and 
the Association of Collegiate Alumnae. It was voted by the 
Executive Committee 'that the Joint Fellowship of the 

' In 191 7, the Indianapolis (Indiana) Branch of the A.C.A. reported 
that it was making plans for a better understanding between North and 
South America by bringing a young girl to this country from South 
America, and by giving her a four-year course in a North American 
college. This interest in a mid-West branch is significant. 

Fellowships Awarded 163 

College Settlements Association be discontinued and the 
Committee on Awards dropped.' This joint fellowship in a 
pioneer field had been awarded in 1904-05 to Frances A. 
Kellor, and was awarded again in 1905-06 and in 1906-07. 
To this joint fellowship the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae contributed annually $200. 

Thus the plan of making use of the Fellowship Com- 
mittee's technique and procedure was not novel when in 
1918-19 the Gamma Phi Beta Sorority, in offering a social 
service fellowship, asked the committee of the A.C.A. to 
make the award. This fellowship, now called the 'Lindsey 
Barbee Fellowship,' is devoted to preparation for the pro- 
fession of social service in a graduate school of recognized 
standing. The fellowship is open to women graduates of 
accredited colleges 'who have done at least one year of 
graduate work including some courses in the department of 
social science.' It was first offered in 1918-19, and carried a 
stipend of $500 until 1928-29, when it was raised to $1000 
and is awarded in alternate years. In 1924-25, the Phi Mu 
Sorority asked for the same privilege in offering a thousand- 
dollar fellowship annually for graduate work, 'ppen to 
American women having a degree from any university or 
college in which Phi Mu has a chapter.' In 1926-27 and 
again in 1928-29, the Alpha Xi Delta Fraternity offered, 
through the A.A.U.W. Fellowship Committee, a fellowship 
of $1000 for graduate work in the field of medicine or in that 
of mental science. 

Through the efforts of Christine Ladd Franklin, herself a 
distinguished scientist,^ the award of the Sarah Berliner 
research and lecture fellowship was established and became 
finally one of the fellowships of the A.A.U.W. At the 
quarter-centennial meeting of the A.C.A. in 1907, Dr. Frank- 
lin, as chairman of a special committee which had been 

* Dr. Franklin died in March, 1930, just as this chapter was being 
prepared. In an obituary notice in the New York Times, she was called 
'the most distinguished woman scientist in the country.' 

164 Association of University Women 

appointed to consider the question of the endowment of 
fellowships, brought forward a plan as far-reaching as any 
which had ever been presented to the Association. She said, 
in speaking of the restrictions upon women in opportunities 
offered them to hold positions, ' All we ask for our sex is that 
positions in colleges to which women are admitted as stu- 
dents should be filled in this same dispassionate way by the 
brilliant and distinguished among Doctors of Philosophy 
without regard to sex or with very little regard to sex — with 
the understanding, say, that whenever the woman applicant 
for a position is distinctly superior to the man, she shall have 
the position. It is this state of things that we are anxious 
to hasten the coming of by the device of what may perhaps 
be better called a modest intermediate step toward an en- 
dowed professorship — a research fellowship and lecture- 
ship ; that is, an endowed fellowship for purposes of research 
with the condition attached that the incumbent should be 
allowed during her year of residence to deliver at least a 
brief course of lectures.' Mrs. Franklin then made the 
recommendation that, other things being equal, the Alice 
Freeman Palmer Fellowship be awarded 'to women who 
have already taken the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and 
who have in contemplation some important piece of investi- 
gation on lines already to some extent mapped out.' She 
reported a little later with the greatest enthusiasm that the 
first of such endowments had been secured in the donation 
of the sum of $12,500 to the founding of a research fellowship 
for women in the subjects of physics, chemistry, and biology, 
the endowment made by Mr. Emile Berliner, of Washington, 
D.C., in memory of his mother. An independent committee 
of scientists, of which Mrs. Franklin was chairman, made the 
award of the fellowship until 1919-20, when the award was 
entrusted to the A.C.A., and the Committee on Fellowships 
of the Association was made the Committee on Awards. 
The securities and monies constituting the principal of this 
fund were turned over to the A.A.U.W. in 1928. This 

Fellowships Awarded 165 

fellowship is open to American women ' holding the degree 
of Doctor of Philosophy or Doctor of Science or, having an 
equivalent preparation, who give promise of distinction in 
the subject to which they are devoting themselves.' ^ 

This fellowship is in effect two fellowships of which one or the 
other (but not both) will be awarded each year: 

1. A fellowship of $1200 for research only. 

2. A docentship of $1500, the holder of which shall have arranged 
to continue research with the giving of one or more courses of lec- 
tures in the university at which she proposes to reside. 

The story of the founding of the Rose Sidgwick memorial 
fellowship is told in full elsewhere.^ The fellowship is open 
'to British women of graduate standing for graduate study 
in American colleges or universities' and 'was decided upon 
as the memorial best expressing Miss Sidgwick's. . . ideals of 
friendship between the women students of the two coun- 
tries.' In 1927, the Association decided to offer this fellow- 
ship biennially as a two-thousand-dollar award. Since this 
fellowship was established, seven women have held it, work- 
ing in fields ranging from plant pathology and astrophysics 
to psychiatry, biology, and eighteenth-century f^nglish 

As a result of the part it had taken in the formation of the 
International Federation of University Women, in 1923-24 
the A.A.U.W. began offering its international fellowship. 

For two years this carried a stipend of $1000, the next year $1200, 
and since that time $1 500. ' The fellowship is open to all members of 
associations or federations of university women forming branches of 
the International Federation. The fellowship is tenable at any ap- 
proved university or institution in a country other than that in which 
the fellow has received her previous education or habitually resides.* 
The A.A.U.W. hopes to continue this fellowship until the Million 
Dollar Fund for international fellowships is completed — or at least 
is approaching completion. 

^ Although, as has been said, the fellowship was not awarded by the 
Association until 1919-20, Professor Maltby has, nevertheless, in order 
to make a complete record, included all the Sarah Berliner fellows in hef 

• See Chapter XXI. 

166 Association of University Women 

Owing to the strain which the purchase of the Washington 
headquarters and clubhouse entailed upon the members, this 
fellowship was not offered in 1925-26, but the members of 
the Association 

who attended the biennial meeting of the International Federation 
of University Women in Christiania (Oslo), Norway, in 1924, were 
so impressed by the generous and gracious hospitality provided by 
the Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, and Finnish federations that they 
decided as individuals to raise the amount and have a thousand- 
dollar International Fellowship offered by the A.A.U.W. for the 
year 1925-26, to be called the Scandinavian Fellowship and to be 
awarded by the Committee on Fellowships of the International 
Federation. It was open to members of the associations or federa- 
tions of university women forming branches of the International 
Federation. The committee awarded it to Dr. Ethel McLennan, of 
the University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. 

Yet another fellowship has been awarded through the 
Association : 

A fund raised by the Vassar classmates and friends of Mary 
Pemberton Nourse provides a memorial fellowship of $1500 offered 
biennially. The candidate must possess a bachelor's degree or its 
equivalent. She must also have completed a minimum of either two 
years of graduate study tending toward public health work (for in- 
stance in such subjects as biology, chemistry, the medical sciences, 
economics, sociology), or two years of practical work in the field of 
public health. 

The fellowship may be used for any work along the lines of public 
health which shall be approved by the committee. 

This fellowship has been awarded since 1925-26. 

Such devoted work as Miss Maltby gave without stint and 
with the greatest discrimination is the sort of thing that can 
never be adequately rewarded, but the Association wanted 
very much to show its appreciation of what Miss Maltby 
had contributed in time and strength and discriminating 
judgment through the seventeen years of her connection 
with the committee. As a consequence there was first 
awarded in 1926-27 the Margaret E. Maltby Fellowship, 
named in honor of this loyal member of the Association 

Fellowships Awarded 167 

whose connection with the organization began in 1882, and 
who had herself been a holder of the European fellowship of 
the Association in 1895-96. 

In 1927-28, a special pre-school fellowship was awarded. 
This fellowship was not continued because of other fellow- 
ships in this field which other organizations were prepared 
to offer. It was therefore thought wiser that the Association 
should for the present reserve its fellowships, first, 'for 
assistance to the young scholar in her dissertation for the 
doctorate, or in that stage when she needs opportunity to 
continue research beyond the doctor's dissertation to give 
her confidence in her ability to make a contribution and to 
establish the habit of research; and second, to give the 
independent scholar the opportunity to collect the material 
she needs in her well established field of research.' More- 
over, since some fellowships of other organizations have an 
age limit, the Association wished to be free to assist scholars 
outside this limit who should be continuing valuable con- 
tributions and whose maturity made their studies even 
more helpful than those of younger women. 

It is impossible to give the names or the details of publica- 
tions and services which the fellows of the Association have 
rendered the cause of education and public service in the 
United States. Whether, however, they hold professorships 
in colleges and universities, or are pathfinders in the newer 
psychology and social service, whether they teach in the 
classroom or go to the ends of the earth in the interest of 
science and of human welfare, the record is everywhere one 
of which women may well be proud. Many of them belong 
to the branches of the Association throughout the country, 
and as they speak at meetings of the Association and bear 
their witness to what the privilege and opportunity for 
advanced study has meant to them, the members of the 
Association are thrilled to have even a small part in a 
project so worth while. Merely to read the titles of the 
hundreds of publications listed in the history of the fellow- 

168 Association of University Women 

ships is, it would seem, a complete refutation of the con- 
tention that women are not fitted to do original and dis- 
tinguished work. Of the fellowships awarded by the Associa- 
tion, forty former holders are included in the biographies of 
'American Men of Science.' Of these, seven are starred as 
among those scientists who have made the most important 
contributions to research in their respective fields. Four 
fellows of the Association have, subsequent to holding fellow- 
ships from the A.A.U.W., held Guggenheim Memorial 
Fellowships, and of these four, three have held the Guggen- 
heim Fellowships twice. Of academic rank attained by 
fellows of the Association, twenty-two are professors in 
women's colleges and eleven in coeducational institutions; 
thirteen are associate professors in the former, nine in the 
latter. Of all ranks in the women's colleges there are fifty, 
of all ranks in the coeducational institutions there are thirty- 
two, besides which there are eight with academic rank in 
foreign universities and five in the secondary schools of the 
United States. Of these, sixty-four are at the present time 
engaged in research, thirteen are either directors, deans, or 
heads of departments in women's colleges, nine in coeduca- 
tional institutions. Of this latter group engaged in ad- 
ministration, one is director of an astronomical observatory, 
while others are heads of departments of hygiene, bacteri- 
ology, and pathology, German, physiology, chemistry, 
physics, Latin, art, history, and science. Two are deans in 
universities, one is the president of a college, one is organizer 
of an institute in human embryology, and four are directors 
of special projects under university auspices. Another is 
director of a municipal pathological laboratory, yet another 
is director of a government dental project, a third is head of 
a pioneer department for children in a foreign library, a 
fourth is director of a child study department for a board 
of education, and a fifth is sister superior of a convent of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church. In the field of medical work 
there are four institutional physicians and psychiatrists, two 

Fellowships Awarded 169 

physicians with private practice, four teachers in medical 
schools, and four who hold research positions with no teach- 
ing. In addition, many fellows are teaching or doing research 
in science contributory to the field of medicine. In the field 
of social service or public welfare there are many pioneers, 
among them one investigator of a children's court and a 
county court, the present secretary of the Committee on 
International Relations of the A.A.U.VV., and a staff mem- 
ber of the American Social Hygiene Association. 

Several fellows of the Association were active during the 
war in some branch of the service. One fellow, Ruth Holden, 
died as a result of her war service in Russia, and yet another 
did important executive work for the relief of the children in 
Austria. Of former fellows of the Association engaged in 
editorial work may be listed the associate editor, Jourjial of 
Commerce] the associate editor, Webster's Dictionary; the 
assistant editor. Journal of Chemical Education; the editor, 
Publications Series, Institute for the Coordination of Women's 
Interests] the editor, The Pre-School Child] copy -writer and 
editor for a lecture bureau; and writer of a monthly section 
in the New York Times Current History. The president of 
the Association of University Women from 1923 to 1927, 
Aurelia Henry Reinhardt, President of Mills College, held 
the European fellowship of the Association in 1905-06. 

The A.A.U.W. thus awards annually about $14,000 in 

fellowships to women, of which over $10,000 comes from its 

own income, and yet for the eleven fellowships to be awarded 

in 1929-30, there were one hundred and fifty-nine applicants 

from the United States, four from Latin-America, and 

eighteen from nine foreign countries.^ 

* In 191 5-1 6, the Baltimore Association for the Promotion of the 
University Education of Women offered a fellowship of $600 for 191 5-1 6, 
available for study at an American or a European university. It was to 
be awarded preferably to women who have done one or two years of 
graduate work. Further preference was to be given to women from 
Maryland and the South by whom the fellowship might be held two years 
in succession. The A.C.A. cooperated with the Baltimore Association to 
the extent of publishing the advertisement of this fellowship in the 
Journal of the A.C.A. 

170 Association of University Women 

Although the interest of the branches of the Association 
in offering scholarships locally goes back to the founding of 
several of them, the whole movement was greatly stimulated 
by the publication in November, 1907, of a special bulletin 
entitled * The Scholarship Opportunities Offered to Women 
Students by Institutional Members of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae.' ^ The information here gathered to- 
gether was compiled by the Committee on Scholarships of 
the branch in St. Louis, Missouri, and listed all fellowships, 
graduate and undergraduate scholarships for which applica- 
tion might be made. There were also listed loan funds open 
to ' needy and meritorious students ' in the different institu- 
tions. Doubtless this bulletin stimulated a movement 
already under way. 

In 1929-30, the branches of the Association offered 
scholarships to undergraduate women of the value of almost 
$25,000 each year. Many branches maintain loan funds for 
the purpose of aiding girls to finish their high-school course 
or to help young women in colleges and universities. These 
loan funds total thousands of dollars, of which possibly 
$25,000 is in circulation most of the time, in sums varying 
from $25 to $100. 

But even this program is to be further supplemented. One 
of the underlying projects in forming the International Fed- 
eration of University Women was that of providing fellow- 
ships by which students of one country might visit another 
country for the purpose of study and wider acquaintance. 
The national convention of the A.A.U.W. meeting in 1927 
passed the following resolution : 

That the convention approves the plan of raising a fund of not 
less than a million dollars for international fellowships, on the under- 
standing that no quotas shall be assigned ; that donors may, if they 
wish, designate whether their gifts are to be applied to the Interna- 
tional or National Fellowship Fund, and that any money undesig- 

* See Publications of the A.C.A., Series 3, No. 15, Special BuUetint 
November, 1907. 

Fellowships Awarded 171 

nated shall, for the first year, be divided equally between the two, 
and after the first year as the committee and the board of directors 
shall decide. 

Fellowships created from the money designated as * inter- 
national' are administered by the International Federation 
of University Women. Fellowships created from the money 
designated as 'national' are administered by the American 
Association of University Women. The treasurer's office 
particularly desires that all contributions be designated 
'national* or 'international.' 

Many groups have undertaken the endowment of one 
fellowship as their share. The Philadelphia Branch is raising 
$30,000 for 'The Marion Reilly International Fellowship' in 
memory of Marion Reilly, former Dean of Bryn Mawr. 
Other memorial fellowships are under discussion. 

*It has been suggested,' says the bulletin setting forth the 
plan, 'that while $30,000 was decided upon as the amount 
needed to endow one fellowship, it might be better to set 
$40,000 for a goal. For $30,000 invested in the safe securities 
which the Association requires, yields only about $1200 a 
year; and while this will "do in a pinch," it will mean a 
program of rigid economy for the holder of a fellowship. The 
annual income from $40,000 will give relief from money con- 
cerns and leave the mind free for study and research.' In 
establishing this fund there was provided an Advisory Com- 
mittee headed by Dr. Virginia C. Gildersleeve, Dean of 
Barnard College and formerly President of the International 
Federation of University Women. Men and women from 
every part of the country are serving on this committee, in 
which the intellectual interests of North, South, East, and 
West are represented. The actual working group is under 
the chairmanship of Dorothy B. Atkinson — 'The National 
Appeal Committee for the Million Dollar Fellowship Fund,* 
as it is called. 

That the need for funds is universal need hardly be men- 
tioned, but so stirring a plea was made at the Council Meet- 

172 Association of University Women 

ing of the International Federation of University Women in 
1928 by Dr. Johanna Westerdyk, Professor of Plant Pathol- 
ogy at the University of Utrecht, that it seems worth while 
to quote from it here. Dr. Westerdyk first raised the ques- 
tion as to whether there was any need to provide fellowships 
solely for women. In reply she pointed out that in practice 
women were frequently disqualified for opportunities both 
as regarded government awards and those given by great 
foundations, although in theory these were open usually to 
men and to women. 

There could be no doubt [said she] that it was the duty of the 
Federation to make every effort to create fellowships for university 
women to enable them to carry on research, whether they were 
young women working for advanced degrees or more mature women 
already recognized in their field of work. In making the awards, the 
first aim of the committee was to find the candidate with the right 
scientific attitude, but they thought also of the international aspect 
and tried to send out scholars and scientists who would appreciate 
the riches other countries had to offer them and to look for the things 
of the heart and soul as well as those of the mind. 

Upon this Million Dollar Fund the women of the A.A.U.W. 
are working. A special representative was put into the field 
in the fall of 1928 in the person of Emma H. Gunther, who 
was on leave from her teaching position in New York City. 
Everywhere the plea Miss Gunther put forth met with a 
satisfying and enthusiastic response. In two sections of the 
A.A.U.W. — the Southwest Central and the Northwest 
Central — the fellowships were awarded for 1929-30, 
although the sum which these sections had pledged had not 
been raised. 

It is hoped that in five years the A.A.U.W. will have its 
fund raised and thus again go on record as furthering a great 
idealistic project.^ 

'In 1929 the name of the Committee on Fellowships was changed to 
the Fellowships Award Committee. Under these two captions its pro- 
ceedings will be found from 1889 to the present time. See Bylaws as 
revised, 1929. 


Among the earliest advocates of child study in this country 
were Mrs. Talbot, founder of the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae, and Dr. William T. Harris, Commissioner of Edu- 
cation for the United States. As secretary of the Education 
Department of the American Social Science Association, 
Mrs. Talbot had personally consulted with Charles Darwin, 
and with her customary vision had given real impetus to a 
movement which out of small beginnings grew to be a great 
field of investigation. The Association of Collegiate Alumnae 
had not, as we have seen, been in existence a decade when 
the first machinery was set in motion to study what to-day 
is called * the pre-school child.' This study was instituted by 
the appointment in 1890 of the 'Committee on the Develop- 
ment of Childhood,' consisting of Annie Howes Barus, Mary 
Sheldon Barnes, and Martha Foote Crow. 

In making her first report in 1891, Mrs. Barus gave a 
masterly survey of the recent work which had been done in 
the field, and in view of the pressing need for systematic ob- 
servers in the study of child life and the special fitness of 
college women to undertake the work, recommended that 
the Association of Collegiate Alumnae bend its energies to 
the task. The committee next prepared a schedule for ob- 
servations on child life, which received the hearty endorse- 
ment of eminent specialists. By 1892, a number of observa- 
tions had been collected, and not only was the committee 
asked to publish the results through the periodical press, 
but (what was unusual in those days of high thinking and 
plain living) the sum of fifty dollars was appropriated for the 
use of the committee.^ 

^ The Washington Branch records through its first secretary, Mrs. 

Gertrude Bascom Darwin, Vassar '78, that having at first no use for its 
branch dues, it was finally suggested that help be sent to the general 

174 Association of University Women 

The name of Milllcent W. Shinn, destined to play a not- 
able r61e in the history of the movement for child study, 
first appeared in the records of the Association when in 1894 
she became a member of the Committee on Development of 
Childhood. In October of that year, Miss Shinn presented a 
paper on 'The Baby's Mind — A Study for College Women,' 
which was published by the Association. In this paper Miss 
Shinn made frequent reference to the experience of the 
Child Study Section of the California Branch and urged 
upon the members the noting down, with great accuracy 
but without comment or interpretation, any suggestive or 
noticeable act or expression of the child under observation. 
She further recommended connected biography, continuous 
as to a single topic at least, as the best method to follow in 
compiling the notes. Her comment on college women was 
that they proved unexpectedly candid and exact observers, 
but added that they had not shown persistence and fidelity 
in keeping records. The committee urged the necessity for 
a really scientific attitude toward the work outlined by 
Miss Shinn and her colleagues, if the results were to be of 
any real value. For they maintained — and rightly — that 
the undertaking was of great importance, linked up with the 
labors of expert psychologists in the field of the study of 
child life. Attention was called to the clubs formed for the 
same purpose among the graduates of Newnham and Girton 
Colleges in England, where admirable cooperative work was 
being done. Miss Shinn herself became in 1895 the chairman 
of the committee and was able in a year to report that sub- 
committees had been formed in eight branches. In 1897, 
the number of these sub-committees had increased to ten. 
This increase of interest and activity led the committee to 
outline methods of study and means of unifying the work 
done. A general falling-off in organized work was reported 
later and attributed in part to the decline in the number of 
people disposed to join in the work of original inquiry, and 
in part to the absorption of the Association in public school 

Child Study and Euthenigs 175 

questions. It was admitted by the chairman in her report 
in 1899 that organized work by syllabic or study clubs pre- 
sents special difficulties, involving as it does not only the 
collating and coordinating of individual observations, but 
also in turn the close and trained attention of some one 
person. On the other hand, the net product of the year had 
been larger than ever before because of the activity of indi- 
vidual members who were especially interested in the 
problem and saw its possibilities for development along 
other lines. In 1900, the report of Miss Shinn was more 
encouraging, for she was able to announce that the net 
results of the year had been far and away the most encourag- 
ing yet reached. The reports of this committee covering a 
series of years afford a mass of valuable testimony as to the 
historical development of the study of child life, the diffi- 
culty of arousing general interest, and the subsequent drift 
of the subject into the hands of highly specialized scholars. 
For instance, in 1907, in her report. Dr. Shinn brought out 
the fact that her committee had collected a vast amount of 
material which she felt would be most valuable for research 
in this country and abroad, especially in Germany. She 
lamented the fact that the A.C.A. had no money for printing 
and publishing this material over its own name, and stated 
that while it would 'be easy enough to get the material 
printed in other journals or through the Bureau of Education 
or the Carnegie Fund,' she thought the A.C.A. should have 
the credit for so important a piece of research. Considering 
the whole matter, it was inevitable that in 1908, although 
recognizing the great value of the work which had been done, 
the Association should direct the general secretary to com- 
municate with the chairman of the committee as to the 
advisability of its continuance. It was decided to go forward, 
but as a sub-committee of a larger group which just at this 
juncture the Association decided to form. A few years 
before a national conference on child welfare had been 
formed, and the disappearance of Dr. Shinn's committee as 

176 Association of University Women 

a separate entity was not so regrettable as it would have 
been had not its work been carried on with adequate funds 
and on a larger scale under what soon came to be The 
Children's Bureau of the Federal Government with Julia C. 
Lathrop as its first director. Miss Lathrop gave before the 
Association in 191 3 so masterly a presentation of the Bureau 
and its possibilities that it was evident research problems 
could and would be carried to publication and so perhaps to 
a wider education of the public than could possibly be the 
case under a voluntary organization like the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae. The pioneer work which had been done, 
however, was of lasting importance. The years from 1890 
to 191 5 — a quarter of a century — during which the de- 
velopment of childhood had been a subject for research 
under the auspices of the A.C.A., had covered a period most 
fruitful in the field of science, pure and applied. For women, 
the home, both in its traditional sense and in its larger 
aspect as the community in which one lives, had become the 
object of research, and not only were such subjects as sanita- 
tion and nutrition being investigated, but the whole problem 
of human life and its environment had formed the basis, not 
only of new courses for students, but also of work in research 
for teachers. From a vision of research by a little group of 
pioneers in college education, the study of childhood, of 
family records, and indeed a whole program which was just 
being proposed have been carried forward by departments 
in colleges and universities, by commissions and bureaus 
under state and federal governments, and have even formed 
part of the program of the international union called the 
League of Nations. 

Nor was the basic subject of child study abandoned for 
good and all. With the advent of an educational secretary 
for the Association in 1922, the work received a new impetus, 
was immensely widened in scope, and is to-day one of the com- 
pelling interests of the organization nationally and locally.' 

' See Chapters XXIII, XXVI, XXVII, XXVIII, passim. 

Child Study and Euthenics 177 

There had been no more outstanding scholar in the 
membership of the A.C.A. during the years of its whole 
existence than Dr. Ellen H. Richards. Her work had been 
of great variety and importance, and it was entirely suitable 
that when in 1908 it was proposed to form a committee on 
Eugenics which should combine the study of health, physical 
education, child study, and other kindred subjects in which 
the Association and its branches were interested, Mrs. 
Richards should become its chairman. She at once asked 
that the name be changed to Euthenics — a word of her own 
coining which meant, in her own words, 'the science of con- 
trollable environment.' Thus the Committee on Euthenics 
came into existence in 1909, with Dr. Shinn's Committee on 
Child Study as a sub-committee, together with another sub- 
committee for the Study of Family Records under Dr. 
Frances G. Davenport and one for Environment under 
Alice W. Wilcox. 

The first and only report of the Committee on Euthenics 
while Mrs. Richards was chairman was made before the 
Association at its convention of 19 10. Mrs. Richards began 
by defining the aim of her group — 'to suggest immediate 
and practicable ways of increasing the efficiency of the 
present human race.' Her program was indeed an ambitious 
one, for it embraced education of the public ' to esteem better 
environment,' to arouse people 'to the waste of life and the 
possible saving,' to the need of child study and care, to the 
necessity of medical inspection in schools, to the relationship 
between employer and employee, and to better budgeting 
'of income and expenditure by the salaried class.' For the 
first winter Mrs. Richards reported that a beginning had 
been made in a study of the psychology of home life, and had 
made use of the work and leadership of Dr. Shinn and her 
collaborators in their child study work. But Mrs. Richards' 
committee had scarcely been organized before her death 
occurred. Martha Van Rensellaer took over the chairman- 
ship thus left vacant (191 1), albeit reluctantly, for, as she 

178 Association of University Women 

said, it was the child of Mrs. Richards' hopes and aspira- 
tions, which her disciples could carry out but haltingly. 
Almost at once it was perceived that here again scholars 
trained in special fields must do the work, and again the 
Association had no funds adequate for the purpose. There 
was published, however, on recommendation of the Commit- 
tee on Euthenics, a scientific report ^ of the sub-committee 
on Eugenics, prepared by Dr. Effa Funk Muhse, entitled 
'Heredity and Problems in Eugenics.' After two years of 
no reports other than the request for the publication of 
Dr. Muhse's paper, the Committee on Euthenics was in 
1915 disbanded, the sub-committees disappearing with it. 

^ This report appeared as No. 2 of Vol. VIII in Publications of the 
A.C.A. (March, 1915). 



Immediately upon the organization of the Association the 
anticipated value of a union of graduates from different 
institutions was realized, and a friendly and cordial spirit of 
helpfulness pervaded the membership instead of the jealous 
rivalry predicted by some outside cavilers. Naturally there 
was much ignorance on the part of the members concerning 
the methods of life and work followed by the colleges they 
represented, and measures were taken as early as the second 
year to inform the members of advances made in collegiate 
training. As a consequence a series of papers describing the 
characteristics of the colleges was given to the Association in 
October, 1883. At the same time a Committee on College 
Work was appointed to investigate the requirements of the 
collegiate courses in the different institutions. The members 
began at once, through their alumni associations and in 
other ways, to pass on suggestions for their own colleges 
which had come to them through the Association. Under 
date of January 22, 1887, the following announcement 
appears : 

The Association has decided to establish a Bureau of Collegiate 
Information to be under the charge of Mrs. Kate Morris Cone, of 
Hartford, Vermont. The object of the Bureau will be to collect 
trustworthy facts and statistics concerning the history of the move- 
ment for the collegiate education of women, the opportunities now 
offered, and the results secured, as well as theoretical arguments for 
and against the higher education. Members are urged to aid in 
furthering the practical usefulness of this plan by forwarding to 
Mrs. Cone such pamphlets, magazine articles, newspaper clippings 
and titles of books bearing on the subject from different standpoints 
as may come to their notice. The information thus secured will be 
classified in readiness for reference. 

180 Association of University Women 

Thus there came into being a Committee on Collegiate 
Information under the leadership of Kate Morris Cone, who 
for ten years conducted a clearing-house of great value. The 
members aided her in garnering an immense amount of in- 
formation concerning various phases of the higher education 
of women. Questions covering a wide range of topics, such 
as the ' cottage' system of dormitories, graduate study, finan- 
cial aid for poor students, arguments for collegiate education, 
occupations other than teaching and gifts of women to 
educational institutions were referred to the Bureau. The 
urgency as well as the frequency of some of the inquiries led 
in several cases to the preparation of special papers which 
were presented to the Association and later published for 
distribution.* The general work of the committee was 
merged in 1894 with that of a Committee on Educational 
Progress which had been established in 1889. In 1895, 
Martha Foote Crow, who had been chairman of the latter 
committee from the beginning, became chairman of the 
joint committee and so continued until 1899, when it was 
discontinued and its duties assigned to other agencies. 

The branches of the Association, however, have in many 
cases made the work of collegiate information a vital part of 
their program. It has been for many years the custom, for 
example, for the branch at Kenosha, Wisconsin, to have 
annually an afternoon tea to which all young girls who are 
seniors in the high schools, both public and private, are 
invited. The first part of the program has been an address 
on going to college. The second part has been a series of 
conferences in different rooms of the building where the tea 
is held, each conference headed by a representative of some 
college or university who is prepared to give specific informa- 
tion as to the courses available, the faculty, the social life, 
expenses, etc., of the institution she represents. The whole 

^ See Chapter XXIV for publications in connection with the work of 
this committee. Also Chapter XXVII I for a present-day continuation of 
Mrs. Cone's work. 

Some Early Committees 181 

program has been of unquestioned value, especially to those 
girls whose families have had no experience upon which to 
draw to ensure wise guidance and planning for their daugh- 
ters' future. Many branches have similar programs. 

On another side, the work of Mrs. Cone's bureau passed 
over several years later to the Committee on Vocational 
Opportunities, and still later to the Bureau of Occupations.* 
Several times after Mrs. Cone's committee ceased to func- 
tion, the proposal was brought to the Association that a 
bureau which would serve not only as a source of informa- 
tion regarding various institutions, but also as a clearing- 
house for women teachers in colleges or universities, letting 
applicants know of vacancies, and informing institutions of 
available women scholars for various departments, might 
well be sponsored or even operated by the Association. But 
conducting such a bureau takes paid experts, and takes 
money — and the Association has never had funds equal 
to its vision.^ 

Another early committee did pioneer work of great value. 
In January, 1888, the Executive Committee was 'instructed 
to appoint a standing committee on the endowment of 
colleges to represent the Association of Collegiate Alumnae 
in its desire to strengthen the already existing colleges for 
women and to discourage the establishment of new institu- 
tions with inadequate endov/ments.* Until the committee 
could be organized, Florence M. Cushing and Ellen M. 
Folsom were asked to serve. At the meeting of the Execu- 
tive Committee almost immediately following, the com- 
mittee was appointed with Alia W. Foster as its chairman 
and Alice Freeman Palmer, Marion Talbot, Martha Foote 
Crow, and Abby Leach as members. The membership of 

^ See Chapter XVII. 

' By two other committees, however, has the work begun by Mrs. Cone 
been carried on in later years — the Committee on Recognition of 
Colleges and Universities, now called the Committee on Membership, 
and by the Committee on Maintaining Standards. See also Chapter 

182 Association of University Women 

the committee changed from time to time, but Miss Foster 
remained as chairman until 1904, when she was succeeded 
by Lucia Clapp Noyes. 

The immediate occasion for the appointment of such a 
committee by the Association was the offer of a Mr. Fay to 
provide six hundred thousand dollars for an institute for 
girls, 'provided some town near Boston would contribute 
four hundred thousand dollars for buildings and equipment.* 
At the same time rumors were rife of similar plans on the 
part of other individuals, with no assurance in any one of the 
proposals that desirable educational standards would be 
inaugurated or maintained. The Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae had in its short life accumulated a stock of experi- 
ence which might well be useful in meeting such situations. 
Furthermore, no other organization had such a background 
or such machinery as had the A.C.A. It was therefore not a 
matter of egotism, but of plain common-sense that the 
A.C.A. should feel that tasks of safeguarding the educational 
interests of women could not be shirked, and that it was the 
proper — and indeed the only — agency by which these 
tasks could be performed. Furthermore, it stood ready to 
do everything possible to enlarge the resources of the institu- 
tions already in existence. In October, 1888, almost as soon 
as it was organized, the Committee on College Endowment 
reported a plan whereby there might be secured definite 
information concerning the special needs of the colleges and 
universities then members of the Association. In accordance 
with this plan, the alumnae of the individual institutions 
were requested to forward to the committee such facts as 
would aid it in making any action it might take both intelli- 
gent and effective. That the project was a wise and neces- 
sary one is evidenced by the enthusiastic responses received 
at once, and before a year had passed, letters were received 
from the presidents of all the institutions on the Associa- 
tion's membership list, expressing approval of the work 
which the committee proposed to undertake. There was as 

Some Early Committees 183 

yet no cry of 'overcrowded colleges,' so that the issue was 
clearer than it would have been even ten years later. 

The importance of directing public attention to the finan- 
cial needs of American colleges and universities was recog- 
nized, and papers presented to the A.C.A., on 'Women's 
Gifts to Educational Institutions,' by Frona M. Brooks 
and Kate Morris Cone, and on ' Needs and Endowments of 
Women's Colleges,' by Frances M. Abbott, as well as reports 
from interested alumnae, all testified to the necessity for 
education on the subject in every possible quarter. An 
especial appeal was put forth in 1890 entitled 'The Financial 
Needs of Colleges,' drawn up by the Committee on College 
Endowments. After a general statement to the effect that 
' the influence of colleges and universities is limited in large 
measure by the narrow resources at their command, al- 
though they stand ready to meet, if not to anticipate, any 
rightful demand which an enlightened public sentiment may 
press upon them as sources of intellectual activity and use- 
fulness,' the leaflet presented rather specifically the needs 
of the fourteen institutions belonging to the Association. 
Although it was, of course, almost as a voice crying 4n the 
wilderness, nevertheless it was striking evidence of the 
vision of this group of younger women when they said: 'The 
instruction of undergraduates is no longer the whole duty 
of our high institutions of learning. To become a real force 
in the intellectual development of the human race by in- 
creasing the sum total of knowledge should be the noble 
ambition of American scholars as it has long been the pride 
of the European universities. If the monied men of the 
United States could be made to realize the importance of 
concentrating their educational gifts in order to promote this 
object, a powerful impetus would be given to original investi- 
gation.' The leaflet closed with an appeal to public bene- 
factors interested in secondary education to keep in mind 
'the needs of the many academies and seminaries whose 
heritage of fine buildings and glorious traditions threatens to 

184 Association of University Women 

succumb for lack of the financial support which modern 
methods of instruction require.' * 

A different angle of the problem was set forth in a paper 
presented in October, 1891, by Millicent W. Shinn and 
Charlotte Anita Whitney on 'The Financial Condition and 
Needs of the Colleges and Universities of California.' The 
question immediately rose as to the advisability of any local 
branch undertaking the raising of special endowments for 
particular institutions. The question had some rather seri- 
ous implications and therefore was referred for consideration 
to the Committee on Endowment of Colleges, who the 
following year recommended that 'no restrictions be placed 
on the branches as far as endowments, scholarships, and 
fellowships are concerned; but it was suggested that no 
branch shall undertake the endowment of a professorship 
unless authorized by the directors of the Association.' 

Continuing its work, the committee in 1893 made a report 
in which were embodied statistics of the money contributed 
by women to educational institutions since 1880. Here the 
interesting fact emerged that women had given much more 
generously for the education of men than for that of their 
own sex. It was shown that women had given five times as 
much as for the education of men in separate colleges as for 
the education of women in separate colleges, and nearly 
twice as much as for women alone and for men and women 
together. The figures were prepared in the form of a chart 
for exhibition at the World's Columbian Exposition, while 
the report itself, including a discussion of the figures and an 
appeal not to 'allow another thirteen years to pile up 
millions of dollars for the education of men and only hun- 
dreds of thousands for that of women,' was ordered printed 
for general distribution. 

One of the most conspicuous achievements of the com- 

' See an article in the Atlantic Monthly for November, 1927, entitled 
'The Question of the Woman's Colleges,' for almost exactly the same 
words, nearly forty years later than the appeal above referred to. 

Some Early Committees 185 

mittee came about in 1894 in connection with the petition 
of a group of influential men and women in Cambridge and 
Boston, interested in the Society for the Collegiate Instruc- 
tion of Women, popularly known as 'The Harvard Annex,' 
for an act of incorporation of a college to be known as Rad- 
cliffe College. Opposition had, of course, developed the 
moment the project was ready for presentation. Petitions 
giving different reasons for opposing the proposed charter 
were presented by a group of 'New York Citizens and 
Alumni of Harvard University' and the 'Alumnae of the 
Harvard Annex.' 'The Annex Fund Committee of the 
Woman's Education Association* also put on record their 
objections, but all this opposition was on other grounds than 
that specifically felt by the members of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnse. The Committee on Endowment of Col- 
leges of the A.C.A.' believed that the resources available 
and the guarantees as to the standard of scholarship to be 
maintained were not sufficient for a college worthy of the 
name, even though an indefinite arrangement with Harvard 
College was offered. Undaunted by the influence and social 
prestige of the petitioners, the chairman of the committee, 
Alia W. Foster, frail in body but mighty in spirit, asked the 
committee of the Massachusetts Legislature for a hearing on 
the bill. The educational community and especially the 
active promoters of the measure were startled that any 
question should be raised as to the fitness of an educational 
project which had the more or less active support of Harvard 
University, but the committee, knowing the attitude of the 
administration of the University toward women as students, 
was determined not to have the State of Massachusetts act 
on the dictum, 'better is halfe a lofe than no bread.' The 
committee found that 'in order to fulfill the duty laid upon 

* The Committee on Endowment of Colleges at this time consisted of: 
Alia W. Foster, Vassar '72, Chairman; Lucia M. Clapp, Smith '89; Alice 
Lee McDowell, Syracuse '76; Rachael C. Clarke, Smith '81; and 
Charlotte A. Whitney, Wellesley '89, as members. 

186 Association of University Women 

them by the Association, viz., to use their utmost endeavor 
to secure for new colleges the adequate foundations required 
by the demands of modern education,* they must oppose the 
granting of the charter in its proposed form. 

Among the features of the special arrangement with 
Harvard University was the following: 

Voted that the President and Fellows of Harvard College be and 
hereby are made and appointed the visitors of this corporation and 
are hereby vested with all visitational power and authority as fully 
as if the same had been originally conferred upon the said President 
and Fellows by the charter or articles of association of this corpora- 
tion ; this vote shall take effect upon an acceptance by the said Presi- 
dent and Fellows of the powers hereby conferred but with the 
proviso that the said President and Fellows at any time may aban- 
don and surrender or limit such powers upon notice to this cor- 

It became clear in the course of the hearing that the 
approval expected by the petitioners was not likely to be 
given. The climax came suddenly when the leading attorney 
for the petitioners called Miss Foster aside and asked her if 
her committee would be satisfied if an amendment were 
made to the proposed charter providing that 'no degree 
shall be conferred by Radcliffe College except with the 
approval of the President and Fellows of Harvard College 
given on satisfactory evidence of such qualification as is 
accepted for the same degree when conferred by Harvard 

Although amazed beyond measure by the suddenness and 
radicalism of these propositions. Miss Foster kept her 
countenance and replied that she would have to consult her 
committee. She sought them in the throng crowding the 
committee-room and immediately secured their assent, since 
no more permanent guarantee of worthy standards could be 
imagined than those proposed by the amendment submitted 
to Miss Foster. Within a few minutes of the time when the 
guarantee was submitted, all objections were waived and the 

Some Early Committees 187 

legislators practically agreed to report favorably on the bill 
as amended. The stir created by this case had an excellent 
effect, especially in Massachusetts, where it was thereafter 
impossible to secure acts of incorporation for collegiate 
enterprises of uncertain grade. The fact was known that the 
Association through its committee would be alert to detect 
deficiencies in pending legislation and had the influence to 
defeat vicious and unsatisfactory educational measures 
affecting women. Acting upon the situation thus made 
clear, at its next annual meeting in 1895, the A.C.A. made 
the suggestion to its branches that they undertake the task 
of securing from their respective legislatures the passage of 
acts fixing a minimum limit of endowment as a prerequisite 
to granting of charters to colleges and universities. 

But the battle was by no means won, even though such 
significant action had been taken. 

At the annual meeting in 1897, Miss Foster reported that 
her committee deplored the fact that they still found 
abundant opportunity for their campaign of public enlight- 
enment as to the meaning and value of a college degree. The 
committee felt that the abuse of the degree-conferring power 
should be checked and a definite meaning be given to a col- 
lege degree in order that its possessor might be known to be 
a person having received at least a minimum — and that a 
clearly defined one — of training. She commended the safe- 
guards recently adopted by the State of Pennsylvania and 
urged that the Association take steps to secure the enact- 
ment of similar laws in other states. In the discussion which 
followed, Alice Freeman Palmer, as a member of the Massa- 
chusetts State Board of Education, 'testified as to the good 
results already secured in that State by even so slight a 
change in the official program as the necessity of public 
advertising and reporting to the State Board of Education all 
intentions to ask for a charter for an educational institution.' 
Nor was testimony lacking elsewhere as to vicious condi- 
tions. May S. Cheney speaking for California and Emma M. 

188 Association of University Women 

Perkins for Ohio reported concerning the various forces 
political, commercial, and educational, which were at work 
to defeat legislative action in the interest of higher standards. 
Inquiries made during the following year showed that in the 
twenty-eight states from which information was received no 
restrictive legislation existed. A vigorous correspondence on 
the subject was carried on by the committee and some im- 
pression perhaps made on public opinion. But it was obvious 
that steady and courageous work was needed, and that the 
utmost the Association in general and its branches in par- 
ticular could do would not solve the situation, though it 
could undoubtedly mitigate the worst efforts of ignorant 
and self-seeking people, in legislative halls as well as in the 
community at large.' 

But one must not infer that either the A.C.A. or its 
committees were opposed to the founding of additional 
institutions. Their concern was only that, if such institutions 
were founded, there must be enlightened policy and an 
adequate financial endowment behind the project. It is 
significant therefore — and entirely logical — that the 
possibility of a national university should be of interest to 
the Association. The idea of such an institution was not 
new. In different forms it had been under consideration 
since the day George Washington himself had urged the 
people of the United States to recognize the importance of 
such a federal project and had bequeathed a sum of money 
toward its support. Since such an idea naturally involved 
the educational interests of women, the A.C.A. as early as 
1893 determined actively to participate in a movement then 
under discussion, and appointed Annie H. Barus with four 
associates acting as a committee to petition Congress for 
speedy action on the bill then pending to establish such a 

' A bill was presented to the legislature of the State of Wisconsin in the 
session of 1929 for opening the University of Wisconsin to all comers, 
regardless of the lack of previous preparation. The measure failed of 

Some Early Committees 189 

university. This committee and its successors brought be- 
fore the Association a series of suggestions which were 
adopted and proved the basis for active steps in support of 
the measure. As the years passed and the project was 
naturally enough subjected to close scrutiny and criticism 
by educators, politicians, and the public generally, the 
original plan underwent many modifications. When, in 
1897, the Association was urged to make its National Uni- 
versity Committee an accredited committee of the George 
Washington Memorial Committee to help raise funds for 
the erection of a building, the matter assumed a new form. 
Action was not taken immediately, but, in its characteristi- 
cally deliberate, perhaps overcautious, manner, the Associa- 
tion voted to appoint a committee to consider whether it was 
expedient to adopt this proposal. The committee at the 
next session reported unfavorably in view of the financial 
problems pressing upon the Association. At the same time 
the Association voted that it was not prepared just then to 
favor the establishment of such a university. The project 
had, in fact, come to a standstill because of the Spanish- 
American War. When, furthermore, the Association became 
clear in its own mind that it did not consider the raising of 
funds for any specific institution to be one of its functions, 
it was felt wise to consolidate the Committee on Endowment 
of Colleges, which was already extending its work to include 
educational legislation, and the Committee on a National 
University, whose field had been designated as the super- 
vision of legislation dealing with such an institution, into a 
new Committee on Educational Legislation. By this action 
on the part of the Association, any haziness in the minds of 
the public, or of any other organization, was cleared, and the 
task of the A.C.A. stood revealed in its larger aspect and 
character to be as it had been at its founding. Before the 
Committee on a National University was dissolved, how- 
ever, it reported that the proposed agitation for representa- 
tion of the Association on the Board of Regents of the 

190 Association of University Women 

National University, to which it was entitled under the terms 
of the pending bill, would be most untimely and impolitic. 
It was pointed out by them that such insistence might divert 
the attention of legislators from the main object and even 
render them hostile to the entire measure because of a detail 
which they might find objectionable. It seemed more reason- 
able and sounder policy to assume that women would enjoy 
all the privileges offered by the new university when once 
it had been established. In 1901, the plan for a national 
university was reviewed through papers presented to the 
A.C.A. by May Wright Sewall and Dr. Charles F. Thwing,' 
and interest was aroused anew. Shortly afterward the 
announcement was made of Andrew Carnegie's gift of 
$10,000,000 for the endowment of a graduate institution of 
research at the national capital, and as this plan seemed to 
promise the fulfillment of the desires of the Association, no 
further consideration of the national university took place. 
Yet the experience had been one which had considerably 
enriched the influence of the Association in the educational 
world, both as an organization and as individuals. 

When the Committee on Endowment of Colleges and the 
Committee on a National University were, in 1898, consoli- 
dated under the name of the Committee on Educational 
Legislation, Miss Foster, former chairman of the Committee 
on Endowment of Colleges, became chairman of the new 
group. This new committee reported in 1899 the results of 
a study as to laws regulating the chartering of educational 
institutions with power to grant degrees. As far as could be 
learned positively, the only States which had then made 
legal provision for minimum endowment were New York 
and Pennsylvania, which required $500,000, and Michigan 
which required only $50,000. Clearly there was a wide range 
of opinion as to what constituted adequate financial support 
for new colleges and universities. But the Committee on 

^ President of Western Reserve University, after his retirement emer' 
itus, a free-lance, often inspiring and helpful in the field of education. 

Some Early Committees 191 

Educational Legislation was clear in its own mind that not 
only was the Association in general concerned in the matter, 
but that through its branches it possessed protagonists of 
no mean sort. The Chicago Branch in 1899 took an active 
part and a steady one in a hot battle raging in Illinois be- 
tween the friends and foes of legislation restricting the 
degree-conferring power. Although the minimum endow- 
ment provided for in the proposed bill before the Illinois 
Legislature was only $100,000, and the advocates of safe- 
guards were ready even to omit this provision, the opposi- 
tion won the day and the bill was defeated. The words of 
resolutions passed at a meeting held to denounce the 
measure continued to reverberate down through the years 
and at times threatened seriously to damage the educational 
principles which should be safeguarded by the State. It was 
described as ' a vicious form of class legislation having for its 
ultimate purpose the establishment of a trust among certain 
private educational institutions to the detriment or extinc- 
tion of the secondary colleges and professional schools of the 
State and an attempt to invade the liberties of the people 
by the establishment of a gigantic monopoly in academic 
and technical education and the introduction of a money 
standard as the measure of educational ability.' ' 

Nor was Illinois the only State where legislation needed 
watching. Other efforts to restrict the degree-conferring 
power were reported by the committee as having been made 
in different parts of the country. In several states — ■ 
notably California, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Massachusetts 
— branches either instituted or urged to more vigorous 
action committees on educational legislation, all of which 
had the twofold aspect of cooperating with the National 
Association and of working independently to better local 
conditions. At the same time, the Southern Association of 
College Women was attacking the same problem in the 

* See debates in the Wisconsin Legislature, 1929, for the same point of 
view regarding the University of Wisconsin. 

192 Association of University Women 

Southern States, and was doing yeoman service in a highly 
important work.* 

In spite of all these valiant efforts, the results were not 
always encouraging, for the day of active participation in 
politics by the rank and file of women was still some years 
away, and the League of Women Voters was not even as yet 
a dream for the future. The members of the A.C.A. had had 
no experience with the ward-heeler, and were ill-fitted to 
cope with the politician, novice, or professional. Nor were 
the issues involved always clear-cut. Many of them were 
not sufficiently practical and personal to enlist the active 
interest of the general body of members. Nevertheless, when 
vision and leadership were provided, real achievement took 
place. Under the chairmanship of Madeleine Wallin Sikes, 
the work of the branch committees was more thoroughly 
organized and placed under the supervision of the general 
Committee on Educational Legislation, with the term 
' educational legislation ' so interpreted as to include a much 
larger variety of topics than was originally contemplated.' 

Thus out of an inquiry into the resources of colleges grew 
the larger and more permanent piece of work regarding 
educational legislation which is one of the most valuable 
pieces of work done by the A.A.U.W. 

* See Chapter V. ' See Chapter XVI. 


During the years when the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae was considering problems of collegiate and univer- 
sity education in general, there was gradually forced upon the 
attention of leaders and members the fact that there were 
phases of administration and of administrative policy which 
either directly or by implication had an effect upon the rela- 
tion existing between women students, women on the facul- 
ties, women on the governing board, and the institution 
itself. At the annual meeting held under the auspices of the 
Washington, D.C., Branch in April, 1887, Alia W. Foster pre- 
sented a thoughtful paper entitled ' The Relation of Women 
to the Governing Boards and Faculties of Colleges.' After 
considering in some detail the general conditions in the insti- 
tutions belonging to the Association, she drew the conclusion 
that no active effort should be made at that time to urge the 
appointment of women to professorships, but that the 
appointment of well-trained and qualified women as trustees 
was a measure worthy of hearty endorsement. 

One practical result of Miss Foster's paper is a matter of 
record. Although no definite action on the subject was at 
that time taken by the Association, several positions of trust 
were shortly opened to women. Realizing the seriousness of 
the responsibilities entrusted to them, the members of the 
Association living in and near Boston, who were serving 
as college trustees, held in 1889 a conference.' These five 
women, representing the governing boards of four different 
colleges, discussed such subjects as the organization of boards 

' Florence M. Gushing, Elizabeth E. Poppleton, Alice Freeman 
Palmer, Kate Morris Cone, and Marion Talbot. 

194 Association of University Women 

of trustees, methods of financial administration, the selec- 
tion and appointment of teachers, the relation of alumnae 
associations, and the status of special students — each one 
a vital and fundamental problem in any college. In her 
annual report, the secretary of the A.C.A. suggested that 
this small group of women serving as trustees of colleges or 
universities, whose number would undoubtedly increase as 
time went on, might quite suitably be asked to serve as a 
committee of the Association on collegiate administration 
for the purpose of making more effective the influence which 
the Association was striving to wield in behalf of progress in 
collegiate education for women. The suggestion was so 
exactly in line with the underlying purposes of the organiza- 
tion that it was acted upon at once, and there was appointed 
in 1891 the Committee on Collegiate Administration. Its 
membership was made up of Helen H. Backus, Kate Morris 
Cone, Florence M. Cushing, Alice Freeman Palmer, Eliza- 
beth E. Poppleton, Marion Talbot, and Charlotte C. Tucker, 
representing Boston University, Smith College, Vassar Col- 
lege, and Wellesley College, Miss Cushing acting as chair- 
man. As the A.C.A. was just interesting itself in the matter 
of fellowships and scholarships, the committee's first request 
was that the subject of the administration of collegiate 
beneficiary funds and scholarships might be considered. 
Acting upon this request, Elizabeth Deering Hanscom at the 
annual meeting in 1892 presented a paper on that subject. 
Two years later (1894) the committee recommended that 
the president and secretary appoint a committee of five to 
take under consideration the question of the adjustment of 
the Association to the changes and developments which the 
past five years had brought about in college and university 
work, this special committee to report the results for con- 
sideration at the next annual meeting. At this point the 
Association seriously overrated its powers. The president 
and secretary reported the next year that they had made 
every effort to carry out the instructions, but they had not 

College Administration 195 

been able to secure the cooperation of a sufficient number of 
people whose knowledge, experience, and judgment would 
fit them to deal with the difficult technical problems in- 
volved. This experience and other practical difficulties dis- 
heartened the committee, and no meeting was held until 
1900, when a conference attended by eight members took 
place in New York. In the mean time, Cornell University 
and Barnard College had been added to the institutions 
entitled to representation on the committee. The Executive 
Committee of the Association submitted a series of questions 
to be considered by the conference, but they all — a general 
plan for trustee management, faculty power, entrance re- 
quirements, and so forth — failed to arouse any vital dis- 
cussion. Finally the question of food as served in college 
dormitories was brought up, whereupon the discussion 
became interesting and vivid ! No definite action was taken 
by the group, but it seemed best to record the fact that no 
greater problem had been found, as a matter of collegiate 
administration, than that of furnishing and serving proper 
food to the students and teachers in their college halls. 
Ellen H. Richards at this meeting presented a report on 
the subject, in which she not only showed with clarity the 
relation of food to health and therefore to intellectual work, 
but, like the prophet she was, she stated that in the future 
trained food experts in the college kitchen would probably 
be installed, but not — so she thought — until a chair of 
sanitary science had been established in the faculty. This 
report was sent to all members of the committee, and it was 
hoped that a definite and valuable step had been taken 
toward giving an important subject the attention and study 
it deserved. 

Although the Committee on Collegiate Administration did 
not meet again for five years, significant events were taking 
place, which ultimately would be the concern of college 
trustees and university regents, especially to women mem- 
bers of boards of directors such as these were. The great 

196 Association of University Women 

influx of students into the colleges and universities, which 
was one of the significant movements of the late 1890's and 
early I900*s, had its effect upon the governing boards of 
various institutions. This was especially true where the 
number of women increased more rapidly than that of men. 
In Leland Stanford Junior University, for example, where 
the proportion of men to women students had been for a 
decade about equal, the Board of Trustees yielded to the 
earnest desire of the surviving founder, Mrs. Leland Stan- 
ford, and in the articles of incorporation of 1903, whereby 
the institution definitely passed into the hands of the govern- 
ing board, set the limit of women students arbitrarily at 
five hundred. Wesleyan University (Connecticut) closed its 
doors entirely to women, although the number of women 
students had never been large enough to be a real menace 
except in the opinion of the most rabid opponents of coeduca- 
tion. A policy of segregation of the sexes in the junior col- 
leges had been adopted by the trustees of the University of 
Chicago under the leadership of President Harper, in spite 
of strong opposition on the part of the faculty. 

At the University of Wisconsin, a movement for the 
segregation of women students in quiz sections in history 
was scotched largely through the vigilance and courage of 
Helen Remington Olin, a graduate of the University in 1876. 
A very definite movement was evidently on foot in many 
coeducational institutions either to restrict the number of 
women students or to alter the methods under which they 
were continued as members of the college community. 
These were naturally matters in which the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae was vitally interested, both because of 
their relation to the general problem of higher education for 
women, and also because of the conditions under which 
institutions had been admitted to corporate membership in 
the A.C.A. Accordingly, a special committee was in 1902 
appointed to report to the Association 'what in their opinion 
is the seeming significance of this new movement toward the 

College Administration 197 

higher education of women.' ' After a year of study, the 
committee made a report in which the scope of the investiga- 
tion was outlined, with the warning that if it was to be of 
value, the whole inquiry must be pursued quite apart 
from any a priori theory or ideal of education. It was sug- 
gested that the necessity seemed clear for research under four 
heads : 

1. The motive (or purpose) of college education. 

2. The curriculum demanded (as means). 

3. Social conditions in the colleges. 

4. Questions of finance and administration involved. 

These data should be collected from several different colleges 
of each type; that is, segregated women's colleges, affiliated 
women's colleges like Barnard, and coeducational institu- 
tions like the University of Chicago. The committee ex- 
pressed the hope that with the answers to the questions they 
had propounded in hand, they would be in a position to 
appreciate the real demand that the colleges have to meet 
and to value rightly the work of each type of college and to 
criticize fairly the changes that are taking place in them, as 
well as finally to answer in an unprejudiced way the ques- 
tion, 'What is the seeming significance of the new move- 
ment?' The committee thus made a vigorous, courageous 
start, but the undertaking was too difficult, too time- 
consuming, and too technical in its detail even for the well- 
trained and interested members who were called upon, one 
after another, to give their services, and the project had 
finally to be abandoned. The discussions, however, had not 
been without value. It was certainly a matter of far- 
reaching importance that an organization existed which felt 
responsibility in watching and questioning tendencies in the 
higher education of women. Even though no practical result 
was obtained, the Association had taken an important step 

* Sarah S. Whittlesey, Caroline Gushing Duniway, Ruth Putnam, 
Elizabeth D. Hanscom, and Ethel Glover Hatfield. 

198 Association of University Women 

toward achieving one of the purposes for which it was 

When, in 1905, the Committee on Collegiate Administra- 
tion met again, it was not specifically the matter of restric- 
tions on women as members of the student body or on 
faculties which immediately engaged their attention. Sev- 
eral vital and important questions were considered, among 
them the advisability of introducing into the college curri- 
culum a more practical course in home economics. In the 
light of later developments, the action of the committee is 
significant and somewhat disconcerting, for it passed unani- 
mously the following resolution; 

We believe that home economics belong in a professional course 
which should fit its pupils for practical life, and that such a course 
taken after leaving college in connection with practical housekeep- 
ing will be of much greater value. We believe that as an applied 
science it has not the same educational value as courses that 
give liberal training and that our future home-makers should have 
the broadest liberal training on which to base their technical know- 

Therefore, Resolved, that it is the opinion of those present at this 
meeting that home economics as such has no place in a college course 
for women. 

Those present at this meeting included trustees from 
Barnard, Bryn Mawr, Vassar, and Wellesley Colleges and 
Cornell University, and no one seemed to take any exception 
to the introduction into the college curriculum of the 
subject-matter of home economics, provided it were given 
another name. 

In 1909, when the Committee on Collegiate Administra- 
tion met, it was voted that Mary Coes, the chairman, 

^ The Committee on Maintaining Standards of the A.A.U.W. has 
had an identical experience of resignation of chairmen, because of the 
technical difficulties in the way of investigation, and the complex nature 
of the problem involved. The Committee on Standards of the Interna- 
tional Federation of University Women has also found its task a perplex- 
ing and difficult one. 

College Administration 199 

'appoint a committee of five to draw up a statement of 
the special need of endowment for the higher education of 
women,' with the instruction added that this statement, 
which was to be issued over the signatures of the whole 
committee ' be sent to well-known philanthropists and to the 
executives and alumnae associations of the various colleges.* 
The committee had at this time twenty-three members serv- 
ing on boards of trustees of six women's colleges and of one 
university — that of Wisconsin. 

During the year 1909-10, the committee held but one 
meeting, when a number of topics pertaining to college 
administration were discussed, three of which seemed vital 
enough to have sub-committees appointed to report at the 
next annual meeting of the committee. These three topics 
were, ' the ratio of the cost of tuition to the price charged for 
it,' 'modern scientific methods of business administration for 
our colleges,' and 'legitimate clubs and organizations in 
colleges.' It was also reported that the sub-committee 
appointed in 1909 to draw up a statement on the need of 
endowment for women's colleges could show progress, but 
was not ready with a final statement. 

The question of obtaining information as to placing women 
of 'high collegiate training' in dignified academic positions 
came before the Executive Committee of the A.C.A. in 1906, 
and to meet the problem a committee was appointed, called 
the Committee on Academic Appointments. The only re- 
port which the committee made was presented at the Denver 
Convention in 1910, by Susan M. Kingsbury. She presented 
the results of an inquiry which had been made in the institu- 
tions which made up the membership of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae — twenty-three in number — as to the 
professional status of women college graduates who had 
attained at least the rank of instructor. The results pre- 
sented were from colleges for women, affiliated colleges, and 
coeducational institutions, giving rank, subject taught, and 
salary in each case, with the possible range of salary as well. 

200 Association of University Women 

Dr. Kingsbury announced that the report was * int^Mild to 
represent a logical beginning rather than a complete plan of 
work.' But for some reason there was no further reporl^^nd 
after the reorganization of the Association in 191 2/ the 
questions before the Committee on Academic Appointments 
were discussed by other committees. 

When the reorganization of 1 91 2 took place, the Com- 
mittee on Collegiate Administration became the Conference 
of Women Trustees of A.C.A. Colleges and Universities, and 
as such held meetings in connection with the conventions of 
the Association for many years. In 19 14, the conference 
asked and secured approval by the biennial convention of the 
Association of the following resolutions: 

Resolved, That we, the members of the Conference of Women 
Trustees, composed of the women trustees of the colleges and uni- 
versities belonging to the Association of Collegiate Alumnae present 
at two regular meetings of the Conference held at Radcliffe College 
February 14, 191 4, and at Bryn Mawr College April 14, 191 4, hereby 
affirm our belief that it is our duty as women trustees of the inde- 
pendent women's colleges, affiliated women's colleges, and coeduca- 
tional colleges and universities to promote by every means in our 
power the highest academic standards; to urge on our respective 
boards of trustees the adoption of a uniform and self-explanatory 
system of college accounting; to make it our business to see that the 
women teachers employed by our governing boards receive salaries 
equal to those of men teachers of the same academic standing, and 
are not assigned social and other non-academic duties not required 
of men scholars of equal rank (such duties being otherwise provided 
for); and finally to take active measures to secure for all women 
teachers in our employ the same opportunities of promotion in 
position and salary as are afforded men teachers of the same aca- 
demic standing, and especially opportunities of promotion to head 
professorships in proportion to the relative numbers of men and 
women employed as instructors of higher grade in the colleges or 
universities which we represent. . . . 

Resolved, That we, the members of the Conference of Women 
Trustees, composed of the women trustees of the colleges and uni- 
versities belonging to the Association of Collegiate Alumnae present 
at two regular meetings of the Conference held at Radcliffe College 
February 14, 1914, and at Bryn Mawr College, April 14, 1914, 

College Administration 201 

herebJ5f^R88rm our belief that every president of a college or univer- 
sity and' every dean or chief executive officer of a woman's college 
affiliaised with a college or university for men should be a member of 
the governing board of such college, university, or affiliated woman's 
college, either by regular election or ex-oficio, in order to increase the 
power of such executive officer to serve the college or university 
which he or she represents, to promote its interests in the com- 
munity, to represent duly the trustees in the faculty and student 
body, and to forward the educational policies of the faculty in the 
governing board itself. 

Here was certainly a broad platform, and a fair one. It 
showed, moreover, an integration in ideals and purposes of 
many groups in the whole Association. For example, it 
represented the trend in policy of the Committee on Recogni- 
tion of Colleges and Universities, the Committee on the 
Economic and Legal Status of Women, and other committees 
working from time to time on special problems. 

In 191 5, a conference of professors in the institutions be- 
longing to the Association was provided for in the program 
of the biennial convention of that year. For a number of 
years there had been held, also at the time of the general 
convention, a conference of deans in colleges and universities 
on the Association's list of members. It was evident that 
both of these groups as well as the conference of women 
trustees had common interests. At the suggestion of the 
conference of college professors, there was held in connection 
with the biennial convention, April, 1917, a joint conference 
of all groups meeting at that time. Each group met alone, 
before the joint meeting of the three. In all these confer- 
ences the question of women in teaching positions in co- 
educational and separate colleges for women was discussed 
from many angles — of financial reward, of rank, of promo- 
tion, of representation on important committees and of 
exchange teaching positions. The program was broad and 
timely, with great value for those present, as well as for the 
whole organization. For the next decade, whenever the con- 
ference of women trustees met, the chief questions under 

202 Association of University Women 

consideration were those raised in the resolutions presented 
in 1 9 14, and the ever-present need of larger endowment and 
better resources in all ways to meet the great influx of 
students which followed the close of the World War. 

But the problem of women's status on university fac- 
ulties, with which Miss Kingsbury's committee was con- 
cerned in 1909-10, and which (as has been seen) was closely 
allied with the work of the committee which had the task 
of recommending new institutions to membership in the 
Association, was a persistent one. In 1923, Dr. Ella Lonn 
gave a paper at the Portland Convention of the Association 
which was so valuable that, besides being published in the 
Journal,^ it was also read later in the summer at Winnipeg, 
Canada, at the meeting of the Canadian Federation of Uni- 
versity Women. Dr. Lonn had made an exhaustive study of 
the problem and besought the Association to encourage 
women's research by publication of papers, by vigilance and 
prompt action in institutions where women's position was 
threatened, by inaugurating exchange professorships be- 
tween men's universities and women's colleges, and by 
getting facts presented to governing bodies and adminis- 
trators whereby qualified women might at least be recog- 
nized as existing in space! She further besought women 
themselves to take their ability as teachers or writers or 
research workers more seriously and more broadly, that the 
question of quality at least might be eliminated and work 
of the finest type be recognized on its merits. 

Another conference which had been for several years in 
existence, not meeting regularly, however, was that of 
alumnae associations affiliated with the A.C.A. Still another 
later development was that of the conference of women who 
were principals of preparatory schools and were members of 
A.C.A. In 1923, at the Portland Convention, these last- 
named groups, together with the groups of women trustees, 
of deans, and of college professors, held separate conferences, 
» See Journal of A.A.U.W., January, 1924, pp. 5 ff. 

College Administration 203 

and later a joint conference at which the relation of alumnse 
to their colleges, the rising cost of education, and the char- 
acter of the college curriculum were all discussed in a variety 
of aspects. Finally, in 1928, when these conferences seemed 
no longer to need the fostering care of the Association, the 
different groups having met separately or with other organi- 
zations for a number of years, they passed off the stage, and 
no provision was made at the convention of 1929 for their 
inclusion in the program of the biennial convention. Thus 
was closed a chapter whose beginning was in 1887, with 
Alia Foster's paper. 

In looking through the histories of the branches of the 
American Association of University Women, one comes 
again and again upon the names of women who are serving 
as regents, directors, trustees — by whatever name the 
members of governing boards of colleges and universities are 
called. How much the Association of Collegiate Alumnse did 
in the old days to stir institutions, alumnae, its own members, 
to a recognition of the need for women members on these 
boards and faculties, one cannot estimate. But it is signifi- 
cant that the Committee on Membership still deems it 
almost a sine qua non of consideration which will be given to 
an institution desiring to become a member of the organiza- 
tion, the fact of women's membership on its governing 
board. Again and again one finds the names of women on 
faculties, in all ranks from instructor to professor, though 
not so often as one could wish. Yet in the Journal of the 
American Association of University Women for June, 1929, 
in the report of the Committee on Maintaining Standards, 
occurs the following paragraph : 

Are there signs of retrogression as regards the position of women 
on college and university faculties? Are the opportunities for highly 
trained women on college faculties fewer to-day than ten years 
ago? Has any change occurred in regard to membership on college 
boards of trustees, or recognition of women in the college adminis- 

204 Association of University Women 

And stoutly, as always, the report announces that it is pre- 
paring a summary of the answers to these questions, for 
presentation to the Association and — by implication — to 
ask the organization to do something about it! The long 
struggle is not yet won. 


The Association of Collegiate Alumnae came into being at 
a time when the American people were being aroused — 
albeit slowly — to the necessity for a thorough house- 
cleaning in the matter of political appointments, federal, 
state, and municipal. From the outset the founders of the 
A.C.A. saw that at every turn their work of necessity came 
into contact with public affairs and more than once they 
found themselves balked by forces which made for evil and 
ignorance and not for the public good. Often called upon to 
take up work of a civic character, the Association refused to 
be 'blown about by various winds of doctrine' and held 
steadily to those tasks in which education was the outstand- 
ing factor. This staunch attitude did not, however, mean 
that the mind of the Association, collective or individual, 
was closed to living immediate issues. Through the years 
when the pioneers for reform in the public service were doing 
yeoman work, the A.C.A. was not unaware of the importance 
of the struggle, and in 1902 (at Washington, where a con- 
vention of the Association was being held), United States 
Commissioner William Dudley Foulke was asked to address 
the Association on 'The Rationale of Civil Service Reform.' 
Following his address, the usual procedure was followed, and 
a committee, with Kate Holladay Claghorn as chairman, 
was appointed for study of the question in its bearing upon 
women's interests. It was evident that in so far as trained 
women and their professional careers might be involved, the 
subject would be of interest to the A.C.A., and might bring 
up the problem of the relation of the organization to the 
whole matter as Mr. Foulke had outlined it. The com- 
mittee thus appointed made a later report recommending 
the appointment by the Association of a special committee 

206 Association of University Women 

charged with the task of studying the opportunities actual 
and possible which might in the federal, state, or municipal 
service engage the interest of trained women. The purpose 
of this piece of research was to secure information, not to 
urge reform. It was pointed out that the educational work 
of the Association was necessarily affected by the civil 
service reform movement especially in its effect upon ele- 
mentary and secondary schools, where improvement in the 
civil service would mean practical and effective reform in 
the appointment of teachers, executives, and janitors as 
well.^ Since the health and education of public school 
children had an immediate relation to the work of these 
children when as college and university students they were 
preparing for their life-work made an obvious connection 
with the interests of the A.C.A. It was recognized, however, 
that because of the individualistic nature of public school 
education in the United States, where there is no Minister 
of Education as European countries know such an officer, 
and where there is no federal control of the situation, the 
work must be local in character, and as such committed to 
the branches for effective work rather than to the Associa- 
tion as a whole. The latter would endorse and encourage 
the work of the branches, but it obviously could not do the 
actual work, which must be suited to local conditions and 
done on the spot, so to speak, often with the cooperation of 
other agencies. After three years the work of the Associa- 
tion, especially through its branches, had become suffi- 
ciently well known and had made such real progress in form- 
ing public opinion on the question of civil service and the 
public schools that the general committee appointed in 1902 
could be discharged. The branches were, however, urged 
strongly to keep up local work, especially where the public 
schools were concerned.* 

* See Chapter XXIX for work of the San Francisco Bay Branch in 
leading the way for a survey of the public schools of San Francisco. 
» Ibid., passim. 

Three Typical Committees 207 

It was the Washington, D.C., Branch which in the end 
did what was perhaps the most outstanding piece of work 
in the matter of civil service and the trained woman's rela- 
tion to it. In the Journal of the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae for April, 1913, called the 'Vocational Number,' 
there appeared 'A Report on the Status of Women in the 
Classified Civil Service of the United States Government 
in the District of Columbia' — a report presented by Laura 
Puffer Morgan for the Committee on Vocational Oppor- 
tunity of the Washington Branch. In this admirable piece 
of research, which covered the women employed at the time 
of or following the passage of the Civil Service Act of 1883, 
as well as the women employees of the Library of Congress, 
the committee had compiled data which were complete and 
of invaluable character. Under thirteen departments of the 
Government there were listed the number of women em- 
ployed, the positions they occupied, and the salary they 
received. Under five tables taken from various sources were 
given distribution by character of work, classified by sex 
both as to total number and as to percentages, of something 
over thirty thousand Government employees under^the civil 
service, of whom about twenty-nine per cent were women, 
whose pay averaged about seventy-eight per cent of that of 
the men similarly employed. The report gave information 
as to training required, as to chances of advancement, and 
miscellaneous information as to cost of living, etc. It drew 
no conclusions, nor did it offer advice. The facts were there, 
open to interested persons. 

The Washington Branch, moreover, has had always a 
large element in its membership composed of Government 
employees. During the World War, that branch naturally 
came more closely in contact with various activities of the 
Federal Government than did any other branch, and often 
pointed the way to work for the whole Association. Eliza- 
beth Kemper Adams, who had done for the Association an 
outstanding piece of research as chairman of the Vocational 

208 Association of University Women 

Opportunities Committee, conceived and initiated the Pro- 
fessional Section of the United States Employment Service, 
coming to Washington as representative of the National 
Committee of the Bureaus of Occupations. Dr. Adams first 
became chief of the Collegiate Section of the Women's Divi- 
sion of the United States Employment Service, and when 
at her suggestion a professional section for both men and 
women was formed, she became its head. It was hoped that 
the way might be made clear for a permanent employment 
service under the Federal Government, thus providing for a 
situation which the Association of Collegiate Alumnae had 
seen with clarity many years before, and which it at least 
twice tried itself to solve. But like many situations which 
must wait for legislative action, delay followed upon delay, 
and at last on October lo, 1919, all federal support for field 
offices of the United States Employment Service was with- 
drawn, and in the emergency thus presented, the director- 
general called upon civic organizations to cooperate in keep- 
ing open the Association offices for limited activity until the 
end of the fiscal year, June 30, 1920. At the St. Louis Con- 
vention in April, 1919, the Association of Collegiate Alumnae 
approved the appointment of a Committee on the Registry 
of Trained Women, and authorized the executive officers to 
make an appropriation for the committee work. But 
Dr. Ida H. Hyde, who generously offered to take the chair- 
manship, found immediately that the task was too over- 
whelming in its demands in time, strength, and funds for 
volunteer service to undertake, and the plan was, albeit 
with reluctance, abandoned. 

In the dire necessity which in the fall of 1919 confronted 
the United States Employment Service — Laura Puffer 
Morgan, Gertrude S. Martin, and Mrs. Philip N. Moore 
stepped into the breach and offered the resources of the As- 
sociation of Collegiate Alumnse to carry on the work so far 
as it was possible to do so. The Federal Government pro- 
vided office space, heat, furniture, equipment, the franking 

Three Typical Committees 209 

privilege, supplies and forms, with some clerical help. 
Incidental expenses, such as light, telephone, and janitor 
service were found by a citizens' committee of the District 
of Columbia. Under Mrs. Morgan, who was the vice- 
president-at-large of the A.C.A., together with the National 
Catholic War Council and the National Young Women's 
Christian Association, the professional and clerical work 
of the Women's Division was taken over along with the 
custodianship of the valuable records and information 
which had in the course of its operation been gathered to- 
gether. About all that could be done was to 'hold the fort* 
until relief could be forthcoming. Since the work done by 
Mrs. Morgan and her assistants was largely national in 
character and concerned with the placement of war workers 
who were being discharged from the Government service, 
the Association rightly regarded the contribution of four 
hundred dollars as a part of its 'war work.' When the fiscal 
year of the Government closed on June 30, 1920, the con- 
nection of the A.C.A. with this branch of Government 
service ceased, for the abnormal release of temporary Gov- 
ernment employees had come to an end, and the financial 
aid to the support of the employment office could no longer 
be regarded as war work. In summing up the work, Mrs. 
Morgan said, ' In short, the experiment of the past year has 
proven conclusively to all who were engaged in it that even 
under normal conditions there is a great need for a profes- 
sional bureau in Washington — at least a bureau of voca- 
tional information.* But such a bureau as Mrs. Morgan 
envisioned has not yet been provided by the Federal Gov- 
ernment, though the need for it grows yearly more urgent. 
The Washington Branch was responsible for still another 
outstanding achievement of the Association. At the council 
meeting held in Chicago in 1916, the Washington Branch 
brought forward a resolution which became the basis for 
thirteen years of work of unusual quality and vision. The 
war had accentuated the need for better housing for Govern- 

210 Association of University Women 

ment workers, and as a consequence the Washington Branch 
had long been concerned with better housing legislation. 
Through its Housing Committee the following resolution 
was presented: 

Whereas, Wholesome home life is essential to the rearing of 
children to be worthy citizens, and wholesome home life requires a 
standard of light, air, sanitation, and privacy not to be found in the 
congested tenements of our cities; 

Whereas, Experience shows that private initiative, whether 
business or philanthropic, has proved inadequate to remedy these 
evils; and 

Whereas, Constructive housing legislation in foreign countries has 
produced a noteworthy improvement in these conditions; and 

Whereas, This is a matter which especially concerns the women of 
the nation who are the home makers and responsible for the up- 
bringing of the next generation; therefore be it 

Resolved, That the Board of Directors of the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae records itself as being in favor of constructive hous- 
ing legislation in the United States and that it requests the Congress 
of the United States to pass such housing legislation for the District 
of Columbia as may serve as a model for the various states. And be 
it further 

Resolved, That a standing national Committee on Constructive 
Housing Legislation shall be created in the Association, whose duty 
it shall be to make an exhaustive study of the entire subject, and 
who shall recommend to the local branches the creation of local 
standing committees for the purpose of studying and improving local 
conditions, and of cooperating with the housing committee of the 
Washington Branch in its efforts to have the Federal Congress enact 
a law for the District of Columbia which may serve as a model for 
the various states. 

Immediately upon the adoption of this program, a 
Housing Committee of the A.C.A. was appointed under 
the chairmanship of Edith Elmer Wood, who for the next 
thirteen years was the moving force in all the recommenda- 
tions and achievements of her committee. After two years 
of work Mrs. Wood in her annual report of 191 8 called atten- 
tion to the fact that definite suggestions had emerged which 
obviously lead to practical work in the immediate future. 

Three Typical Committees 211 

Three branches, always leaders in any enterprise which the 
A.C.A. undertook, those at Boston, Washington, and Cali- 
fornia, had, Mrs. Wood reported, already appointed local 
committees on housing. At the St. Louis Convention of 
1919, Mrs. Wood presented a more extended outline which 
became the basis of a book which at a later time she pub- 
lished. In this outline the fundamental importance of the 
housing problem, especially with reference to children, was 
brought out clearly, with a courageous statement of the 
responsibility and opportunity of the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae, together with suggestions for obtaining the 
*good house' and preventing the 'bad house,' a double pro- 
gram, which, as Mrs. Wood pointed out, would be involved 
in any study of the whole situation. Attention was called to 
model laws, to model housing, to model town planning, not 
only in this country, but in Canada and Germany. Financing 
housing plans by municipalities was briefly described with 
especial reference to the projects of London, Liverpool, Ulm, 
Dusseldorf, New Zealand, Denmark, Italy, and Belgium. 

So important was this report that it was selected by the 
Army Overseas Educational Commission to reprint and 
distribute by the thousands to the soldiers overseas taking 
citizenship courses. Its educational value was thus recog- 
nized in substantial fashion. That the commission's work 
was unexpectedly cut short by the Armistice and consequent 
prompt repatriation of the American Expeditionary Forces 
does not violate the importance which this piece of con- 
structive research signified. 

In the Journal of the A.A.U.W. for October, 1922, there 
appeared an article entitled * Housing and Health Through 
European Eyes,' prepared by Mrs. Wood after a consider- 
able stay in Europe. At the conference of the International 
Garden Cities and Town Planning Association, held in 
London, England, in March, 1922, Mrs. Wood had the 
honor of replying for the United States to the presidential 
address of welcome. After a general account of the confer- 

212 " Association of University Women 

ence, Mrs. Wood drew several important conclusions accom- 
panied by figures and costs which any student of the housing 
problem would do well to consult and to ponder. 

Nor were these more obvious achievements the only 
result of the work of Mrs. Wood's committee. The deans of 
women of colleges and institutions had for many years met 
in conference, at first in connection with the conventions 
of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, and later in their 
own enlarged organization. In the fall of 192 1, such a con- 
ference met in California with several representatives of 
housing committees of the branches of the State present. 
The discussion turned immediately upon the lack of a 
standard for housing college students, the lack of carefully 
collected data available for the establishment of such a 
standard, and the desirability of such housing conditions 
for students as should have an educational value during the 
four years of undergraduate life. This conference rightly 
felt that the collection of such data and the establishment of 
such a standard was the appropriate work of the A.A.U.W. 
Mrs. Wood's committee set out upon this investigation, and 
in a carefully compiled report in 1922 set forth not only 
facts but suggestions for securing such information as the 
investigation showed to be imperative.* In closing, the 
committee said: 'The Committee on Housing feel that no 
more important educational work demands the cooperation 
of the American Association of University Women than 
this of providing adequate and suitable housing for the 
students of the Nation.' As the work progressed, still 
another field was suggested, that of formulating and issuing 
a set of housing standards for women students, especially in 
those colleges and universities which in the near future 
would be erecting dormitories, or which, as in the case of the 

^ See Journal of the A.A.U.W., July, 1922, pp. 97-108. The report is 
signed by Edith Elmer Wood as chairman, Caroline V. Lynch as acting 
chairman, and Ona Winants Borland, Lillian Bridgman, Mildred 
Chadsey, Kate Holladay Claghorn, Vida Hunt Francis, Mary Rockwell 
Hook, and Helen R. Wright- 

Three Typical Committees 213 

state universities, were obliged to supervise the private 
houses or the lodging houses which were the only substi- 
tutes for the dormitories which state-supported institutions 
often found so difficult to provide. In this connection, per- 
haps the most important study was that made by Helen I. 
Clarke, chairman of the Committee on Housing of the Madi- 
son Branch of the A.A.U.W., dealing with the cooperative 
houses for women students in the institutions eligible to 
membership in the A.A.U.W.* It was a thoroughly scien- 
tific piece of work based upon questionnaires sent to the 
one hundred and thirty institutions which were in 1922-23 
members of the Association. Of these institutions, one 
hundred and seventeen indicated their willingness to coop- 
erate in the study, but of these one hundred and seventeen 
only fifteen had cooperative houses; that is, 'a house in 
which part of the work is carried on by student residents 
who pay to the college or university a reduced monthly or 
weekly sum, or who divide the expenses among themselves 
on a pro rata basis.' The study gave a full report of the plant 
and equipment for cooperative houses and dormitories, a 
thorough study of their financial and physical aspects, with 
a summary of the organization of the houses and a record 
of the scholarship of their inmates. In conclusion Miss 
Clarke said: 'Those institutions which have experimented 
with cooperative houses over any period of time seem to be 
unqualified in their endorsement of such a housing arrange- 
ment. It offers to students an easy, simple method of light- 
ening their expenses and provides an excellent opportunity 
for cooperative living. Miss FoUett has said, "Group organ- 
ization releases us from the domination of mere numbers." 
A cooperative house, because of the opportunity given for 
sharing work, expenses, ideas, should afford an ideal method 
for college students to develop the group concept, a step 
toward true democracy.' 

* The admirable report of Miss Clarke for her committee appears in 
the Journal for March, 1925. 

214 Association of University Women 

Yet another aspect of the work of Mrs. Wood's committee 
was reported from Superior, Wisconsin, where the branch in 
that city planned a cooperative boarding-place for high- 
school girls from the outlying districts, girls who ordinarily 
worked for their room and board in the home of some citizen. 
When Mrs. Wood made her report in 1927 at the convention 
of that year, she stated that her committee was still divided 
among the three sub-committees, (i) the dormitory housing 
of students, (2) off-campus housing of students in cities, and 
(3) the housing of families. Already substantial progress 
had been made in all the large cities by means of continuous 
efforts to bring about the housing of all students either in 
dormitories or in houses under the direct supervision of the 
colleges and schools in which they were enrolled. An es- 
pecially thorough study had been made in Boston by Caro- 
line V. Lynch in cooperation with the Boston Cooperative 
Room Registry, with the Y.W.C.A., and with the Boston 
Students' Union, as well as with the Better Homes pro- 
gram held the first week in May of that year. Miss Lynch 
found the striking fact that there were in Boston no less than 
twenty-five thousand young women students away from 
their own homes who came not only 'from all over the 
United States but from all over the world.' While the 
problem in Boston, New York, and Chicago was possibly 
larger in the matter of student housing, nevertheless the 
acuteness of the situation everywhere among students was 
clearly recognized. 

Mrs. Wood was the chairman, not only of the general 
committee, but also herself headed the sub-committee 
dealing with the housing of families. She had worked with 
the Joint Advisory Committee on the census made up of 
representatives of the American Statistical Association and 
of the American Economic Association, both of which con- 
ceded the great importance of providing in the federal 
census of 1930 the item, 'number of rooms per family.* 
Mrs. Wood had pointed out early in her study that the 

Three Typical Committees 215 

housing movement in this country had been seriously re- 
tarded by the lack of reliable facts upon which to base con- 
clusions. As a result largely of her work, the federal census 
of 1930 included provision for such statistics as might be 
utilized for accurate research and suggested programs 
during the next decade. At the convention of the A.A.U.W. 
in New Orleans in April, 1929, Mrs. Wood made her final 
report and requested the discharge of her committee from 
further service.* 

^ Report of the Committee on Housing, A.A.U.W. Proceedings of the 
Sixth National Convention, 1929, p. 85, 


Throughout the half-century of existence of the Associa- 
tion of Collegiate Alumnae and the American Association of 
University Women their fundamental interest has been, as 
has often appeared in these pages, that of education in its 
broadest sense. It was not, however, until 1898 that a com- 
mittee definitely to study and recommend proposed legisla- 
tion along educational lines was provided. Even then the 
formation of the committee itself came about in an indirect 
way. There had been in existence for several years two com- 
mittees which have been dealt with in another chapter * — 
that on a national university and that on the endowment of 
colleges — which in 1898 were consolidated into a standing 
committee to be called the Committee on Educational 
Legislation. Of this committee, Alia W. Foster, who had 
done such valiant work on the Endowment of Colleges 
Committee, was made chairman, and with her were associ- 
ated Lucia Clapp Noyes, Charlotte Anita Whitney, Wili- 
mena Eliot Emerson, Kate Dewey Cole, Frances Haldeman 
Sidwell, and Justina Robinson Hill. At the end of the first 
year of its existence, Miss Foster reported that the com- 
mittee's chief interest was still to prevent the granting of 
charters to institutions whose degrees could be of no value 
at all. 'The hottest battle ever waged between the friends 
and foes of legislation restricting the degree-conferring 
power,' said Miss Foster, had been fought in Chicago.^ The 
committee had also concerned itself with the proposed Sim- 
mons College, a business and industrial institution for girls 
which had been chartered in Massachusetts the previous 
winter. The committee was very skeptical as to whether 
* See Chapter XIII. * See ibid. 

Committee on Educational Legislation 217 

this new project was really a college, and it is interesting to 
note in that connection that Simmons College was one of the 
two technical colleges which were first to be accepted by the 
A.A.U.W.^ The California Branch report stated that 'two 
defeats' had not dismayed them, and that they were now 
ready for a third campaign in their Legislature in behalf of a 
minimum endowment for colleges. As this report was made 
at the end of the Spanish-American War, the last sentence 
of Miss Foster's report is especially pertinent: 'It is now as 
always — war is the most deadly enemy of education.' In 
the following year, Miss Foster's report made clear that it 
was work through the branches upon which the committee 
must rely for achievement in the field of educational legisla- 
tion. She reviewed yeoman service in California, Michigan, 
and Illinois, and furthermore drew to the attention of the 
Association the fact that the legislatures held biennial ses- 
sions in most States, and as a consequence the year in which 
definite action took place usually alternated with the year 
in which the branches studied the problems which they were 
to present. War had been made in 1901 upon the proposal 
in Massachusetts to have the Legislature grant a charter 
with power to grant degrees in pedagogy to the BibleTSformal 
College of Springfield in that State. It was also proposed to 
offer a bill on behalf of the New England Optical Institute 
with power requested to grant the degrees of Bachelor of 
Optics and Doctor of Physiological Optics. In both these 
cases Alice Freeman Palmer and Lucia Clapp Noyes ap- 
peared at the legislative hearing. Miss Foster said that, 
while there was no doubt of the value of both these institu- 
tions, there was decided opposition to granting of degrees by 
institutions which had so slender an educational basis and 
no adequate financial basis at all. She said: It is clear 'that 
there ought to be one or two alumnae in each state capitol 
whose duty it should be to oppose all educational bills of a 
pernicious tendency . . . nothing less than eternal vigilance 
» See Chapter VI. 

218 Association of University Women 

will keep the educational standard even as high as its 
present unsatisfactory position.*' 

In 1903, the committee was reconstituted so that one 
member was to retire every year, although the term of her 
office would be seven years. Miss Foster asked to retire as 
chairman and Lucia Clapp Noyes took her place. Jane Field 
Bashford (first president of the A.C.A.) became a member 
of the committee as did Ruth Putnam. Dr. Emilie Young 
O'Brien and Charlotte Anita Whitney continued to serve 
on the committee, while the sixth member was one who 
had done such valiant service in the Chicago Branch, 
Madeleine Wallin Sikes. The committee proceeded along the 
lines already laid out by Miss Foster until the convention 
of 1905 when Mrs. Sikes became chairman, with a special 
plan to have the branches organize definitely local com- 
mittees which should follow the legislative actions in their 
respective States. In presenting her report, Mrs. Sikes first 
raised the question as to whether * the original policy of the 
committee (which practically confined its efforts to work 
against "diploma-mill" legislation)' should be continued. 
She expressed herself as heartily in favor of so expanding the 
work of her committee as to * meet local conditions in differ- 
ent States which might require the passage or defeat of forms 
of educational legislation' not hitherto considered; to 
develop ' groups of trained workers whose services could be 
utilized in national campaigns for educational legislation — • 
for example, congressional measures, standard child labor or 
school attendance or civil service laws, etc., or other move- 
ments toward educational legislation directed by national 
committees and covering more than one State ' ; and to create 
* a repository of information about such legislation through- 
out the country which might be at the service of any one 
desiring it.' * 

^ See Chapter XXVI for work of branches on legislative councils of 
several States. 

^ Here is the idea of a legislative reference library now in existence in 
a number of States, notably in Wisconsin, which was a pioneer in the 
movement for legislative reference libraries. 

Committee on Educational Legislation 219 

The next two years were occupied with the endeavor to 
organize definite work in the branches throughout the 
country. There is no question that the child labor law 
passed by Georgia in the spring of 1906, in which Emma 
Garrett Boyd took perhaps the largest part, was due to her 
work through the Southern Association of College Women, 
the Georgia Federation of Women's Clubs, and the Associa- 
tion of Collegiate Alumnae members whom she was able to 
rally about her. Missouri reported from Kansas City a 
compulsory education law, a law providing for parental 
schools and detention homes for children awaiting trial, 
and a juvenile court law. The Kansas City Branch was 
active in securing this legislation. In Virginia it was re- 
ported that the most significant legislation of the past five 
years — the high-school laws, the doubling of appropria- 
tions to elementary schools, the increase in salary for county 
superintendents, the appropriation for traveling libraries for 
schools, and the creation of the office of school inspector had 
all been assisted by the college women of the State along 
with other associations. The Chicago Branch had been 
especially concerned with the work of the charter conven- 
tion, with school board policy, and general state legislation. 
Mrs. Sikes was herself in charge of the work for the State of 
Illinois and her energy and force were powerful. The Wash- 
ington Branch reported the passage of a compulsory educa- 
tion law for the District of Columbia after four years of 
work — *a long job well over.* Dr. O'Brien, in charge of 
this work, said it had been a * banner year ' for the District 
in the reorganization of the board of education and the pas- 
sage of child labor and juvenile court laws. Mrs. Sikes had 
already found that when the branches understood the possi- 
bilities of the work, they were most eager to assist in the 
plan of the Association. At the twenty-fifth anniversary 
of the founding of the A.C.A., Mrs. Sikes reviewed the 
history of the committee and again put forward her plea for 
more definite work and more consistent work on the part of 

220 Association of University Women 

the branches. She asked for suggestions as to how the re- 
sources of the committee might be more quickly and practi- 
cally placed at the service of the branches. In closing her 
report, she spoke of the inestimable value of the services to 
the Connecticut Branch and to the National Education 
Association of Mary M. Abbott whose death had just 
occurred. It is to Miss Abbott more, perhaps, than to any 
other one person that the interest of women in the work of 
the public schools with its consequent development into 
the Parent-Teachers organizations throughout the United 
States is due. 

As the years went by, slowly but surely the branches took 
up the work to which Miss Foster, Mrs. Noyes, and Mrs. 
Sikes had pointed the way. One finds such a record as 
this — 'California, Colorado, South Carolina, and Idaho 
branches worked for the teachers' pension bill in Congress 
as did also the branches of Oregon, of the State of Wash- 
ington, and of Montana.' In Missouri the branches worked 
for a state teachers' pension fund. In the State of Wash- 
ington the branches had assisted in all sorts of public school 
legislation including provision for medical inspection. In 
191 1, at the convention of that year the Committee on 
Educational Legislation with its experience of the last few 
years recommended that the name of their committee be 
extended to be the Committee on Educational and Indus- 
trial Legislation. After discussion the record reads: 'It was 
voted that the name of this committee be not so enlarged 
at present but that any sub-committee may be empowered 
to include industrial legislation in the scope of its work 
wherever such legislation has a direct bearing upon educa- 
tion.* It was at this time that throughout the country the 
interest of legislators was centered upon child labor laws, 
compulsory education laws which should go hand in hand 
with the laws regarding the employment of children in mills, 
etc., and the development of adequate rural schools. Many 
branches worked for several years on these problems under 

Committee on Educational Legislation 221 

the chairmanship of Ona Winants Borland. With the estab- 
lishment of the Children's Bureau in Washington, the Wash- 
ington Branch came into close touch with the work of 
Julia C. Lathrop, and has held up her hands and those of 
her successor, Grace Abbott. 

After the reorganization of 191 2, the Committee on Edu- 
cational Legislation continued its policy of having at least 
one representative from each of the branches on its sub- 
committees whenever such representatives could be found 
to serve. It also undertook to establish an active committee 
member in each of the ten sections. In 191 5, Elsie Lee 
Turner, of the San Francisco Branch, was able to report a 
chairman for every section of the Association with the con- 
sequent lessening of Mrs. Turner's work and the increasing 
of the number of branches which professed themselves 
interested in the committee's work and program. The 
following resolution was in 191 5 submitted to the convention 
and passed: 

Whereas, One of the avowed objects of the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae is educational work, and 

Whereas, The educational work in each state is being greatly 
helped, or hindered, or may be greatly helped, or hindered, by the 
educational legislation of that state; therefore be it 

Resolved, That each branch of the Association be asked to co- 
operate with its sectional committee-member of the Committee on 
Educational Legislation in studying, and, as far as possible, influ- 
encing the educational legislation of the state to which the branch 

Then came the World War, and in 191 8 Mrs. Turner 
asked, ' Is the work of this committee worth while? ' It may 
be, said she, * that many of our branches are already inter- 
ested in educational legislation, but apparently more dis- 
tinctively war service work is taking up their attention.* 
Mrs. Turner submitted a summary of reports from each sec- 
tion showing that from the North Atlantic Section, where 
Mrs. Frank H. Severance was chairman and the committee 
had been working hard to procure from the legislatures 

222 Association of University Women 

higher salaries for teachers, equal pay for equal work for 
men and women in schools, equal opportunities for ad- 
vancement, vocational guidance, the elimination of adult 
illiteracy, and better conditions for rural education ; to the 
South Pacific Section, where Mrs. Turner was herself chair- 
man and the section had been assisting in promoting a more 
adequate school of education at the State University, en- 
couraging constructive Americanization work, fostering a 
'keep our children in school' drive, and providing for the 
right kind of physical education for every boy and girl for 
every grade — throughout the country the college women 
had been intelligently active. 

When in the reorganization of 1 921, provision was made 
for an educational secretary, the Committee on Educational 
Legislation disappeared after twenty-three years of devoted 
work on the part of five chairmen of the national committee 
and innumerable workers in the sections and branches 
throughout the country. During the war, Laura Puffer 
Morgan, vice-president-at-large of the Association and a 
member of the Washington Branch, had been requested to 
act as legislative representative of the Association. In 1920, 
by invitation of the National League of Women Voters, 
there were called together on November 22 representatives 
of the ten leading national organizations of women. These 
were: the General Federation of Women's Clubs; the Na- 
tional Council of Women; the Woman's Christian Temper- 
ance Union; the National Women's Trade Union League; 
the National Congress of Mothers and Parent-Teacher 
Associations; the National Consumers' League; the Ameri- 
can Home Economics Association ; the National Federation 
of Business and Professional Women; the National League 
of Women Voters; and the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae. The representatives of these ten organizations 
thereupon organized the Women's Joint Congressional Com- 
mittee for the purpose of forwarding legislative measures 
before the United States Congress, in which women are 

Committee on Educational Legislation 223 

especially interested. Maud Wood Park, president of the 
National League of Women Voters and a prominent member 
of the A.C.A., was made chairman of this committee, with 
Mrs. Morgan as the member specifically representing the 
A.C.A. It was proposed to work through sub-committees 
and to recommend to the individual organizations bills 
which seemed wise to sponsor. The first bills which the 
Women's Joint Congressional Committee sponsored were 
the Sheppard-Towner Bill granting federal aid for maternity 
and infancy; the Gronna Bill creating a federal live-stock 
commission; the Curtis-Gard Child Labor Bill for the Dis- 
trict of Columbia; the Rogers Bill for the independent citi- 
zenship of married women; and the Fess Home Economics 
Bill providing a federal appropriation for teaching home 
economics. In all of these, the A.C.A. was interested, ex- 
cept, perhaps, the second. Mrs. Morgan reported, moreover, 
at the Washington Convention in 1921, that legislation in 
which her organization was particularly interested and 
which it had endorsed was that providing for the reclassifica- 
tion of Government employees, for the establishment on a 
permanent basis of a federal employment service, and for 
the creation of a Federal Department of Education*. It was 
the possibility of work such as Mrs. Morgan's and the pro- 
vision for an educational secretary for the A.A.U.W. that 
made the disappearance of the Committee on Educational 
Legislation less of a calamity than it otherwise would have 
been. Until Mrs. Bernard became the first educational secre- 
tary, Mrs. Morgan continued to act as legislative representa- 
tive in Washington for the A.A.U.W. In 1922, a Committee 
on Legislative Policies was organized which in 1925 became 
the Committee on Legislation. As provided by action of the 
convention in April, 1925, upon motion presented by 
M. Carey Thomas and adopted, the by-law read as follows: 

The Committee on Legislation shall consist of four ex-officio mem- 
bers, the first vice-president, the executive secretary, and the chair- 
men of the Committees on Educational Policies and International 

224 Association of University Women 

Relations or their representatives, and four other members of the 
Association, to be appointed by the board of directors for their 
experience and special ability. Such appointed members shall serve 
four years, except that two shall be appointed for two years, at the 
beginning of the president's term of office; and two for four years. 
The Committee shall elect its own chairman. The Committee on 
Legislation shall confer with the various standing and special com- 
mittees of the Association or their chairmen and shall meet in con- 
ference with the Committee on Educational Policies. It shall recom- 
mend legislative action, support, endorse, or approve, legislative 
bills only when such action shall be agreed on both by the Com- 
mittee on Legislation and the Committee on Educational Policies, 
and shall be approved by the Board of Directors. All such proposed 
action shall be presented for approval to the convention by the 
Committee on Legislation. By a two-thirds vote of the convention, 
resolutions on legislative action not recommended by the Com- 
mittee on Legislation may be proposed for discussion from the floor 
and may be passed by a two-thirds vote of the convention. In case 
of necessary action between conventions, the Board of Directors shall 
be empowered to act on the joint recommendation of the Committee 
on Legislation and the Committee on Educational Policies, provided 
that such action be reported to the next convention for approval or 

At this convention (1925) the committee reported that of 
the legislative program approved by the 1924 convention, 
two measures had passed Congress - — the Teachers' Salary 
Bill and the bill for a Federal Industrial Home for Women. 
Furthermore, of the program presented to the branches, one 
measure had become a law — the Compulsory Education 
and School Census Bill. Eight legislative measures had been 
recommended to the branches for study in their program of 
1924-25 in addition to the bills which had already been en- 
acted into laws. At the adjournment of Congress these were 
reported as pending in various stages of progress. The Asso- 
ciation further recommended for study and sponsoring by 
the branches the Sterling-Reed Education Bill for creating 
a Federal Department of Education, the Capper-Bacon 
Bill to provide federal stimulus for universal physical edu- 
cation, the Child Labor Amendment, and an action looking 

Committee on Educational Legislation 225 

toward participation by the United States in the World 

In 1927, when Harlean James was chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Legislation, she reported not only the progress of 
action on the measures which in 1925 had been endorsed, but 
also a subdivision of the work of her committee. By this 
plan Laura Puffer Morgan had been made responsible for 
the work on the Education Bill, the resolution on the World 
Court, and for following the trend of thought concerning 
the League of Nations. Elizabeth Eastman had represented 
the committee on the Child Labor Committee and had made 
possible the distribution of effective information concerning 
the Child Labor Amendment which was at that time being 
voted upon by the States. Elise Wenzelburger Graupner 
had represented the Association on the infancy and mater- 
nity extension and had * rendered valuable service in secur- 
ing the final action.' Miss James, reporting for her com- 
mittee, said, *We believe that all the larger activities of the 
Association, exclusive of machinery, fall under three heads: 
(i) educational opportunities, (2) wider professional oppor- 
tunities for educated women, (3) international relations,' 
and added that all of the items included in the present and 
proposed legislative programs would come under one of 
these heads. In speaking of the work of the Women's Joint 
Congressional Committee, Miss James said: 

The registering of opinion on legislative measures has been made 
vastly more efficient since the organization of the Women's Joint 
Congressional Committee on which the American Association of 
University Women is represented by a delegate and an alternate. 
The Women's Joint Congressional Committee has no power and 
takes no action on legislative measures. The twenty-two organiza- 
tions represented in its membership adopt their legislative programs 
abvsolutely to meet their own needs in their own fields. Automati- 
cally when eight organizations have endorsed a measure or principle 
involved in pending legislation, a sub-committee is formed; but even 
the sub-committee has no power to speak as a sub-committee except 
as authorized specifically by the representatives of organizations 

226 Association of University Women 

serving on the committee. The purpose served on the general com- 
mittee and on the sub-committee is that eight or more organizations 
working for the same legislation have an opportunity to keep in- 
formed regularly concerning what is being done and what is needed 
to advance the legislation. The work is carried on by the constituent 
organizations and not by the Women's Joint Congressional Com- 
mittee, which is a clearing house based on the absolute autonomy of 
its constituent members. 

She closed her report by saying: 

The Committee on Legislation desires to render the greatest pos- 
sible service to the members of the American Association of Univer- 
sity Women in recommending for their action a legislative program 
which comes before the Convention after it has received the approval 
of the Board of Directors and the Educational Policies Committee. 
The Committee also desires to aid members of local branches, and 
particularly, local legislative committees, to keep well informed con- 
cerning the content and status of pending measures, which have been 
endorsed or approved by the Convention. When the Committee 
sends out a call for letters or telegrams to be sent to members of 
Congress concerning a particular measure, it may be assumed that 
such communications are needed and that they will have a maximum 
effect if sent at the time suggested. . . . 

In 1929, the convention of the A.A.U.W. adopted a re- 
vision of its by-law concerning the Committee on Legisla- 
tion, by which 'The Committee on Legislation shall consist 
of six members, to be appointed by the Board of Directors 
for their experience and special ability; and, as ex-olificio 
members, the first vice-president, the executive secretary, 
and the chairmen (or their representatives) of the Com- 
mittees on Educational Policies and International Rela- 
tions. . . . The Board of Directors shall designate one member 
of the committee to serve as chairman for a term of two 
years.' Miss James named the members of her committee 
who had been assigned as before to specific tasks, reiterated 
the value of the Women's Joint Congressional Committee, 
and urged the placing at the disposal of the branches more 
information concerning items of legislation than had been 
previously carried on the programs adopted at the conven- 

Committee on Educational Legislation 227 

tion. There were then listed eight subjects of legislation 
which had been considered and recommended by the Board 
of Directors, by the Educational Policies Committee, and by 
the subject-matter committees concerned. Of these eight 
items, five had been approved by the Association and past 
conventions. Two entirely new items appeared, however, 
(i) Inter- American arbitration and conciliation treaties in 
line with the recommendations of the Committee on Inter- 
national Relations, and (2) the substitution of the metric 
system as was advocated by many scientists for the English 
system of weights and measures. 

In 1931, therefore, the Association has a Committee on 
Legislation admirably adapted to serve the Association in 
general and the branches in particular. In addition to this 
general committee, many of the branches, especially those 
situated in the capitals of their States, maintain either a 
committee on educational legislation or a representative on 
the Women's Joint Legislative Committee, which in many 
States does for the state legislature and women's organiza- 
tions what the Women's Joint Congressional Committee in 
Washington does for Congress and the national women's 
organizations. In addition, many branches have from time 
to time special educational committees dealing with 
problems of rural schools, of compulsory school laws, of 
better facilities for physical education, of better school 
boards, better janitor service, better medical inspection, 
and all allied problems concerning the welfare of public 
school children. Thus the Association in large and in 
little carries out the program of its founders. 



At the quarter-centennial meeting of the Association 
of Collegiate Alumnae in 1907, Ellen H. Richards gave a 
thoughtful paper on 'Desirable Tendencies in Professional 
and Technical Education for Women.' Mrs. Richards 
quoted from the census of 1900 that one woman in every 
five in the United States had already gone outside the ' his- 
toric mission ' of women, and that in all but eight of the gain- 
ful occupations enumerated, women were found in numbers 
varying from two to six hundred thousand. She had found 
further that while the older professions of law, medicine, and 
theology were losing rather than gaining so far as the num- 
ber of women engaged in them was concerned, into the newer 
lines of investigation in pure and applied science, women 
were going in rapidly increasing numbers. She said signifi- 
cantly : * Revolution in ideas is impending, and an industrial 
and economic crisis will force our hand within the next 
twenty-five years. . . . To whom shall we look more confi- 
dently for leadership in constructive work, for social and 
national betterment than to the professionally and techni- 
cally trained women now coming onto the stage?' — and 
she quoted from Professor William I. Thomas: 'Scientific 
pursuits and the allied intellectual occupations are a game 
which women have entered late, and their lack of practice 
is frequently mistaken for lack of ability. . . . Certain it is 
that no civilization can remain highest if another civiliza- 
tion add to the intelligence of its men the intelligence of its 
women.' During the course of her paper she questioned the 
economic efficiency of college women and brought out the 
need for specific training of young women for the new situa- 

New Vocations for Women 229 

tions which changes already foreshadowed in the economic 
and industrial world were sure to bring within the next few 

At the same meeting an interesting issue was raised before 
the Association. The General Secretary, Sophonisba P. 
Breckinridge, in her report had expressed her belief that the 
time had come for the Association to work along lines im- 
mediately connected with the economic interests of the 
group represented by the members. She urged that the 
Association ' should advance beyond the position of demand- 
ing that the best educational opportunities should be offered 
as freely to girls as to boys and claim that where women of 
collegiate training are concerned in economic transactions 
through which they offer the benefit of their training to the 
service of the community, they should in turn receive recom- 
pense equal to that of any other similarly engaged.' She 
believed that the future study and work of the Association 
should be directed to the field of economic opportunity 
rather than to that of the academic and cultural opportu- 
nity which had been both the goal and the achievement of 
the first quarter century of the life of the A.C.A. 

The following year (1908), Susan M. Kingsbury presented 
at the San Francisco meeting of the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae, a paper on ' Efficiency and Wage of Women 
in Gainful Occupations,' in which she called to the attention 
of her audience the study which in 1906 the Boston Branch 
of the Association had undertaken on the * Living Wage for 
College Women,' and presented facts along with possibilities 
for research which could not fail to impress her hearers with 
their importance and timeliness. The cumulative effect of 
these papers and the studies there summarized was the ap- 
pointment in 1908 of a committee of the Association on 'The 
Economic Efficiency of College Women,' with Mrs. Richards 
as chairman, and Edith Abbott, Sophonisba P. Breckinridge, 
May S. Cheney, Mary Goes, and Susan M. Kingsbury as 
members. In February, 19 10, the committee report was 

230 Association of University Women 

published in full along with the Proceedings of the October, 
1909, meeting of the Association, at which it had been 
presented. The report, given by Susan M. Kingsbury, was 
an unusually scientific analysis of the economic efficiency of 
college women, based on a study in which many of the 
branches of the Association had cooperated so that the data 
upon which the report was made was full and significant. 
The committee had found low salaries and slow advance- 
ment so often the rule, both in teaching and in the other 
occupations upon which reports had been made, that Pro- 
fessor Kingsbury said in speaking of these two conditions, 

... we should probably be compelled to say that it was due to the 
lack of economic sense, on the one hand, which permits a woman to 
sacrifice the material considerations of living because of professional 
interests or personal whims, or leads her to neglect the law of de- 
terioration and to permit her finances to bound her efficiency instead 
of insisting that her efficiency should set the standard of her finances. 
On the other hand, we must admit that there is a large social, educa- 
tional, and economic situation which is beyond the control of the 
individual woman. We may attempt to remedy the former diffi- 
culties through our systems of education; it remains for this larger 
body to make an individual and a united effort to impress upon the 
world at large that an increase in the social problem is bound to 
follow if the educational field is not brought into line with the 
progress of the business world. We should no longer, as educators 
or as controllers of education, whether public or private, consider 
the woman as non-professional; but rather appreciate that she is 
approaching her field with the same sense of responsibility and effort 
as is to be found among men. Furthermore, we should not be ready 
to extend continued excuses for low salaries or to base them on the 
needs of the woman, but rather insist upon consideration of her 
ability and efficiency. 

In a summing up, the report drew a number of conclu- 
sions, offered suggestions as to remedies, and made the fol- 
lowing recommendations: 

I. That this organization endeavor to arouse in our colleges a 
sense of responsibility for knowing the facts with regard to their 
graduates, both social and economic; to influence our colleges 

New Vocations for Women 231 

through appointment secretaries, to direct women, according to 
fitness, into other lines than teaching. May this body not secure 
cooperation among the colleges by which definite records may be 
kept, and definite attempts made to determine the lines of develop- 
ment desirable? To this end it is recommended that a standing com- 
mittee be appointed whose duty it shall be to endeavor to unify the 
records kept by the colleges of the occupational experience of their 
alumnae and to secure information on the opportunities for college 
women in other lines than teaching. 

2. That this body, in considering the curriculum, give earnest at- 
tention to the question of addition of courses which shall meet these 
needs; and that they study organization of the courses already given, 
to discover whether modifications might not be made which would 
not reduce the cultural and power developing elements, but would 
enable them to provide the knowledge which would be of practical 
use to the woman. 

3. That an endeavor be made to secure practical interest on the 
part of college girls in the question of personal finance by the dis- 
tribution of expense account books. 

4. That the question of the dignity which should be given other 
occupations than teaching and the older professions be considered by 
this body in its decision as to recognition of colleges for membership, 
and in its decision as to approval of courses. 

So significant and valuable did this study appear to the 
Association that it was voted to print and distribute it to 
the presidents of the colleges and universities which were 
members of the Association. It was also voted that 'this 
committee, after having completed its work, be honorably 
discharged with the many thanks of the Association.' 
Thereupon, on motion of Professor Kingsbury, it was voted 
*that a standing committee on Vocational Opportunities 
for College Women be formed, whose duties shall be to study 
the opportunities for trained women other than teaching, 
and to endeavor to secure a uniform method among the 
colleges of keeping records of the occupational experience 
of their graduates.' The motion was the more eagerly passed 
because of three papers closely allied to Professor Kings- 
bury's report, which had been read at this same 1909 meet- 
ing — one by Elizabeth Kemper Adams, of the Smith Col- 

232 Association of University Women 

lege Faculty, on 'The Psychological Gains and Losses of 
the College Woman,' one by Mabel Parker Huddleston on 
*A Modified Curriculum,' and one by Marion Parris, of the 
Bryn Mawr College faculty, on 'Non-Teaching Positions 
Open to Students of Economics, Politics, and Sociology.' 
Professor Adams's conclusion that the psychological losses 
were 'transient and removable,' if only the colleges would 
meet them in some way — by a more varied curriculum, by 
more training in power and less stress on facts and memory, 
more real education to meet the changing facts of life, and 
more use of an applied psychology to achieve these ends — 
gave added importance to Professor Kingsbury's study. 
A like effect was produced by Mrs. Huddleston's report of a 
study made by the New York City branch of the A.C.A. in 
* trying roughly to ascertain . . . the result of its collective ex- 
perience as teachers, wives, mothers and citizens, as to the 
relative importance of the several elements in our college 
training; and as to the several needs to which that training 
has not adequately ministered.' The study had served to 
point out 'a decided drift among the college women of our 
community in favor of a revaluation of the college curricu- 
lum,' with stress (among other things) upon the biological 
knowledge and civic knowledge which were alike 'socially 
indispensable.' Mrs. Huddleston's plea had a close relation 
at several points to Professor Adams's paper. The third 
paper of the group by Professor Parris, gave in detail the 
results of a study showing the rapid increase in the number 
of women who were not preparing or intending to be teach- 
ers, but whose college training was definitely used as a back- 
ground for other occupations. Professor Parris brought out 
the fact that from the evidence presented 'the question of 
non-teaching salaried positions seemed ... to be particularly 
urgent for students who specialize in economics, politics, 
sociology and history,' and enumerated, with a brief state- 
ment of the training required and the salaries available, a 
long list of positions open to students who had the college 

New Vocations for Women 233 

background of these fields, with in some cases the addition 
of one or two years' additional preparation. 

The net result of the presentation of these papers and of 
Professor Kingsbury's report was the appointment (in 1909) 
of the 'Committee on Vocational Opportunities' of the As- 
sociation of Collegiate Alumnae, with Elizabeth Kemper 
Adams as chairman, and May S. Cheney, Laura Drake Gill, 
Mary Coes, and Marion Parris as members. When, in 1910, 
Professor Adams made the first report for her committee, 
she called attention to new literature in this pioneer field 
and to the decision of her co-workers in the investigation to 
set about acquiring *a body of fact, concrete rather than 
merely statistical, regarding the actual fields of occupation 
for college women, and the various agencies engaged in 
bringing them into practical relations with these fields.* 
'Such a body of fact,' she said, 'is an essential basis for 
bringing about effective and intelligent cooperation among 
the various agencies involved and for the opening up of new 
fields.' Her committee suggested that 'ways and means be 
devised by the universities and colleges for bringing the vo- 
cational experiences and successes of alumnae more ade- 
quately and vividly before the student body through ad- 
dresses by graduates prominent in various occupations,' a 
suggestion which bore fruit at once in the 'vocational con- 
ferences' held annually at many of the institutions which 
were members of the Association. Professor Adams also 
recommended the calling of a conference of representatives 
of university and college appointment bureaus in the mem- 
bership of the Association, within the near future, under 
the auspices of her committee. A second recommendation 
— that the branches of the Association appoint in their own 
communities, committees on vocational opportunities — • 
was destined to play an important r61e in more than one 
city. For it revived an earlier project of the Association — 
the Bureau of Occupations which in the 1890's had been 
carried on for a few years by Miss Tappan and Miss 

234 Association of University Women 

Carbutt.* The demand for these bureaus had become more 
widespread and more insistent even in the few years since 
the Association had first brought forward the project. The 
recommendations of Professor Adams's committee now 
had a direct influence on the organizing of 'bureaus of occu- 
pations* under the auspices of branches such as those, in 
Chicago, Philadelphia, Denver, and Kansas City. These 
bureaus of occupations sometimes came to be independent 
agencies, but their inception was due very largely to the 
recommendation of Professor Adams's committee and the 
branch activities which it stimulated. 

In 1911, the Committee on Vocational Opportunities had 
gone far enough in their research to ask for 'authorization 
to prepare or to collaborate in preparing (i) a brief bulletin 
on opportunities for advanced training and apprenticeship 
in non-teaching occupations and (2) specific occupational 
material of other sorts for publication, especially in the col- 
lege press.' Professor Adams further reported two success- 
ful appointment bureau conferences: one at Smith College 
in May, 1911, when there were present representatives of 
seven women's colleges and Cornell University, of the 
Women's Educational and Industrial Union of Boston, and 
of the newly established Intercollegiate Bureau of Occupa- 
tions of New York; and a second in October, 1911, in New 
York City, at which there had been present not only repre- 
sentatives who 'came to New York, especially for the con- 
ference, but. . . a number of women deans and some specially 
invited representatives of large philanthropic and civic 
organizations in New York employing trained women,* 
Three sub-committees had made reports, and the coopera- 
tion between college appointment bureaus and other 
agencies for placing trained women such as the bureaus of 
occupations just forming, was marked and successful — so 
successful, indeed, that Professor Adams felt that a point 
had been reached at which appointment bureaus might 
« See Chapter XXIV, p. 314. 

New Vocations for Women 235 

well hold a conference of their own, so important was their 
work becoming, and so numerous their representatives. 
Again, as had been the case in the past and would be in the 
future, the Association of Collegiate Alumnae had through one 
of its committees taken the initiative in stimulating a move- 
ment which shortly became so vigorous and far-reaching that 
it went its own way to new fields and larger opportunity. 

In 191 2, besides a report of progress and a report by Mary 
Van Kleek of a sub-committee on an occupational census of 
college women. Professor Adams made for the Committee on 
Vocational Opportunities a detailed report of some length 
on college women in non-teaching occupations. The report 
made available much information of incalculable value to 
college students and to those whose interest in vocational 
guidance and in placement was an important concern.^ As a 
result of the endeavor to get vocational opportunities com- 
mittees in the various branches of the Association, and as a 
part of the work of Professor Adams's committee, Laura 
Puffer Morgan made for a committee of the Washington, 
D.C., Branch, a report on 'the status of women in the clas- 
sified civil service of the United States government in the 
District of Columbia,' which was printed with the other re- 
ports just enumerated.^ Here, then, was a body of exact and 
precise fact, available to college and university authorities, 
to placement bureaus, and to interested individuals — ma- 
terial which was to be the basis of an outstanding piece of 
work — Bulletin I of the A.C.A. 

Bulletin I was entitled 'Vocational Training: A Classified 
List of institutions training educated women for occupations 
other than teaching.' It was arranged alphabetically by 
occupations and by institutions and courses under each 
occupation, with admission requirements, length of course, 
degree (if any) conferred, tuition, summer and evening 

« See Journal of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, Vol. VI, No. 3, 
pp. 71-88 (April, 1913). 

» See Chapter XV, p. 208 fif. 

236 Association of University Women 

courses, occupations for which the training described would 
prepare the applicant, and where possible the person to 
address for information. This bulletin was literally a path- 
finder, the first of its kind in the United States, and while in 
certain aspects it speedily became inaccurate or incomplete, 
it still remains a useful book in its field. The World War 
came on within a year and a half after its publication, and 
when the United States entered the conflict actively in 
191 7, the whole range of women's activities was enormously 
increased and became infinitely more varied. But the re- 
ports of Miss Van Kleek and Mrs. Morgan, together with 
the one presented by Professor Adams at the 1912 conven- 
tion of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, and Bul- 
letin I of her committee makes an outstanding group of 
pieces of research. Taken with such other studies as one 
made by Alice Friend Mitchell under the auspices of the 
Rhode Island Branch of the Association, entitled 'The Vo- 
cation of Dietitian,' and a study made by Marie Francke 
on 'Opportunities for Women in Domestic Science,' pub- 
lished in 19 16 as Bulletin II of the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnse, the whole series was a real contribution to the 
study of women's education.^ 

With the subtle change which had gone a considerable 
distance in the eighties, by which the United States was 
shifting its character from that of an agricultural to that of 
an industrial nation, with the consequent tendency of popu- 
lation to concentrate in cities rather than to remain in vil- 
lages or upon farms, there had developed a social problem 
almost unknown in the earlier years of the Republic. There 
was as yet no technique for dealing with social problems as 
they presented themselves in cities, and Hull House (in 
, Chicago) under Jane Addams's inspired leadership was not 

* This last study was done under the guidance of Florence Jackson, 
who was in charge of research at the Women's Educational and Industrial 
Union in Boston, and also chairman of a sub-committee of the A.C.A. 
Committee on Vocational Opportunities. The two organizations shared 
the expense of printing Bulletin IL 

New Vocations for Women 237 

in existence until 1889. At a joint meeting of the A.C.A. 
with the New York Branch, on March 19, 1887, Helen 
Hiscock Backus presented a pioneer paper on 'Need and 
Opportunity for College-Trained Women in Philanthropic 
Work.' At a subsequent meeting, Florence Kelley Wisch- 
newetzky, later known as the Florence Kelley of the Con- 
sumers' League, spoke on 'The Need of Theoretical Prepara- 
tion for Philanthropic Work.' A little later (October, 1890) 
Vida D. Scudder gave a paper on 'The Relation of College 
Women to Social Need,' followed by an address from the 
head-worker of the College Settlement in New York, 
Jeannette Gurney Fine. The Association was therefore 
already in the field even before the epoch-making appeals 
for professional education for social workers made by 
Anna L. Dawes before the International Conference of 
Charities in Chicago in 1893, and by Mary E. Richmond in 
Toronto in 1897 before the National Conference of Charities 
and Corrections. Within the next decade the Association 
had combined with the College Settlements Association in 
offering a fellowship for young women graduates who were 
looking forward to social work as a career.* 

But many young women who had been stimulated by 
their college training in economics and sociology wanted to 
go into civic work in their own communities. To meet this 
need there was established in 1915 a committee on volunteer 
social service under the chairmanship of Margaret A. 
Friend, 'as a means of inspiring the branches with a desire 
to be of service to their communities, and of increasing en- 
thusiasm in the A.C.A. by calling upon all its members for 
cooperation in its activities.' Its first piece of work was an 
endeavor to establish in the branches of the Association 
volunteer service bureaus which should give the guidance 
to the volunteer social and civic worker which was being 
given the paid worker by the bureaus of occupations already 
in operation under branches in several cities. In this vol- 
» See Chapter XI, pp. 162-63. Also pp. 299-300. 

238 Association of University Women 

unteer social service placing the Boston Branch took an 
outstanding part. The branches in Philadelphia, Chicago, 
Minneapolis, New York, Baltimore, and Providence also 
established similar bureaus, either in connection with 
bureaus of occupations or as the first step in forming such 
bureaus. Moreover, branches and colleges were being called 
upon constantly for aid in vocational advising — or guid- 
ance, as it was called in secondary schools. When Gertrude 
Shorb Martin became the executive secretary of the Associ- 
ation in 1916, she brought to her work an experience of sev- 
eral years when she had been adviser of women in Cornell 
University, and was therefore much interested in the whole 
subject of vocational guidance and vocational opportunities. 
There appeared in the Journal, as soon as Mrs. Martin 
began her work as editor, a department called ' News Notes 
from the Bureaus of Occupations.* In the first number 
where these notes appear (September, 19 16), items are given 
from the appointment bureau of the Women's Educational 
and Industrial Union in Boston, from the Intercollegiate 
Bureau of Occupations in New York City, from the Col- 
legiate Bureaus of Occupations in Chicago, Pittsburgh, 
Los Angeles, Detroit, Kansas City, Philadelphia, and Rich- 
mond, Virginia. In June, 1917, news notes appeared from 
the new bureau in Denver, in October, 191 8, and for the first 
time the bureau in Cleveland sent word of its activities, as 
did the one in St. Paul. Under the chairmanship of Florence 
Jackson, the Committee on Vocational Opportunities and 
these bureaus kept in constant touch, with one another on 
the one hand, and both of them with the vocational guidance 
and advising work in colleges and universities on the other. 
The World War had made all these allied activities of even 
greater significance and importance than they had been and 
even its close brought no diminution in the volume of labor 
which work on such a committee as that of Vocational Op- 
portunities of the A.C.A. entailed. When Miss Jackson's 
term of office as chairman expired in 19 19, she made clear 

New Vocations for Women 239 

that the work had gone far beyond the A.C.A. in its need for 
funds and for full-time workers. Although the committee 
continued for another year on the list of standing com- 
mittees of the Association, it did no research work, and when 
the Bureau of Vocational Information in New York was 
established, the Association itself took a membership in the 
new venture, and the Committee on Vocational Opportuni- 
ties passed out of existence. Its history is one of significance 
and importance not only in itself, but because of the vision 
its work displays in fields which to-day are almost common- 
place in this country. 

The Association itself, however, cooperated in 1921-22 in 
a report conducted under the auspices of the Bureau of Vo- 
cational Information of New York on the training of women 
for careers in chemistry. A distinguished group of women, 
members of the Association, representing professors in eight 
colleges and universities, chemists in the field of biology, 
and chemists in industry, gave their assistance in the pro- 
ject, and the findings of the whole group was published in 
detail in April, 1922, in the Journal of the American Associ- 
ation of University Women. In commenting upon these 
findings, Gertrude Shorb Martin said: 

So far as is known this is the first time a group of experts repre- 
senting educational institutions and industry has met to discuss the 
training of women for a particular field of work. Such conferences 
are held frequently in the interests of better preparation for technical 
and executive men but at these meetings little or no attention is 
directed to the training problems of women. The results of this 
cooperative effort on the part of the committee of the American 
Association of University Women and the representatives of the 
Bureau of Vocational Information lead us to believe that continued 
cooperation of this sort is not only justified but is highly important. 

In 1926 there was formed a committee of the Association 
called * The Committee on the Economic and Legal Status of 
Women.* Immediately upon its organization it undertook 
through the cooperation of the branches throughout the 
country a study of the earning capacity of college and uni- 

240 Association of University Women 

versity women, under the leadership of Chase Going Wood- 
house. It was proposed first to ascertain the occupations of 
the members of the Association, 'their present earning and 
rate of promotion, . . . the relation between experience, higher 
degrees, special training and earnings; number of full and 
partial dependents ; number of children ' ; — and other 
statistics and facts which should bear not only upon the gen- 
eral question with which the Committee was concerned, but 
also with the specific problem of whether conducting a home 
and carrying on a career outside the home can be done satis- 
factorily to all concerned, at one and the same time. In the 
pursuit of this piece of important research it was proposed 
to establish an 'Institute of Economic Relations,' with a 
five to ten year program, the A.A.U.W. to sponsor the 
Institute for one year.* 

In this Institute the Association goes back to an earlier 
piece of research, in acting as a clearing-house for informa- 
tion on vocational opportunities for college women. At the 
same time it looks forward to trying through research along 
scientific lines to find a better understanding (and possible 
solution) of problems involved in the relation between home 
life and professional interests where women find these in 
conflict. A summary of the replies of five hundred married 
members of the American Association of University Women 
who worked outside their homes after marriage — data 
originally collected by the Committee on Economic and 
Legal Status of the Association and now being analyzed by 
the Institute — was presented merely as a point of depart- 
ure.* These women formed an unselected group represent- 

' The plan is given in full in Proceedings of A.A.U.W. for 1927, pp. 
153-55- See also the Journal of the A.A.U.W. for June, 1927, pp. 100- 
05 for another study made under the auspices of the research department 
of the Women's Educational and Industrial Union of Boston on * College 
Wives Who Work,' by Anne Byrd Kennon. 

* A preliminary report of this study will be found in the Special Wo- 
man's Number of the Annals of the American Academy for May, 1929. 
Reprints may be obtained for a small sum by writing to the Institute at 
Greensboro, North Carolina. 

New Vocations for Women 241 

ing a cross section of the alumnae of the country and living 
in every part of the United States. Asked to give their 
reasons for working, 58 per cent listed an economic one; 
33 per cent listed reasons which might be described by the 
heading 'desire for work*; and 7 per cent listed a family 

Dr. Woodhouse in conducting a discussion group at the 
biennial convention of the A.A.U.W. in New Orleans in 
April, 1929, stated that while 'there was no limit to the vol- 
ume and vigor of the discussion of the work of married 
women, the facts on the subject were very scarce.' The 
obligations involved in 'home and career' were of course 
perceived at once — of the wife to the husband and to the 
children, of the husband to the wife and to the children, of 
both to the home and to the community, and of each to the 
work or profession in which each was engaged outside of the 
home, as well as of each to the work or profession of the 
other. In the discussion there came of course the question of 
the nursery school, of the age at which children most need a 
mother's constant care, of substitutes for home, 'of the 
spiritual element' involved, and (almost the most vital) of 
the health and physical vigor needed to be both a wife and 
mother, and a professional worker of standing. These com- 
plex problems, the Institute of Women's Professional Rela- 
tions proposes to study, on the beginnings made by a re- 
search project of the A.A.U.W. 

In the mean time the Committee on the Economic and 
Legal Status of Women is, under the leadership of Clara 
Mortenson Beyer, continuing its work for the Association 
especially in outlining branch programs on various aspects 
of this vital and complex subject. 



Three days after the United States entered the World War, 
the biennial convention of the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae opened in Washington. One of the first actions 
passed unanimously by the convention was that by which 
all the forces of the Association were placed at the disposal 
of the President of the United States. Before the meeting 
adjourned, a War Service Committee was appointed consist- 
ing of M. Carey Thomas, chairman; Caroline L. Humphrey, 
the retiring president; Lois Kimball Mathews,^ the newly 
elected president; Laura Puffer Morgan, president of the 
Washington Branch; Gertrude Shorb Martin, executive 
secretary ; with Mary E. Woolley and Ellen F. Pendleton as 
the other members. A little later, Virginia C. Gildersleeve 
was added to the group. This committee soon reached the 
conclusion that perhaps the most vitally important task 
which confronted the Government was that of educating the 
people of the country as to the causes of the war and how 
the United States had come to take a part in it. Ever since 
1 9 14 there had been people to whom it was clear that if the 
war continued beyond a few months, the United States 
would inevitably be drawn into it, but even when war was 
declared by the United States, there were many people in its 
polyglot population who still felt we should remain neutral 
and who failed to see that the people of the United States 
were in any way involved in a struggle which seemed to them 
so absolutely European. The Committee of the A.C.A. felt 
also that this task of education was one in which the mem- 
bers of the organization, by reason of their college and uni- 
« Now Mrs. Rosenberry. 

The Association and the World War 243 

versity training, ought to be especially well fitted to assist. 
It was therefore proposed that a campaign be at once under- 
taken by all the members of the Association, gathered in 
branches or as isolated general members, to assist in this 
difficult task of bringing home to the entire population an 
understanding of the situation with which the country 
found itself confronted. The proposal for a Speakers* 
Bureau in each of the branches preceded the creation of the 
Speaking Division of the Committee on Public Information, 
As soon as the latter had been created, Mrs. Morgan in- 
formed the director of that division of the plan the A.C.A. 
had in hand, and offered the services of the organization to 
assist the Government in all possible ways. Mrs. Morgan 
was thereupon made a member of the Advisory Committee 
of the Speaking Division and worked throughout the War 
in closest cooperation with it. 

In order to launch the work of the Speakers' Bureau, 
college women's rallies were held under the direction of the 
War Service Committee. In these rallies the need was 
presented and an appeal made for the cooperation of college 
women, whether they were members of the A.C.A. o^; not. 
In many states and counties and cities the local A.C.A. 
Speakers' Bureau worked in closest cooperation with the 
Council of Defense, and as a consequence, hundreds of 
members spoke to all sorts of audiences — school children, 
college women, rural organizations, employees of industrial 
plants — gave four-minute speeches in the moving-picture 
theaters, in community centers, in women's clubs, and in 
churches. By this means, assistance was given to drives for 
the Red Cross, the Y.M.C.A., the Y.W.C.A., the War 
Savings Stamp Campaign, Food Conservation Campaigns 
and the Liberty Loan Drives. But the main task was 
probably that of setting forth clearly and succinctly the 
fundamental issues at stake. As illustrations of the type of 
work done one may cite an outstanding work in Minne- 
apolis, where the branch made through its members over 

244 Association of University Women 

6100 addresses, long and short, most of which were accom- 
panied with lantern slides on American history and govern- 
ment, for newly arrived immigrants. In the Hawaiian 
Islands, the branch in Honolulu not only had an especially 
active committee on education, but the members conducted 
meetings in schoolhouses in cooperation with the board of 
education, and spoke often at clubs made up 'not only of 
Honolulu's most highly cultured women, but also made up 
of women speaking only foreign tongues such as Japanese, 
Chinese, and Korean, before whom the services of an inter- 
preter were necessary.' The branch at Toledo, Ohio, con- 
ducted training classes for the speakers on child welfare, who 
then went out to reach all groups of women, at Red Cross, 
club, church, and social gatherings. Through the president 
of the Toledo Consumers' League an unusual piece of work 
was done for women in industry. The Central Committee 
in the State of Washington established a ' war study week ' 
in which the state chairman of speakers' materials led the 
discussion and conducted the training course. The Pueblo, 
Colorado, Branch as an organization took charge of the 
rural speakers' bureau for Pueblo County, furnishing speak- 
ers and providing transportation for them to and from the 
appointed places. 'This often meant many miles of travel- 
ing over uncertain country roads' in a country where the 
winters are unusually severe. The Pittsburgh, Pennsyl- 
vania, Branch maintained a short-term training class in 
public speaking in cooperation with the education depart- 
ment of the Central Woman's Committee. Here lectures 
were given by professional speakers on subjects connected 
with public speaking and the proper use of the voice, two 
classes a week were devoted to personal drill and criticism, 
and literature was put into the hands of volunteers thus 
trained. Not only did trained speakers travel over the 
country speaking at community meetings, schools and clubs, 
but selected leaders were sent to rural communities to meet 
with teachers and patrons who were interested in reviewing 

The Association and the World War 245 

week by week with the aid of maps the progress of the war. 
Ten members of the branch in St. Paul, Minnesota, received 
instructions in pubHc speaking from a member of the faculty 
of the University of Minnesota, and did admirable work 
throughout Ramsey County. 

In addition to the speaking campaign, the branches as- 
sisted in the distribution of government and other publica- 
tions, from public rest-rooms, lobbies of public libraries, and 
all other places from which these pamphlets could go forth. 
Moreover, they cooperated with the Children's Bureau and 
the Child Welfare Department of the Woman's Committee 
in the work of the 'Children's Year.' Nearly all of the 
branches furnished volunteer workers for the weighing and 
measuring tests, while many individual members assisted 
in the more difficult follow-up work which was necessary in 
the continuance of the plan. The 'back to school' drive 
enlisted many members, for it was felt that the schools must 
under all circumstances be kept moving at the highest pos- 
sible level. In this connection, a number of members of dif- 
ferent branches went into the schools as supply teachers and 
took part in the Americanization movement which was 
one result of the facts elicited by the draft boards. 

The Association as a whole cooperated with organizations 
dealing with all sorts of educational work, but perhaps most 
closely with the American Council of Education and with 
the Association of American Colleges. The latter organiza- 
tion sponsored the project for bringing to the United States 
a hundred or more young French women to be educated in 
our American colleges. It was proposed that the colleges 
receiving these young women, or friends of the colleges, 
should bear the entire cost of their education. Where this 
was not possible the college remitted the tuition fees and 
often friends came to the rescue for supplying living ex- 
penses. Mary Benton, then dean of women at Carleton Col- 
lege, Virginia C. Gildersleeve, and Virginia Newcomb, of the 
International Relations Committee of the A.C.A., were es- 

246 Association of University Women 

pecially active in bringing this plan to completion. Miss 
Benton was appointed to go to France to select these young 
women and bring them to the United States. In New York 
the standing committee of the A.C.A. on Foreign Students, 
and the New York Branch of the A.C.A. took charge of the 
distribution of these newcomers to the different colleges and 
did everything in their power to provide friends and hospi- 
tality for them, as well as to prepare the way for a welcome 
in the college which was to receive them. 

The Association was asked also to recommend especially 
trained workers for various forms of national service. 
Through a joint committee of the A.C.A. and the Inter- 
collegiate Community Service Association, the task of 
recommending properly qualified women for overseas 
service proved so valuable that the Red Cross and the 
Y.M.C.A. used this joint committee almost from the first as 
their official agency for procuring the type of woman worker 
needed in their overseas service. The Association also 
assisted in the task of procuring properly trained women 
for the Girls' Work Division of the War Camp Community 

Out of the circumstances attendant upon the war there 
grew some of the most important of the later developments 
of the A.C.A. The International Relations Committee, with 
the founding of the International Federation of University 
Women, came as a direct outgrowth of the war, and of the 
international contacts thus begun.' The Housing Com- 
mittee of the Association was also a child of the war,^ as were 
the state organizations of branches which were effected in 
191 7-18 along with the development of the State Councils 
of Defense. The State Divisions of the Association have 
grown in strength and usefulness ever since.^ The interest 
of the Association in the problem of illiteracy in which 
many branches, notably those in Wisconsin, are vitally 

» See Chapters XX, XXI. 

« See Chapter XV. J See Chapter XXV. 

The Association and the World War 247 

interested, was also an outcome of the draft examinations. 
Americanization programs were given additional impetus 
at this time with the sudden realization that for years a 
stream of immigrants, particularly from the southern 
European countries, had been swarming into the United 
States, with a background so foreign to that of the great 
democracy in which they found themselves that they had 
remained as unusually isolated units, especially in the midst 
of the great cities. To be sure, groups had come into the 
United States from northern and western Europe which 
had remained somewhat isolated, but in the second and third 
generations these earlier immigrants had been almost always 
absorbed into the fabric of American life and were indis- 
tinguishable from their neighbors whose ancestors had come 
in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. With the war 
the different character of the later immigration became 
clear, and along with this perception came another — that 
of the necessity for making a definite effort to assimilate 
the later comers. In this work of Americanization, which 
is still going on, the branches of the American Association 
of University Women have played a considerable part.^ 

The establishment of a headquarters and clubhouse of 
the Association of Collegiate Alumnae in Washington in 191 9 
was another project which was a definite outgrowth of the 
experiences of the war years. The need of a central point at 
which the national work of the organization might be located 
had long been known, but the necessity of a center from 
which its contacts with other organizations might radiate, 
and from which the stimulus to its branches, no matter how 
scattered they might be, should be more continuously di- 
rected, emerged between 191 7 and 191 9 with an insistence 
which could not be denied. Hence permanent headquarters 
were in 1919 established in Washington.* 

* See Chapter XXVI, for more detail of these types of work in the 
» See Chapter XIX. 

248 Association of University Women 

The war work of the branches of the Association deserves 
a volume by itself. It is here possible only to sketch the 
larger outlines of a magnificent achievement. The Ann 
Arbor, Michigan, branch raised five hundred dollars for the 
American University Union in Paris, another one hundred 
dollars for the American Commission for the Relief of 
Devastated France, and conducted a hostess house for en- 
listed men on the campus of the University of Michigan, all 
this in addition to individual adoption of French and Belgian 
orphans, to the purchase of liberty bonds. Red Cross mem- 
berships, etc., and to taking a large part in the Speakers' 
Bureau. Aiding in the purchase and personnel of ambulance 
units, the members of the A.C.A. often played a part, often, 
perhaps, more largely through their colleges and universities 
than through the Association itself. However, the Chicago 
Branch helped to finance and send abroad two ambulance 
units, while many other branches contributed to the support 
of similar projects. The branch at Buffalo, New York, car- 
ried on work at the Thrift Kitchen with valuable demon- 
strations of food conservation. The Boston Branch carried 
on a 'liberty bread shop' at one of the department stores, 
where bread was sold daily by members of the committee, 
luncheon served to an average of one hundred persons, while 
talks and demonstrations on food conservation were given 
and recipes sold. [Perhaps the greatest work of the Boston 
Branch, however, was the maintenance of the house club 
for men in uniform on Cape Cod. Here a homelike recrea- 
tional center was provided for the men of the patrol boats, 
coast guards, and radio stations on that bleak shore. The 
story of the 'Little House at Chatham' is one of the most 
thrilling that is told. * Not the least popular of the privileges 
of the little house at Chatham . . . was its bathroom.' It was 
said that a million dollars could not have bought a bathtub 
for the enlisted men in that arid region anywhere else, and 
the Boston Branch members who took turns two by two as 
hostesses at the house reported that water was running in 

The Association and the World War 249 

the bathtub every day from early morning to ten o'clock at 

In providing various forms of entertainment for soldiers 
and sailors, much was done by the branches of Chicago, 
Kalamazoo, Appleton, San Antonio, Battle Creek, and Cin- 
cinnati, the last two maintaining hostess houses. At Seattle, 
Washington, an especially helpful piece of work was done 
in conjunction with the Tacoma Branch, at Camp Lewis, 
where the newly formed army groups collected. The branch 
at San Antonio, Texas, was one which found unusual oppor- 
tunity for war work, since the city was a training center and 
members were called upon for service in community and 
hostess houses, as nurses in the base hospital, as entertainers 
for soldiers sick and well, while in their odd moments the 
members made surgical dressings, knitted for the soldiers, 
sold Liberty Bonds, gathered and distributed reading ma- 
terial and flowers, and in every way possible helped the men 
training for service or in service, or assisted their families. 
It is impossible to speak of all the branches which supplied 
leaders in Red Cross work, but Mrs. George W. Knight, 
president of the branch in Columbus, Ohio, raised the num- 
ber of her workers in surgical dressings from nine* to nine 
thousand in the early part of the war. While the mother 
worked at home, the daughter Margaret received a decora- 
tion abroad. 

The long story of the San Francisco Bay Branch which 
united members from San Francisco, Oakland, Berkeley, 
and other cities in the vicinity, can be imagined from the list 
of their committees in 191 8: 'War Service (including Red 
Cross, Food Conservation, and Public Speaking) ; Education 
(studying educational legislation and general problems of 
the public schools) ; School Survey (working on the recom- 
mendations for San Francisco of the United States Bureau 
of Education) ; Certified Milk and Baby Hygiene (cooperat- 
ing with the Children's Year and conducting two clinics for 
the Associated Charities of San Francisco); Vocational 

250 Association of University Women 

Opportunities (investigating the local situation in regard 
to the employment of college women) ; Back-to-the-School 
(including various reconstruction problems) ; Modern Plays; 
forming War Savings Societies and contributing to the 
support of a French orphan in addition to their usual read- 
ing. During the Liberty Loan drives, twenty-two life 
members were secured, making a total for the California 
Branch of twenty-eight.' 

Although bureaus of occupation or placement bureaus, 
as they were sometimes called, were in existence in a few 
cities before 1914, the war needs brought their value dis- 
tinctly to the fore. The Kansas City Branch did a unique 
piece of work in the formation of a branch volunteer voca- 
tional bureau for the placement of women in part or whole 
time work. Having started this bureau, the branch turned 
it over in time to other management. The branch also 
established a placement bureau for high-school girls who 
without financial aid would have left school. Here again 
the board of education took over the work when it was found 
so valuable that the school executives themselves assumed 
responsibility for it. The Minneapolis Bureau of Occupa- 
tions was also begun at this time under the auspices of the 
branch. The St. Paul Branch cooperated in the establish- 
ment of this * twin-cities ' bureau which immediately proved 
its value in the community. Duluth at the same time estab- 
lished a part-time vocational bureau. The Denver bureau 
likewise was an outgrowth of the war. 

The branch at Superior, Wisconsin, through a special 
committee assisted the Women's Council in maintaining an 
emergency workshop for women during a stringent period 
of unemployment in the winter of 1 916-17. 

Closely allied with these projects were the cooperative 
houses where women students might live more economically 
during their college course. These were established in 
Madison, Wisconsin; Urbana, Illinois; Detroit and Ann 
Arbor, Michigan. The branch in Washington, D.C., main- 

The Association and the World War 251 

tained from i9i8toi922a rooming-house for college girls in 
government work. The housing problem had reached a 
crisis and thirty-two girls were provided with room and 
board at a cost of between $42.50 and $50 a month. A small 
deficit of $190 was incurred by the Washington Branch and 
paid as a part of its war service. 

Many branches began at this time their interest in voca- 
tional information and guidance, a need accentuated by the 
situation which the war sharpened in the demand for college 
girls in occupations other than teaching. For example, the 
branch in Lawrence, Kansas, carried forward such work for 
two years, after which it was taken over by the university 
itself. The University of Missouri did a brilliant piece of 
war work by directing their girls to war agencies within 
reach of their home towns and sending to these agencies a 
careful estimate of each girl's ability — information of in- 
estimable value to committee chairmen. 

The war gave immediate opportunity for renewed urging 
that women be placed on boards of various sorts, notably 
boards of education and school boards, since men were just 
then often drawn off for work of a different sort. The mem- 
bers of the A.C.A. were quick to see their opportunity here, 
and as a result in many places branches such as the one in 
Missoula, Montana, recorded one of their proudest achieve- 
ments in the election of an A.C.A. member to the school 
board of the city. 

The influenza epidemic of 191 8, which, in the fall of that 
year took possession of the United States from one coast to 
the other, called forth all the energy and resourcefulness of 
the women of the country. Although the A.C.A. reported 
its devastating influence upon routine work of the branches, 
nevertheless the members of the branches in many cases 
did what would seem superhuman tasks. A member of the 
Sheboygan, Wisconsin, Branch, in addition to serving as 
chairman of the committee that organized the Sheboygan 
County Chapter of the American Red Cross with thirty- 

252 Association of University Women 

three branches in the county and thirty-one auxiliary chap- 
ters in the city of Sheboygan, also organized and directed the 
Red Cross kitchen during the epidemic, provided meals for 
stricken families in their homes and for children in the 
Masonic Temple, which also served as a temporary shelter 
for those children whose families could not care for them at 
the moment. She and her helpers also provided meals for 
patients and nurses in the emergency hospital.^ 

Although the majority of the people of the United States 
were not especially interested in countries across the water, 
there were nevertheless many who by dint of study or travel 
had become vitally interested in the people of different 
European and Oriental countries. Moreover, people fol- 
lowed individual war workers with a sympathy, an emotion, 
and a strong desire to help, which was of the greatest im- 
portance later in stimulating international cooperation and 
study. It was natural that the California branches should 
early in 19 14 begin their support of the work of the Commis- 
sion for Relief in Belgium, since Mr. and Mrs. Herbert 
Hoover and Mr. and Mrs. Vernon Kellogg were of their own 
cherished group. Aid for the Italian orphans and the French 
orphans began almost immediately in branches throughout 
the country, where both individual members and branches 
as a unit adopted Belgian, French, and Italian orphans. 
Perhaps the outstanding achievement in the adoption of 
French orphans was that of the branch in Grand Forks, 
North Dakota, which adopted fourteen. Other branches 
doubtless had as many through individual members, but this 
project was undertaken by the branch itself. The branch at 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, supported one orphan, Marie 
Louise Point, of Vaucluse, not only during the period of the 
War, but until 1926. The branch in Salt Lake City adopted 
Xavier Felici, of Ajaccio, Corsica. The branch at Spokane, 

^ This was Marie E. Kohler, a graduate of the University of Wisconsin. 
Doubtless other branches could tell similar stories of the devotion of 
individuals in their community in the fall of 191 8. 

The Association and the World War 253 

Washington, adopted two French orphans and two Belgian 
orphans. The branch in Seattle, Washington, still inter- 
ested in relieving the suffering which did not end with the 
Armistice, in January, 1920, records a gift of $21 to the 
American Friends Society for relief work in Germany and 

Hundreds of members of the Association served in 191 7- 
18 on national, state, or local committees. One branch 
member was the head of the Women's Council of Defense in 
her State, others served on boards of education. The work 
thus begun is in many cases still carried on either by the 
generation which was most vitally interested in the years 
1 9 14-18 or by those who served as understudies at that time 
and have now come to the fore as leaders of enterprises in 
whose founding or whose carrying on they shared. The 
branch histories are full of these 'rolls of honor.' 

Of the women in overseas service the records contain 
literally scores of names. One of the fellows of the Associa- 
tion, Ruth Holden, died in Russia. A member of the branch 
at Superior, Wisconsin, Faith Rogers, gave her life in 
France, as did Ruth Cutler, of the St. Paul Branch; and 
doubtless there are others of which the branch histories do 
not speak who directly or indirectly gave their lives for the 

A number of members of the branches were decorated by 
the Governments of France, Belgium, Italy, and England. 
From the Seattle Branch, Dr. Mabel Seagrave, who be- 
came assistant director of a hospital in southern France, 
was one of two women doctors who served ten thousand 
Belgian and French refugees during the influenza epidemic. 
The French War Office in appreciation of her services, 
decorated her 'for beautiful service.' Dr. Olga Stastny, of 
the Omaha Branch, daughter of Czecho-Slovakian par- 
ents, after working in Serbia accepted a call from Dr. Alice 
Masaryk to do post-war work in the new Czech Republic. 
Dr. Stastny was sent at once into the camps where the 

254 Association of University Women' 

morale of the army had been shattered and the soldiers 
needed a new spiritual impulse. Before returning to Amer- 
ica, Dr. Stastny had made two complete circuits of Czecho- 
slovakia and had organized committees to carry on her 
work. She is known as 'the mother of the Czech army.' 

The branch in Washington, D.C., counts among its mem- 
bers Major Julia Stimson, dean of the Army School of Nurs- 
ing, who was the first woman to have the rank of major in 
the United States Army, and who was awarded the United 
States Distinguished Service Medal, the first-class medal of 
the British Regal Red Cross, and the Medaille de la Recon- 
naissance Frangaise. Dr. Louise Taylor-Jones, of the Wash- 
ington Branch, was awarded the Distinguished Service 
Medal by the Serbian Government. Mrs. John M. Olin, a 
member of the Madison, Wisconsin, Branch, who had for 
many years been a most devoted worker for the A.C.A., was 
decorated by the Belgian and the French Governments for 
her work on behalf of their women and children.* Professor 
and Mrs. M. S. Slaughter, of Madison, Wisconsin, had charge 
of the Red Cross work, not only of the city of Venice, but 
of the whole region after the Piave disaster. Professor 
Slaughter was decorated by the Italian Government. 
His wife, Gertrude E. T. Slaughter, a member of the Madi- 
son Branch, was decorated by the Third Army with the 
White Cross of Savoy, while the city of Venice gave her a 
gold and jeweled brooch with the insignia of the City of 
Venice uppn it. Mrs. Slaughter received also the Red Cross 

Of the work of scores of other branch members. In every 
part of the world, one has not sufficient space to speak. The 
illustrations given show the type of service which was given 
again and again. 

Not as an aftermath of the war, but as an illustration of 
the interest in other countries which that great struggle had 
accentuated, was the interest in the United States in the 

' Mrs. Olin died in January, 1922. 

The Association and the World War 255 

Oriental colleges for women. Writing in September, 1921, 
Mrs. Martin said : ^ 

There are seven of them — one in Japan, three in China, three in 
India. They are called the Seven Union Christian Colleges for 
Women in the Orient. They have been created by the combined 
missionary effort of Great Britain and the United States. They are 
Christian but non-sectarian. Their students are partly Christian, 
both Protestant and Catholic. For the rest they represent all the 
religions of the Orient. Two of them — one in China and one in 
India — are medical colleges. All of the liberal arts colleges are 
standard colleges, comparable to any of the standard colleges of this 

The immediate need of these colleges was for buildings, and 
with the appeal of Mrs. Martin and through her of the whole 
Association, the branches valiantly did their utmost on be- 
half of these sister institutions. The North Dakota Branch 
at Grand Forks, either through individual members or 
branch activity, raised the sum of one thousand dollars for 
these colleges. Great Falls, Montana; Aurora, Illinois; 
Columbia, Missouri; the Ozark Branch (Springfield, 
Missouri); Salt Lake City; various cities in Kansas, various 
branches in California, in Colorado, and in the Eastern 
States raised sums for the same altruistic project. Under the 
auspices of the branch at Tulsa, Oklahoma, the Oklahoma 
branches together raised one thousand dollars; the branch 
at Lincoln, Nebraska, raised five hundred dollars; but these 
sums are no criterion of the abiding interest of the members 
of the Association in the Oriental colleges. 

Meanwhile, the branch at Northfield, Minnesota, made a 
gift to the International Council of Women, and that of 
Seattle, Washington, to the college of Kobe in Japan. A 
branch representing quite a region in Southern California, 
the 'Pomona Valley Branch,' records as contributions from 
its members following the war: 

* Journal of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, Vol. 14, Nos. 11-12, 
pp. 245-47. 

256 Association of University Women 

1921-22 For the Oriental Colleges $542 . 00 

Summer of 1922. To the Near East Relief 100.00 

1923 To the Y.W.C.A. work in Constantinople, 

Turkey 25.00 

1923 To the Carr Creek Community Center, 

Kentucky 25 . 00 

1923-24 Reconstruction of the Louvain Library 100. 00 

1926-27 Scholarship to an Oriental college girl 25.00 

Here again the story is told quite simply and with no em- 
phasis upon it as a significant achievement. 

Nor did the interest in the welfare of other countries 
die down with the project for the Oriental colleges. The 
destruction of the University of Louvain, which seemed to 
scholars everywhere an unnecessary piece of vandalism, 
aroused Americans to the need of assisting this ancient 
center of learning in again preparing itself for the task of 
education which through the centuries it has carried on. 
The Louvain Library Fund made an especial appeal to the 
members of the A.A.U.W., and a number of branches con- 
tributed to this fund, notably, those in Ithaca, New York; 
Saginaw, Michigan; and Boston. In the latter branch, not 
only was a sum of money raised toward the rebuilding of the 
library itself, but one member of the branch, Mary Ladd, 
presented to Louvain an especially fine set of French clas- 
sics which had once been the property of her father, who was 
not only one of the founders of the Chauncy Hall School in 
Boston, but had offered the use of the building for the organ- 
ization meeting of the A.CA. That the volumes which 
Miss Ladd presented were of a rare edition and highly valu- 
able was especially gratifying to the Louvain authorities. 

Such is the brief outline of the A.CA. and the World War. 
The whole story would make a notable volume in itself. 
Enough has been given to show the character of the work 
and the spirit of the workers, which is all that a single 
chapter can set forth. To the student of history the con- 
trast between the haphazard way in which the women of the 
United States went to work, North and South, in 1861, and 

The Association and the World War 257 

the precision and swiftness with which the woman power of 
nearly half a continent was mobilized in 191 7, is amazing 
and arresting. With the same depth of emotion, equal 
patriotism of a high order, equal determination and equal 
courage, the training of half a century of higher education 
perhaps, of widespread organization certainly, justified 
itself many-fold. To have had a share in such development 
and growth in power as the story of this chapter makes 
manifest is in itself justification enough for the A.C.A. and 
its founders. 



As a result of the expansion which came to the Association 
largely because of the World War, the need for a permanent 
headquarters for the Association became acute. Until 191 9 
the Association had always had its headquarters where 
the secretary of the organization happened to live. While 
Marion Talbot was secretary, the headquarters of the 
Association were at her home, 66 Marlborough Street, 
Boston. During the years when Elizabeth Lawrence Clarke 
was doing her devoted and effective work as secretary, the 
headquarters of the Association was in Williamstown, 
Massachusetts, Mrs. Clarke's home. When Gertrude Shorb 
Martin took over the work, the top floor of her home in 
Ithaca, New York, housed the records. The work of the 
secretary of the Association was thus free of any charge for 
light, heat, telephone, or rent, items which would otherwise 
have had to be included in the budget. All these items 
Mrs. Martin provided as a 'free-will gift' to the organization 
to whose interests she had long been devoted. In 1921 Mrs. 
Martin wrote: 

I entered upon the work of the secretaryship a little less than 
five years ago. At that time the amount of office equipment belong- 
ing to the Association was very moderate indeed and it was easy to 
find space for it in a large room on the third floor of my house. By far 
the largest part of it consisted of old copies of the Journal, of some 
issues hundreds of copies. In addition to this there were some cor- 
respondence files, and a heavy oak chest containing the archives. 
There was no typewriter, no desk, no catalogue case. The catalogue 
came shipped in pasteboard boxes. A little later, when Mrs. Pom- 
eroy moved from Philadelphia, she sent to my office a typewriter 
and a typewriter desk which had been used by her in Philadelphia in 
connection with the treasurer's work, and which belonged to the 
Association. This practically constituted the equipment of the 

The Washington Headquarters 259 

During the war, with the increased association and co- 
operation with the Government and with other organiza- 
tions, the need of a permanent address in Washington 
became too apparent to be ignored. Laura Puffer Morgan, 
vice-president-at-large of the Association, with members of 
the Washington Branch carried a great responsibiUty with- 
out adequate facilities throughout the entire period of the 
war. It was quite natural, therefore, that at the convention 
in St. Louis in 191 9, Mrs. Morgan should bring forward a 
definite plan for Washington headquarters. She and her 
associates had found that the house at 1607 H Street, 
Lafayette Square, opposite the White House, would be avail- 
able on July I, when the Government, which had been 
making use of the house during the war, should give it over. 
The house was one of real distinction in history. It had been 
the residence of well-known persons, had seen notable people 
as guests under its roof, and was of such a character as to be 
a dignified clubhouse as well as a suitable headquarters for 
the Association. Mrs. Morgan proposed that the Associa- 
tion should rent the house for a term of years, appealing to 
the members of the Association, to alumnae assqclations of 
different colleges and universities, and to individuals for the 
necessary funds to equip and furnish it. The Association 
voted to place the project in the hands of a committee of 
seven to be appointed by the president to work out in con- 
junction with a committee of the Washington Branch a plan 
for such headquarters and clubhouse as might seem desir- 
able, with 'orders to go ahead with plans if it seemed wise 
to do so.' It was, however, specifically understood that the 
project of headquarters and clubhouse should not entail a 
demand upon the branches to provide for the financial 
support of the enterprise. With this understanding the 
committee was to proceed. 

It is not possible to go into detail with regard to the two 
years during which the Association occupied the house. 
Rooms were furnished by the alumnae groups of Smith, 

260 Association of University Women 

Vassar, Wellesley, Bryn Mawr, Mount Holyoke, Trinity, 
Radcliffe, Barnard, Elmira, and Goucher Colleges. Other 
contributions were made by the alumnae of the Massachu- 
setts Institute of Technology, Stanford University, the 
Universities of Missouri, Kansas, Michigan, and Wisconsin. 
Besides these gifts of alumnae organizations, the branches of 
the Association made contributions in these early days, 
either in loans or in gifts. Individuals also contributed funds, 
and when the house was opened, every one was enthusiastic 
over what the committee had been able to accomplish. 

Distinguished visitors came as guests almost from the 
outset, among them the three English scholars — Dr. Caro- 
line Spurgeon, Dr. Winifred Cullis, and Dr. Ida Smedley 
MacLean, who made an extensive tour over the United 
States in the interests of the International Federation of 
University Women. The Washington Branch had itself an 
unusual number of distinguished members, many of whom 
brought other guests from abroad and at home to the house 
on Lafayette Square. Mrs. Herbert Hoover initiated the 
Public Interests Committee of the national headquarters; 
Helen Atwater, Shirley Farr, Mrs. Walker Hines, Mrs. Louis 
Slade, Mrs. Frank A. Vanderlip, Mrs. Glen Swiggett, and 
Lucy Madeira Wing all belonged to the Clubhouse Com- 
mittee. Mrs. Robert Lansing and Julia C. Lathrop were 
members of the Advisory Committee. Mrs. Morgan and 
Mrs. Theodore Cole with Olive Davis worked endlessly to 
make the house a well-ordered household. Mrs. Pearmain, 
as chairman of the Furnishings Committee, was responsible 
for the beautiful arrangement of rugs and furniture which 
were purchased with the greatest discretion and economy 
and yet entirely satisfied the eye. Mrs. William Morton 
Wheeler, President M. Carey Thomas, Shirley Farr, and 
Mrs. Caro C. T. Martin spent hours on the troublesome 
financial end of the project. Eva Perry Moore was the first 
chairman of the board of directors, and Major Julia Stim- 
son was the first chairman of the board of managers. Alto- 

The Washington Headquarters 261 

gether, as one looks back upon the years spent in the 
Lafayette Square house, one realizes how devoted and how 
selfless were the efforts of many women who made this first 
important venture of the Association in the matter of a home 
the success that, in spite of many difficulties, it really was. 
But the United States Chamber of Commerce cast a 
longing eye upon the house, for, with the Corcoran property 
which extended to the corner to the west, the site was ideal 
for such a building as its directors contemplated. The story 
of the way in which the agents of the owner of the clubhouse 
— all unknown to him — tried to oust the negro caretaker; 
of how they tried to terminate the lease by devious methods ; 
of how the Association planned to go to law to preserve its 
rights in the house; and of how at last the matter was settled 
by an arrangement between the United States Chamber of 
Commerce, the owner of the house, and the committee of the 
American Association of University Women, need not be 
told here in detail. It is amusing reading, but the humor of 
the situation did not at that time always impress the 
officers of the Association. Finally, in 192 1, at the conven- 
tion held in Washington, a committee was appointed to 
consider the purchase of another property, leaving the 
H Street house for the United States Chamber of Commerce. 
On this committee, with Jessie C. MacDonald as chairman, 
were associated Marion Reilly, Mary A. Wilbur, Helen 
Atwater, and Lucy Madeira Wing, representing the colleges 
of Wellesley, Bryn Mawr, Elmira, Smith, and Vassar. This 
committee recommended to the Association the purchase of 
the property at 1634 Eye Street, N.W., overlooking Farra- 
gut Square, which had been for several years the home of the 
Men's City Club of Washington. The property was pur- 
chased for $165,000, including partial furnishings, and was 
financed by a cash payment on June i, 1921, of $5000; on 
December i, 1921, another payment of $5000; and on 
February i, 1922, another of $35,000.^ There were arranged 

' This sum was raised through the sale of A.A.U.W. bonds secured by 
a third mortgage on the property. See Chapter IX. 

262 Association of University Women 

a first mortgage of $45,000, due June, 1923, and a second 
mortgage covering the remainder of the purchase price. The 
damages received in the suit for possession of 1607 H Street, 
terminated out of court, amounted in all to $20,967.86. This 
amount was applied on the purchase of the new home. In 
addition to the purchase price, extensive repairs had to be 
made and interest charges met, so that the balance sheet of 
1924 listed as assets (and liabilities set over against them), 
the sum of $298,392.55. 

Into its new home the American Association of University 
Women moved in the fall of 1922, and on December 6 of 
that year occurred the formal opening of the new head- 
quarters and clubhouse which had been the property of the 
Association only since the preceding June. The summer had 
been spent in renovating and remodeling the building to suit 
the needs of a woman's organization. An electric elevator 
had been installed, partitions added or removed, fresh paint 
applied, the furniture from the H Street house taken over 
and rearranged in the new quarters, with new furniture and 
new hangings added by gifts or by purchase. The business 
offices had been occupied since the middle of October by the 
three new secretaries — Frances Fenton Bernard, educa- 
tional secretary; Ruth French, executive secretary; and 
R. Louise Fitch, temporarily membership director and edi- 
tor of the Journal. Formal invitations for the opening were 
sent to college presidents, deans of women, heads of special 
departments throughout the United States, to all depart- 
ments and friends of education in Washington, besides all 
branches and general members of the A.A.U.W. The guests 
were received by the national president, Ada Louise Com- 
stock, then Dean of Smith College. Major Julia Stimson, 
chairman of the board of managers, Harlean James, presi- 
dent of the Washington Branch, Caroline L. Humphrey, 
former president of the Association, Vinnie Barrows, chair- 
man of the House Committee, Mrs. Glen Swiggett, acting 
chairman of the Executive Committee, and the three secre- 

The Washington Headquarters 263 

taries of the Association received the guests. Personal 
messages were received from President and Mrs. Harding, 
ex-President and Mrs. Wilson, Vice-President and Mrs. 
Coolidge, the Chief Justice and Mrs. Taft, and General 
Pershing, with telegrams and messages from sixty college 
presidents, twenty deans of women, and representatives of 
many branches. It was altogether a most notable occasion. 
From that time until to-day the Association has occupied 
these quarters. 

When it is remembered that the Association is scattered 
in length and breadth over the United States, that no very 
great number of the members are ever able to avail them- 
selves of the privileges of the clubhouse, and that the mem- 
bership has never been composed of people of large means, 
the magnitude of the task which the Association set itself in 
purchasing a home can scarcely be overestimated. At times 
it looked impossible, but because of the devoted interest of 
hundreds of people, the Association was at last in 1927 able 
to announce the completion of the purchase. At the conven- 
tion held that year the Association on motion duly seconded 
voted : ' That the services performed by the trustees of the 
Washington fund be accepted with gratitude and that their 
resignation be accepted at the termination of their task. . . , 
President Reinhardt paid a tribute to the memory of Mrs. 
Brookings, and on behalf of the Board of Directors, pre- 
sented to the National Group as a nucleus of a memorial 
library, a set of Parkman's Works.* In the resolutions 
adopted by the Association at its closing session, there ap- 
peared the following: 'Be it resolved that this Association 
express to President Reinhardt ... its keen appreciation of 
her great devotion, particularly during the difficult Wash- 
ington fund campaign.' 

Had it not been for the staunch support of the presidents 
of the Association — Ada L. Comstock and Aurelia Henry 
Reinhardt; for the financial advice and work of the treas- 
urers of the Association, Katharine P. Pomeroy and Vassie 

264 Association of University Women 

James Hill; for the unexampled organizing power of Marion 
Kinney Brookings; and the work of hundreds of members of 
the Washington Branch and of branches throughout the 
United States, the project could never have been brought 
to completion. In reading the histories of three hundred 
branches of the Association during the writing of this his- 
tory, the authors have come again and again upon the state- 
ment that 'this branch finally completed its quota for the 
Washington headquarters.' ' Sometimes this amount was 
thousands of dollars, at other times it was less than fifty 
dollars, but by these contributions the branches of the 
Association certainly made stronger the tie between the 
local groups and the national officers and organization. The 
largest single gift came from the College Club of Washing- 
ton, a separate organization which had, for several years, 
maintained a clubhouse of its own. When this Washington 
college group in 1925 sold their clubhouse, they joined their 
membership to the Washington Branch, and gave to the 
national headquarters the sum of $10,000. The contribution 
of the Washington Branch, exclusive of this gift, was 
$13,734.35, although its quota was only $4,004. The next 
largest gift from a branch came from the Boston Branch, 
which contributed $7895.41, thereby oversubscribing its 
quota by over $500. The branch at Cape Girardeau, Mis- 
souri, organized in 1923, set about at once to assist with the 
headquarters purchase, and contributed $336. In Wisconsin 
the branches at Appleton and Beloit divided a prize offered 
to the group in the State which first completed the payment 
of its pledge. The branch at Norfolk, Virginia, which had 
been an A.C.A. branch from 1902 to 1918, a S.A.C.W. 
branch, 1918-21, and an A.A.U.W. branch after 192 1, con- 
tributed $800 to the purchase. The Washington Branch 

^ Payments on some of the pledges which the branches regard as 
a moral obligation are still (1931) being received, although the head- 
quarters have been paid for since 1927. Monies so received are put into 
the reserve fund. 

The Washington Headquarters 265 

took upon itself the obligation of selling $50,000 worth of 
bonds when the purchase was begun. More than this amount 
was disposed of through a committee headed by Gertrude 
Van Hoosen, of which $35,000 was subscribed in Washington 

To-day if any reader of this book should find herself in 
Washington, she should without question go to 163). E^^e 
vStreet and ask to see the Founders' Book. There on beauti- 
fully illuminated pages are the names of the branches of the 
Association with the leaders of their work, and the names of 
many in whose memory the local funds were raised. It is 
indeed *a book of remembrance,' a record of devotion and 
of achievement and an earnest of the idealism of American 
college women. 

The property at 1634 Eye Street has increased in value as 
the years have gone on, and, as the work of the Association 
has increased, more and more space has had to be taken over 
for offices with a corresponding decrease in the number of 
rooms available for permanent or transient guests. All 
national members of the A.A.U.W. are automatically non- 
resident members of the National Club, and entitled to 
occupy rooms when space is available and to take atdvantage 
of the facilities of the dining-room when they are in Wash- 
ington. The time will doubtless come when another building 
will house the Association. What is needed is a building 
especially designed for the twofold use which must be made 
of it — as headquarters for the National Association ana 
as a clubhouse for the college women of Washington, of the 
United States, and of those women from foreign countries 
who come for any reason whatever to this country. 



On April 19, 1914, at a meeting of the Council of the A.C A. 
a motion was offered to form a special committee whose duty 
it should be to confer with women coming to this country for 
study from our foreign possessions and other countries, and 
to offer them such aid as they might need. Of this Com- 
mittee on Foreign Students, Elizabeth M. Howe, of Buffalo, 
was made chairman and served with great effectiveness dur- 
ing the five years of the committee's existence. In 191 5, she 
reported the membership of her committee as follows: Mar- 
garet E. Maltby, New York; Frances H. Sidwell, Washing- 
ton; Ruth L. Child, Boston; Dr. Martha Tracy, Philadel- 
phia; Frances Anderson, Jacksonville; and May Treat Mor- 
rison, San Francisco. Mrs. Howe explained the duty of 
these committee members, each of whom was to organize a 
local committee in her own city, also expressing the hope 
that committees would be formed as occasion demanded in 
other cities as well. She urged the members of the Associa- 
tion throughout the country to stand ready to assist in every 
way women from other countries who should come to study 
our system of education. 'One such visitor from Chile,' she 
said, 'was here two years ago, a woman of charm and dig- 
nity, whose like we should in future be prepared to welcome.' 
Mrs. Howe reported the cordial cooperation of John Barrett, 
Director-General of the Pan-American Union and of the 
Pan-American Division of the American Association of 
International Conciliation, whose headquarters were in 
New York. 

A significant incident a year before the entrance of the 
United States into the World War shows the international 
spirit of the A.C. A., and how quickly it could be aroused. 

International Relations Committee 267 

At the meeting of the A.C.A. Council in April, 19J6, Marion 
Talbot presented, at the request of Jane Addams, the dis- 
tinguished head of Hull House and perhaps the most inter- 
nationally minded woman in the United States, the follow- 
ing resolution : 

Whereas, Information has been received at the State Department 
that Alice Masaryk, a distinguished woman scholar. Doctor of 
Philosophy in History of the University of Berlin, the daughter of an 
American mother, and an instructor of collegiate rank in Bohemia, 
for some time a resident of the University of Chicago Settlement, 
and so personally known to many American university men and 
women, is now held a prisoner in Vienna under charge of high 
treason, and will be tried by military authorities; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That we, members of the Council of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae representing forty-six colleges and six thousand 
university women, urge upon the Austrian authorities such post- 
ponement of decision in the case as will enable all pertinent facts and 
sentiments to be adequately presented and duly considered. 

Although this resolution possibly had nothing to do with 
her release, it is a matter of satisfaction to the A.A.U.W. 
that years ago it should have taken a stand on behalf of the 
daughter of the President of the Czecho-Slovakian Republic, 
herself a woman of distinction. * 

The Committee on Foreign Students was to do a piece of 
work with concrete results; for it was largely through its 
efforts and the leadership of Mrs. Howe that a Latin- 
American fellowship was offered in the spring of 191 7. The 
notice of the fellowship appeared by some curious chance in 
a Venezuelan newspaper and was read by Virginia P. 
Alvarez, who applied for the fellowship and held it until she 
received her degree of Doctor of Public Health from the 
University of Pennsylvania.* In 191 7, the Association of 
American Colleges approached Mrs. Howe's committee with 
regard to a project of placing French girls in the colleges of 
the United States, and met with an immediate and cordial 
» See Chapter XI. » See Chapter XVIII. 

268 Association of University Women 

Upon the entrance of the United States into the World 
War, the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, meeting just at 
that time for its biennial conference in Washington, D.C., 
authorized the appointment of a Committee on International 
Relations. This committee was appointed at the council 
meeting held in Chicago in April, 191 8, with a membership 
as follows: Chairman, Dean Virginia C. Gildersleeve, 
Barnard College; President M. Carey Thomas, Bryn Mawr 
College; President Ellen C. Sabin, Milwaukee-Downer Col- 
lege; Dean Lucy Ward Stebbins, University of California; 
Mabel Hurd Skinner, Victoria College, Toronto University; 
Lois Kimball Mathews, ex-officio; Gertrude Shorb Martin, 
ex-officio. The committee was so scattered that it was im- 
possible to secure a full attendance at any meeting. The 
first meeting was held at Barnard College in June, 191 8, and 
was merely for organization. In the October following, the 
women members of the British Educational Mission came to 
the United States and had a conference with Miss Gilder- 
sleeve in New York, at which time the project of an Inter- 
national Federation was broached. On December 6, 19 18, 
Miss Gildersleeve's committee held at Radcliffe College a 
conference jointly with the Committee on War Service 
Training for Women College Students of the American 
Council on Education and the women members of the 
British Educational Mission, at which representatives of a 
number of colleges were present. On February 7, 191 9, cer- 
tain members of the committee held a conference with cer- 
tain members of the Committee on Foreign Students to dis- 
cuss the interests which the two committees had in common. 
In this conference the scholarships for French girls were dis- 
cussed at some length. The extending of aid and hospitality 
to these students had been the province of the Committee on 
Foreign Students, but certain problems regarding the future 
plans for foreign scholarships, it was realized, belonged more 
properly to the Committee on International Relations. The 
whole question of the best way of securing and administrat- 

International Relations Committee 269 

ing scholarships for American students abroad and for for- 
eign students in America was, it was felt, of extreme im- 
portance, and the two committees agreed to work together 
on the project. 

The first question referred by the Association to the Com- 
mittee on International Relations was the application of the 
Alumnae Association of University College, Toronto, Can- 
ada, for membership in the A.C.A. Dean Gildersleeve's 
committee opened correspondence with this Canadian 
group, with the result that the Canadian Federation of 
University Women was formed in time to become the third 
member of the International Federation of University 
Women in 19 19. 

The next problem was that of branches outside of the 
United States. Dr. Caroline E. Furness, of Vassar College, 
made a trip to Japan in 191 8-19. Before she left the United 
States, she asked the president of the A.C.A. for a letter of 
introduction and authorization to form, if possible, a branch 
of the A.C.A. in Tokyo. As a result of Dr. Furness's visit, 
the Tokyo Branch was organized. Thus the Committee on 
International Relations had a point of contact with Japan.' 
The Committee on International Relations opened corre- 
spondence with a group of graduates of the University of 
Michigan in China with the hope of establishing a branch 
in Peking. Eveline A. Thomson, of the faculty of Con- 
stantinople College, spent some months in 191 8-19 in the 
United States, and upon her return to the Far East, under- 
took on behalf of the A.C.A. to investigate the situation in 
Constantinople and attempt to organize a branch or a college 
club of some sort in that city. The committee reported in 
1 9 19 that it felt the establishment of foreign branches and 
the affiliations with organizations of university women in 
other countries to be of the greatest advantage to American 
college women. 

In the report made to the convention of the A.C.A. 
« See Chapter XXVII. 

270 Association of University Women 

in April, 1919, Miss Gildersleeve, after speaking of the 
problems already mentioned, concluded as follows: 

The committee is interested also in bringing about the exchange 
of women professors between our colleges for women and foreign 

Plans are being discussed for a headquarters in Paris which shall be 
a center of information and sociability for American and British 
university women. These have not yet crystallized into very definite 
shape, but the chairman of this committee has been in touch with a 
group at the Women's University Club in New York interested in 
the project, a group in Paris, and the American University Union. 

One of the most important duties of the committee during the 
first year of its existence has been to find out what was already being 
done in this field by other organizations and to coordinate its own 
work and future plans with these efforts. Besides keeping in touch 
with the Committee on Foreign Students and the Committee on 
Fellowships of the Association, it has been in communication with 
the Committee on International Educational Relations of the Amer- 
ican Council on Education, the Association of American Colleges, 
the Women's University Club of New York City, the Young 
Women's Christian Association's Department for Foreign Stu- 
dents, and finally the new Institute for International Educational 
Relations, shortly to be opened in New York City. This Institute, 
which is to be partially financed by the Carnegie Endowment for 
International Peace, and of which Professor Stephen P. Duggan is 
to be the director, will, it is hoped, become the official center and 
clearing-house for all activities in the field of international educa- 
tional relations. . . . 

The range of interests open to the committee has been so vast, 
and the difficulties in the way of carrying on the work rapidly have 
been so considerable, that it may well appear to the Association 
that very little has been accomplished during these first ten months. 
The possibilities for future usefulness along these lines seem limit- 
less, and certainly no time has ever been more promising or more 
critical than the present for the development of international 

At the convention where Dean Gildersleeve's report was 
presented, the Association provided that the Committee on 
Foreign Students should become a sub-committee of the 
Committee on International Relations. The work, therefore, 

International Relations Committee 271 

of Mrs. Howe's committee as a separate entity ceased at this 

It was further authorized by the Association that Presi- 
dent M. Carey Thomas and Dean Helen Taft,^ of Bryn 
Mawr College, be made members of the International Rela- 
tions Committee and that on their proposed trip around the 
world they be authorized to investigate the possibility of 
an interchange of women professors between this country 
and the European countries, and the possibility of the es- 
tablishment of women's university clubs in Paris and in 

On January i, 1920, the Institute of International Educa- 
tion offered to assist in carrying on the work of the Com- 
mittee on International Relations. From this time until 
1923, the main function of the Committee on International 
Relations was to assist in the organization and strengthening 
of the International Federation of University Women. Ad- 
ministratively, it was during these years an adjunct of the 
Institute of International Education, with Virginia New- 
comb as executive secretary for the committee, and a mem- 
ber of the staff of the Institute. Miss Newcomb's first task 
was the arrangement of details for the visit of three British 
women scholars to the United States. These were Professor 
Caroline E. Spurgeon, president of the British Federation of 
University Women, Dr. Winifred Cullis, chairman of the 
Committee on International Relations of the British Federa- 
tion, and Dr. Ida Smedley MacLean. The Commonwealth 
Fund, through its executive secretary. Dr. Max Farrand, 
made a grant of twelve thousand dollars to finance their 
visit. The three British women went to all parts of the 
United States visiting colleges and branches both of the 
A.C.A. and of the Southern Association of College Women, 
where the presence of these distinguished scholars did much, 
not only to further the project of an International Federa- 
tion, but also to strengthen the bond of friendship between 
« Now Mrs. Frederick Manning. 

272 Association of University Women 

the university women of Great Britain and those of the 
United States. 

When the first conference of the International Federation 
of University Women was held in London in 1920, Miss 
Newcomb made the arrangements for the five American 
delegates. Until the Budget Committee of the I.F.U.W. was 
established in 1922, with a section in the United States, the 
American Committee undertook to secure the funds for 
carrying on the work of the Association, Miss Newcomb's 
office collecting lists of possible donors and sending out 
appeals. During these early years, the work of the com- 
mittee in spreading information about the I.F.U.W. was 
borne partly by Margaret Farrand, who was in charge of 
publicity, and partly by Miss Newcomb, both of whom 
worked closely with Mrs. Edgerton Parsons, the first 
treasurer of the Federation. 

In the same year the problem of the recommendation of 
American women students to English universities was settled 
when an agreement was reached with the Women's Colleges 
of Oxford University that the sub-committee on Scholarships 
and Fellowships should pass upon the credentials of Ameri- 
can women applying for admission with advanced standing.* 
In the year 1923-24 the work of the International Relations 
Committee was not centralized administratively. Corre- 
spondence with the International Federation of University 
Women was carried on by the executive office of the 
A.A.U.W. in Washington, while the applications for admis- 
sion to Oxford were handled by Kate Ward, who had suc- 
ceeded Miss Newcomb at the Institute. The International 
Relations study groups of the branches were given study 
material and encouragement by the Educational Secretary 
of the Association, while Miss Newcomb continued to give 
part of her time as secretary of the International Relations 
Committee. In 1924, while the work of the Committee on 
International Relations was again carried on in the Institute 

» See Chapter X for an earlier project along similar lines. 

International Relations CommitteIe 273 

of International Education, the Carnegie Corporation 
granted five thousand dollars a year for five years to the 
A.A.U.W. for its international activities. Arrangements 
were made whereby the secretary of the International Rela- 
tions Committee of the A.A.U.W. should have office space at 
the Institute of International Education and should work in 
close cooperation with its officers. With the grants from the 
Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial for the educational 
program of the Association, the appointment of Dr. Lois 
Hayden Meek as educational vsecretary of the A.A.U.W., 
the election of Miss Gildersleeve to the presidency of the 
International Federation of University Women, and the 
appointment of President Ellen F. Pendleton to the chair- 
manship of the International Relations Committee, the Inter- 
national Relations study program and all other activities of 
the committee were taken over and carried on in New York, 
with Florence Angell as secretary. Miss Angell acted also 
as a liaison officer with other organizations, and served as 
secretary of the American section of the I.F.U.W. Budget 
Committee, of the Committee on Franco-American Ex- 
change, and the Committee on the Interchange of Secondary 
School Teachers. She also carried on the work of the Com- 
mittee on Selections for Oxford, which succeeded the sub- 
committee on Scholarships and Fellowships, and in 1926 
handled the arrangements in the United States for the 
Vacation Course for American Women Teachers and Grad- 
uates at Oxford University. Because of the location of the 
office in New York City, both Miss Newcomb and Miss 
Angell frequently acted with the New York City Branch as 
representatives of the American Association of University 
Women to greet foreign visitors and extend hospitality to 

When, In 1928, Aurelia Henry Relnhardt (president of 
Mills College) became chairman of the Committee on Inter- 
national Relations, Dr. Esther Caukin was made secretary 
for the committee, and her office and work were transferred 
to the headquarters of the A.A.U.W. in Washington. 

274 Association of University Women 

During the twelve years of its existence, the International 
Relations Committee has carried on a program of wide 
extent and great value in bringing the branches of the 
Association into touch with the National Association and 
with the International Federation. Since 1927, the impetus 
to form groups for the study of international relations has 
been greatly accelerated and in hundreds of cities and towns 
of the United States are groups composed of college and 
university women and other women not college graduates 
who are interested in the unusual program which Dr. Caukin 
has presented in order that month by month studies may be 
carried on about personalities and events in countries other 
than the United States. Not only has the committee 
through its secretary kept in touch with other organizations 
interested in international affairs and in the legislative pro- 
gram of the Association as it touches international affairs, 
but with Dr. Caukin as a specialist in history and politics, 
the committee has been responsible for the preparation of 
pamphlets and bulletins in these fields of study which bear 
the stamp of the Association. A long list of articles and 
papers attests the scholarly work of the secretary, and is a 
notable accomplishment for the committee. 

One of the most interesting results of the work of the 
International Relations Committee has been the history 
and development of Reid Hall, the American University 
Women's Paris Center. In June, 1922, Mrs. Whitelaw Reid 
lent for a period of five years to a group of American univer- 
sity women, headed by Dean Gildersleeve, her property at 
4 rue de Chevreuse in Paris. The house is a picturesque old 
sixteenth-century mansion built by the Due de Chevreuse 
for his hunting-box, and was a part of the extensive Luxem- 
bourg Park. It boasts one of the loveliest gardens in the 
Latin Quarter, and has still a secret underground passage- 
way from its courtyard to the Luxembourg Palace. The 
property passed through many hands, and was finally ac- 
quired by Mrs. Whitelaw Reid for her American Girls' Club. 

International Relations Committee 275 

During the World War, Mrs. Reid turned the buildings into 
a hospital for American officers and later it became the head- 
quarters of the American Red Cross. When Miss Gilder- 
sleeve and her group took over the house, it became known 
as the American University Women's Paris Center. It was 
immediately made one of the headquarters of the Inter- 
national Federation of University Women and a center for 
university women of all nations. Hundreds of women 
availed themselves of its opportunities, and the project 
proved to be so satisfactory from every point of view that 
at the end of the five-year period for which the property had 
been lent, Mrs. Reid expressed the desire to place the club 
on a permanent basis. She therefore very generously turned 
the property over in 1927 to a group of women who became 
its incorporators. They are Dean Virginia C. Gildersleeve, 
Barnard College; Mrs. Edgerton Parsons; Mrs. Elon H. 
Hooker; Dean C. Mildred Thompson, Vassar College; and 
Dean Helen Taft Manning, Bryn Mawr College. 

Besides being closely affiliated with the American Asso- 
ciation of University Women, Reid Hall is one of the head- 
quarters of the International Federation of University 
Women, the present headquarters of the French Federation 
of University Women, and a center for university women of 
all nations. 

The Committee on International Relations, developing as 
a part of the program of the A.C.A. which the World War 
stimulated, has come to be one of the most important com- 
mittees sponsored by the American Association of Univer- 
sity Women. To the credit of this committee should be 
assigned the assistance in the formation of the International 
Federation of University Women, the exchange of secondary 
teachers as between English and American private schools, 
the continuance of the Latin-American fellowship, the 
inauguration of the Rose Sidgwick and the International 
Fellowships, the affiliation with Reid Hall, and above all, the 
greatly increased interest in international relations through- 

276 Association of University Women 

out the world as manifested by the hundreds of study groups 
everywhere in the United States. What the future will bring 
for this committee and its work is on the lap of the gods, but 
its first twelve years of service have been for the whole 
Association an outstanding contribution. 




The World War was still raging when, in the early autumn 
of 1918, the British Educational Mission came to the United 
States. No members of the group were more outstanding 
than the two women who represented, to be sure, all educa- 
tion in the British Isles, but even more especially the edu- 
cation of women — Dr. Caroline Spurgeon, Professor of 
English Literature in Bedford College of the University of 
London, and Professor Rose Sidgwick, of the Department of 
English in the University of Birmingham. The inclusion of 
these two distinguished women was, we were told, an after- 
thought — a belated recognition of the large part played by 
women in higher education in America. Dr. Spurgeon was 
at the moment the president of the British Federation of 
University Women, and it was natural that among her first 
interests after her arrival in New York City should be her 
meeting with Dr. Virginia C. Gildersleeve, chairman of the 
Committee on International Relations of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae. Their talk soon turned upon the simi- 
larity of the two associations, and early in their conversation 
the idea of the English women for a closer union between the 
English-speaking nations broadened into a conception of the 
leadership possible here in forming an international associa- 
tion of those women who have perhaps most in common — 
the alumnse of colleges and universities. Dr. Spurgeon and 
Miss Sidgwick soon left New York City to undertake the 
arduous task the British Mission had set itself, and in 
November, 191 8, they arrived in Madison, Wisconsin, after 
visiting either thirty- three institutions in thirty-five days, or 
thirty-five institutions in thirty-three days — they never 
were quite sure which! 

278 Association of University Women 

It so happened that Madison was the home of the then 
president of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, Mrs. 
Marvin Bristol Rosenberry, elected in 191 7 to serve until 
1921.^ Immediately after their arrival, Dr. Spurgeon and 
Miss Sidgwick laid their plan before Mrs. Rosenberry, and 
she reenforced semi-officially the assurance Miss Gilder- 
sleeve had already given — that the American Association 
would certainly stand ready to be again a pioneer in a great 
enterprise in the cause of higher education for women. 

The field had in reality long been ready for the hand of the 
sower. When the Western Association of Collegiate Alumnae 
joined its forces to those of the parent association, the 
former organization had already the plan for an Inter- 
national Federation of College Women.^ Indeed, a few let- 
ters had been exchanged between officers of the American 
organization and women in foreign countries discussing the 
problems common to them all concerning women in higher 
education. The moving spirit in International Relations for 
the Western Association of Collegiate Alumnae was May 
Wright Sewall, of Indianapolis, president of the Western 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae. She and many of her 
friends in other countries were ardent feminists — then 
called women suffragists — and it was this interest of equal 
opportunity for women which perhaps at the outset was 
the factor in stimulating their interest. When therefore 
in 1889 the Western Association gave up its separate 
existence and became a part of the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae, this ideal was in the minds of several members, 
among them Mrs. Sewall. Her creative imagination foresaw 
the possibilities of international cooperation among women, 
not only in the field of education, but in connection with 

* In 191 7 she was Mrs. Lois Kimball Mathews, Dean of Women and 
Associate Professor of History in the University of Wisconsin. In June, 
191 8, she married Marvin Bristol Rosenberry, and as Mrs. Rosenberry 
served as A.C.A. president until 1921. 

" See Chapter IV. 

The International Federation 279 

women's varied interests. In 1889, Mrs. Sewall was a dele- 
gate from the National Council of Women of the United 
States to the International Council of Women. In 1891-92, 
she traveled in France, Belgium, Italy, Germany, and Swit- 
zerland, holding conferences with the leaders among women 
in those countries, specifically to awaken an interest in a 
World's Congress of Representative Women to be held in 
connection with the Columbian Exposition of 1893 in 
Chicago. There is no record of what Mrs. Sewall did while 
in Europe with reference to any international association of 
college women, but at the annual meeting of the Association 
of Collegiate Alumnae held in 1892, a greeting was received 
from the International Society of College Women, an 
organization of which no further mention is made in the 
records and whose tenure of life was evidently brief. 

But even the British Federation itself owed more perhaps 
than it knew to the Association of Collegiate Alumnae. In 
the annual report of the secretary-treasurer, Elizabeth Law- 
rence Clarke, made before the convention of 1909, one finds 
the following account: 

Beside the correspondence entailed by the great growtli of the 
Association the past year, a small but pleasant correspondence was 
carried on with Miss Sara A. Burstall, the Head Mistress of the 
Manchester High vSchool for Girls in Manchester, England. Miss 
Burstall spent the winter of 1907-08 in this country investigating 
our educational institutions. She has since published 'Impressions 
of American Education in 1908.' In this book she refers more than 
once to our Association, and in her chapter entitled 'The Place of 
Women in American Education ' gives quite a space to the history 
and work of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae. She says it is 
unlike any society in England. Since her return to Manchester she 
has been instrumental in establishing the Federation of University 
Women, and she writes that this is modeled largely after our Associ- 
ation, and that ' if it becomes national and not local it will correspond 
to the Association of Collegiate Alumnae.* 

The past year for the first time the secretary was asked by one 
of our members who was to spend the summer in England if there 
was any organization in England similar to the Association of Col- 

280 Association of University Women 

legiate Alumnae, and if her membership in the Association would 
entitle her to any privileges of club rooms in any city in England. 
Simply because of the correspondence which had transpired with 
Miss Burstall, the secretary felt at liberty to give the member a per- 
sonal card and a note introducing her to the officers of the Federation 
of University Women. It is quite conceivable that an English uni- 
versity woman coming to our country would gladly welcome a card 
from her University Club which would constitute introduction to 
the many branches of the Association of Collegiate Alumna;-, and 
eventually open to her hospitalities which would not otherwise be 

In still another quarter had the ground been prepared 
for international cooperation, albeit unwittingly. In 1909, 
following the recommendation of a special committee, the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae admitted to graduate 
membership in their organization those holders of advanced 
degrees who should apply from two Canadian institutions 
— McGill University (Montreal) and the University of 
Toronto. At the Council meeting of the Association held in 
1918, the Association of Collegiate Alumnae announced that 
a letter had been received from the Alumnae Association of 
University College, Toronto University, through Ruth Rob- 
ertson, corresponding secretary, asking for affiliation with 
the American Association. On motion the request was re- 
ferred to the Committee on International Relations of the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae, and from this corre- 
spondence which suggested to the Canadian women the 
formation of their own association, there developed in 191 9 
the Canadian Federation of University Women. Thus, in a 
sense, both the Canadian Federation and the British Federa- 
tion were children of the older American organization of 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae. Such was the back- 
ground of the interest which the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae brought to the plan of Dr. Spurgeon and Miss 

' Journal of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, February, 1910, p. 

The International Federation 281 

On December 6, 191 8, soon after the return to the East of 
Miss Spurgeon and Miss Sidgwick, there was held at Rad- 
diffe College a conference of the Committee on International 
Relations of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, jointly 
with the Committee on War Service Training for Women 
College Students of the American Council on Education, at 
which the women members of the British Educational Mis- 
sion were present. The discussion turned upon practical 
means of drawing closer the bonds between Great Britain 
and the United States — exchange lectureships and scholar- 
ships, the means by which these could be secured, and mat- 
ters of award when funds and candidates were ready. But 
the most important result was the clarifying of the idea 
already discussed in New York City with Miss Gildersleeve 
in October and with the president of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae in Madison in November — that back 
of such separate and detached efforts might well lie some 
permanent union of the university women of the world. 
When Miss Spurgeon and Miss Sidgwick left Madison, a 
definite plan was already in their minds regarding the 
possibility of an international federation. 

After their return to New York City in December, both 
Miss Spurgeon and Miss Sidgwick fell ill with the 'flu,' 
which was then raging over the country in epidemic form. 
Tired out as they were with their strenuous work with the 
British Mission, worn with the emotional strain following 
the announcement of the Armistice, unaccustomed to our 
rigorous climate, it was no wonder that their illness was 
severe. Miss Spurgeon recovered. But Miss Sidgwick was 
unable to resist the pneumonia which developed, and died 
on December 28, 1918. Like other English folk, her body 
was laid to rest near where martyr-like she fell — in the 
little cemetery nearly one hundred and fifty years old, espe- 
cially dedicated to the repose of British subjects in New 
York City. But those who felt the beauty of her spirit, the 
loveliness of her character, the charm of her intellect, set 

282 Association of University Women 

about at once to establish some memorial which might keep 
perpetually the fragrance of her memory. Under the leader- 
ship of Mabel Choate, the sum of over ten thousand dollars 
was raised to endow at least in part a fellowship to be known 
as the Rose Sidgwick Memorial Fellowship, to be awarded 
a woman graduated from some British University for study 
in the United States. In 192 1, the endowment raised was 
turned over to the Association of Collegiate Alumnae for 
administration, with the proviso that the Association add 
to the income in such sum as to make the fellowship one of 
an adequate sort. Thus was the Rose Sidgwick Memorial 
Fellowship of the American Association of University 
Women established.* 

During her convalescence, Miss Spurgeon addressed her- 
self to the task of reducing to a tentative draft the proposed 
form of an international association of university women. 
Upon her return to London, she secured an invitation to the 
American Association to send to the meeting of the British 
Federation in July representatives to work out jointly with 
the British women a possible constitution for such an inter- 
national association and to arrange practical plans for the 
immediate launching of the undertaking. In response to this 
invitation, Dean Virginia C. Gildersleeve, chairman of the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae's Committee on Inter- 
national Relations, was authorized by the A.C.A. to repre- 
sent it at this conference. President M. Carey Thomas, of 
Bryn Mawr, and Dean Helen Taft, of the same institution, 
both members of this committee, were also present at some 
of the meetings. A tentative constitution was drafted, which 
was afterward accepted by the British Federation, and was 
submitted to the American organization at its council 
meeting in April, 1920. 

At the informal meeting in London in 1 91 9, Dean Gilder- 
sleeve reported: 

Efforts will be made at once to find and bring into the Interna- 

* For a list of the Rose Sidgwick fellows, see Appendix, p. 447. 

The International Federation 283 

tional Association the various national groups already organized and 
to secure the organization of such groups where this has not yet 
occurred. It is said that the university women of Sweden are already 
well organized. During the past summer, the Canadian women have 
perfected their organization and word has recently come from Peru 
that one of our members visiting there has formed an organization of 
all the University women of Peru, twelve in number, but making up 
in enthusiasm what they lack in numbers. Our recently formed 
branch in Japan and a still unorganized group of American college 
women in China have been asked to create as soon as possible na- 
tional organizations of the university women of those countries to 
affiliate with the International Association. There is every reason to 
expect that the first conference of this body, which is scheduled for 
July, 1920, in London, will be attended by representatives of at least 
four national organizations — those of Great Britain, Sweden, 
Canada, and the United States.... It is safe to say that no other 
international educational movement of equal scope and significance 
has grown out of the World War. 

Miss Gildersleeve's statement was made before the British 
Federation of University Women in introducing the project 
drawn up by the British and the American Committees on 
International Relations, looking toward the formation of an 
International Federation of University Women. The two 
chairmen of these committees, Dr. Winifred Cullis arid Dean 
Gildersleeve, with their committees, were in temporary 
charge of the plans for the International Federation during 
the year 1919-20. The central office was in London, and it 
was left to the British committee to appoint the executive 
secretary for the current year. The Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae agreed to contribute an amount unstipulated 
toward the salary of an executive secretary, ofhce rent, 
stationery, postage, etc. The executive secretary was, more- 
over, to arrange a conference to be held in London in the 
summer of 1920, at which time the proposed constitution 
and by-laws should be formally considered and adopted. It 
was arranged that the voting members for this conference 
should be a councillor and two delegates from the British 
and from the American Federation as well as from any other 

284 Association of University Women 

national federation which should have qualified for full 
membership *to the satisfaction of the two committees on 
International Relations.' The British committee arranged 
at once to negotiate with the Swedish women and the 
American committee with the Canadian women. 

These arrangements were ratified by the Council of the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae at a meeting held in 
Cleveland, Ohio, in April, 1920. There was also presented 
at this time a tentative draft of a constitution for the Inter- 
national Federation of University Women, which with a few 
minor suggestions was adopted. 

The A.C.A. Council at this time also appointed delegates 
to the meeting to be held in London in July, 1920. The 
president of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, Mrs. 
Rosenberry, was chosen as councillor with Mrs. William 
Morton Wheeler, vice-president of the North Atlantic Sec- 
tion, as alternate. President M. Carey Thomas, president of 
Bryn Mawr College, and Mary Leal Harkness,* president of 
the Southern Association of College Women, were named as 
delegates. Their alternates were Dr. Jessica Peixotto and 
Dean Ada L. Comstock, who were to act as delegates in case 
five representatives should, on adoption of the constitution 
of the International Federation, be allowed. In case five 
representatives were allowed, the Council named as alter- 
nates Mrs. Edgerton Parsons, Marian P. Whitney, Loueen 
Pattee, and Agnes Low Rogers. Miss Gildersleeve was, of 
course, ex-officio, a representative for the American Associa- 

Since the conference in London in July, 1920, was the 
first, the birthday, so to speak, of the International Federa- 
tion, it may not be amiss to give somewhat in detail its 
proceedings, nor can one do better than to quote Miss 
Gildersleeve' s report of the meeting made to the convention 

» Now Mrs. Black. 

' Mrs. Rosenberry was at the last unable to attend the meeting in 

The International Federation 285 

of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae in Washington in 
1 92 1. It read in part as follows: 

As a matter of fact, there were present at this the first Conference 
representatives of federations in eight countries — Canada, Czecho- 
slovakia, France, Holland, Italy, Spain, Great Britain, and Amer- 
ica; as well as unofficial representatives of the University women 
of Belgium, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, India, South Africa, and 
Australia. The short reports given by those representatives were 
to many of the audience the most thrilling and significant part of the 
whole Conference. There was no babel of tongues. Only one 
speaker used a language other than English; all spoke clearly and 
fluently; and in several instances the precision and distinction with 
which our speech was used by those to whom it was foreign startled 
those to whom it was native. ' Don't you wish you could speak any 
language as well as that? ' sighed one Anglo-Saxon to another. 

In their actual substance the reports were not unlike. In almost 
every country, it seems, the last quarter of the 19th century saw 
higher education explicitly opened to women ; in almost every coun- 
try the number of women to take advantage of the opportunity in- 
creased steadily but with no great rapidity, until the war, with its 
demonstration of the usefulness of trained women, strongly acceler- 
ated the movement. The very uniformity in the general outline of 
fact left the audience free to dwell upon the difiference in attendant 
circumstances and in the narrators themselves. A student of modern 
history could have read much of the temper and of the political and 
social experiences of the diflerent countries in the recitals of these 
representatives; and even listeners less well-informed sat enthralled, 
as if hearing a great theme rendered in different keys — or should 
one say on different instruments? Most impressive of all, perhaps, 
in its reference to recent history, was the report of Miss Novakova, 
who spoke for the old University of Prague and the new State of 
Czecho-Slovakia. There was no hesitancy or mistrust in her exultant 
acceptance of the Federation of University Women and other evi- 
dences of international friendliness; and as she held out her hands to 
the delegates inviting them all to visit Czecho-Slovakia, it was clear 
that in her mind the world-wide fellowship of nations was not an 
ideal or a theory but an accomplished fact. . . . 

In July, 192 1, was held the Council meeting of the Inter- 
national Federation of University Women, since this was the 
year between meetings of the entire Federation. Here the 
provisions for scholarships and fellowships and for club- 

286 Association of University Women 

houses which should afford opportunity for the cultivation 
of mutual understanding among members of the Federation 
were the most vital topics considered. 

It is impossible to give in detail the minutes of the meet- 
ings of the International Federation in 1922 in Paris, in 
1924 in Christiania, in 1926 in Amsterdam, and (changing 
to a triennial instead of a biennial conference) in 1929 in 
Geneva. The meetings have been inspiring and profitable 
to every one who has been able to attend them. The growth 
from a membership of two countries in 1 919 to a membership 
of thirty-three countries in 1931 is in itself an achievement. 
A list of the standing committees shows a notable program 
• — the Conference Committee with Mrs. Corbett Ash by as 
convenor, the Committee on Intellectual Cooperation under 
the leadership of Madame M. L. Puech, the Committee on 
Exchange of Information Concerning Secondary Education 
under Dr. G. Hannevart, the Committee on Interchange of 
Secondary Education Teachers under Miss Reta Oldham, 
the Committee on International Fellowships Award under 
Dr. Ida Smedley MacLean, the Committee on Standards 
under Lektor Lilly Skonhoft, and the Budget Committee 
under Mrs. William Coverdale for the United States and 
Mrs. Alys Russell for the British section complete the list. 

In addition to these standing committees there are the 
following special committees: One on careers for women in 
industry, trade, and finance, under the chairmanship of 
Viscountess Rhondda; one under Dr. Clara Campoamor on 
an investigation of a project for mutual insurance ; one under 
Dr. Matilde Huici for investigation of the position of univer- 
sity women in public service; another, under Melle. M, 
Clemen on publications investigation ; another for investiga- 
tion of the position of married women with regard to 
nationality, headed by Madame Schreiber-Favre ; and last, 
but not least, one on the international fellowship fund 
appeal with Dr. Ida Smedley MacLean as convenor. The 
subjects of discussion at the open meetings have covered a 

The International Federation 287 

wide range, and have naturally dealt largely with the subjects 
of investigation upon which the standing and special com- 
mittees have been engaged. 

In addition, however, to these subjects, there may be cited 
a plan brought forward at the twelfth council meeting of 
the Federation held in Madrid in September, 1928 — a 
project for the establishment of an International University 
Sanatorium at Leysin. The special feature of this sana- 
torium was to be the type of intellectual life provided for the 
patients, who would naturally be either present or past 
university students. It was proposed to provide courses, 
lectures, opportunities for microscopic work, a library of 
textbooks and other useful works, by means of which the 
inmates of the sanatorium might continue study during 
their treatment. The Swiss University Sanatorium was 
pointed out as one where a striking success had already been 
made and the hope was expressed that the plan would make 
a special appeal to all persons concerned with the promotion 
of international understanding. Surely no more practical 
plan for friendly intercourse between university women 
could possibly be imagined. 

Among the notable objects of the International- Federa- 
tion has been that of raising fellowships for use in other 
countries than that which makes the award. In 1922-23, the 
British Federation of University Women announced a fel- 
lowship of the value of three hundred pounds to enable the 
holder to carry on a year's research or post-graduate study 
in some country other than her own during the academic 
year 1922-23. 

Out of the International Federation Movement has grown 
the plan for the Million Dollar Fellowship Fund which the 
American Association of University Women is undertaking 
to raise. This fund will provide the endowment for fellow- 
ships to be used for graduate study, preferably in a foreign 
country. The different branches, state organizations and 
sectional organizations, are all at work helping to raise this 

288 Association of University Women 

great fund — quite the greatest undertaking financially 
which the Association has ever undertaken. 

The first president of the International Federation of 
University Women was naturally and suitably, Dr. Caroline 
Spurgeon; the second, Dean Virginia C. Gildersleeve ; the 
third. Dr. Docent Ellen Gleditsch ; and the fourth, Dr. Wini- 
fred Cullis. In each country where meetings have been held 
the leaders in education, men as well as women, have been 
interested not only in the meetings themselves but have 
been very enthusiastic and earnest in their belief in the 
ultimate success of the Federation. It is a matter of pride 
to the American women that they have played, as an as- 
sociation and through individual members, so useful and 
distinguished a part in what is 'perhaps the greatest inter- 
national educational movement which has grown out of the 
World War.' 

The question of financing the International Federation 
has been from the outset a rather puzzling problem. The 
financial problem was borne at first largely by the British, 
Canadian and United States groups, either as organizations 
or by special contributions from individuals. But each 
country wished as soon as possible to bear some share of 
the annual expenditures, small though it might be. At the 
Amsterdam conference (1926) the following resolutions were 
passed : 

1. That since the International Federation of University Women 
has now passed the experimental stage and is firmly established, it 
is desirable that the essential administrative expenses be met by 
subscriptions of the national federations and associations. 

2. That a Committee be appointed by the President to investigate 
the question of rates of subscription and to report to the Council, 
which shall have power to determine the rate to be adopted. 

In the light of the discussions brought out by the presenta- 
tion of these resolutions, a special finance committee was 
instructed to consider carefully the possibility 'of a sliding 
scale which would permit the smaller federations to pay at 

The International Federation 289 

a lower rate than the larger, bringing up the rate gradually 
to the higher level. A study of the budget of the Inter- 
national Federation indicated that the income needed was 
at least two thousand pounds sterling, or fifty thousand 
Swiss francsi If it was assumed that during the next six 
years money was raised by special gifts for publications, 
traveling, conferences, etc., the administrative expenses 
could be taken as reduced to perhaps about fifteen hundred 
pounds or forty thousand Swiss francs, allowing for some 
shrinkage to provide for the power given to the Council "to 
modify dues for countries with unstabilized currency or 
other special difficulties." ' As a result of the whole study, a 
table was drawn up showing the dues to be paid after 
1927-28. By this arrangement a formula was worked out 
to be used in calculating the rate of subscription per member 
up to a membership of sixteen hundred, a subscription of 
1.25 Swiss francs being due for every member over and 
above sixteen hundred. This plan the Council of the Fed- 
eration accepted at its meeting in Vienna in 1927.* The 
board of directors of the American Association of Univer- 
sity Women voted to base its dues to the Federation on the 
total membership of the preceding fiscal year which ends 
May 31. The dues of the American Association with its 
membership of thirty- three thousand, was for the year 

1929-30, $7054-33- 

Throughout the decade of its existence the International 
Federation has had as its secretary Theodora Bosanquet and 
its headquarters for the past few years at the fine old resi- 
dence which has become the headquarters of the British 
Federation of University Women — Crosby Hall on Cheyne 
Walk in London. Hundreds of members of the American 
Association have had the privilege of enjoying the hospitality 
of Crosby Hall; of Reid Hall, the University Women's Paris 
Center; of the Maison des Etudiantes, also in Paris; of the 

» For details see Bulletin No. 9, International Federation of University 
Women, Report of the Council Meeting, 1927, pp. 27, 28, 59. 

290 Association of University Women 

Maison des £tudiantes in Brussels; the Students' House in 
Grenoble and Lyons; the University Women's Club in 
Montreal; the University Women's Club, Locksley Hall, 
Belfast; and the pensions in Bologna, Fiuggi, Florence, 
Siena, and Venice. Plans are also under way for other inter- 
national clubhouses, including one in Athens and one in 
Rome. In the United States the clubhouse in Washington is 
headquarters and center for the American Association, as 
well as American center for the International Federation, 
while the college clubs of New York, Baltimore, Philadel- 
phia, St. Louis, Kansas City, Milwaukee, Madison, Chicago, 
Minneapolis, and other cities are open to members of the 
International Federation traveling in America, as well as to 
members of the American Association who may be traveling 
in their own country. 


Unique as was the work of the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae, and single-minded as were its members with regard 
to that work, it is easy to see why for long the organization 
kept aloof from other aggregations of women whose objec- 
tives, though often quite different, not infrequently im- 
pinged upon the work of the A.CA. The single-hearted 
devotion of the A.CA. to the primary purpose had its 
advantages in the concentration and specialization thus 
achieved ; but it also had its disadvantages, for there was a 
widespread lack of information about what the Association 
was doing, which often throughout the years has led to quite 
false statements.^ Moreover, the Association often ignored 
the benefits which result from sound publicity. As late as 
191 7, the chairman of the Fellowship Committee of the 
Woman's Education Association of Boston, in reviewing a 
quarter-century of excellent work done by her group for 
collegiate education and graduate study, said: 'This com- 
mittee was formed in 1892 for the purpose of giving women 
college graduates the privileges of a year's study in some 
foreign university. I believe I am correct in saying that at 
the time there was no other fellowship of its kind entirely 
unconnected with any college.' Yet the Western Association 
of Collegiate Alumnae had offered its first fellowship in 1888, 
and after its union with the A.CA. in 1889, the work has 
been carried on continuously to the present day. 

Moreover, from the outset the Association supplied 

* Only four years ago a handbook of educational organizations in the 
United States appeared in which the A.CA. — then the A.A.U.W. — 
was not even mentioned, though its history covered more years than that 
of almost any other group there listed. 

292 Association of University Women 

leadership for other organizations. Its founders, like its 
later leaders, were women of ability, whose judgment and 
idealism and organizing power would naturally be sought by 
agencies of all sorts and kinds. But alliance made officially 
was slow of development. In 1889, May Wright Sewall 
urged the desirability of having the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae join the National Council of Women. The policy 
would for the A.C.A. be quite new, and a decided break with 
the traditions of the past seven years. Sober and careful 
consideration of the obligations to which the A.C.A. would 
thus be committed seemed a prerequisite to the officers of 
the Association, and a committee was therefore appointed, 
with Mrs. Sewall as chairman, to ascertain the attitude of 
the branches to the question, as well as to study the whole 
problem involved. The following year (1890), Mrs. Sewall 
reported that, owing to various complications, it had been 
impossible to arrive at any conclusion which could be made 
the basis of a report. Arguments pro and con followed, with 
the final result that a new committee was appointed under 
S. Alice Brown's chairmanship, charged with the duty of 
presenting to the branches the arguments for and against 
the new policy, the instruction being added that the com- 
mittee should do its utmost in support of the proposition. 
In 1891, Miss Brown's committee reported from the twelve 
branches that forty-nine votes had been cast in favor of the 
new policy and one hundred and eighty against it. A motion 
followed to accept the invitation to join the Council, even 
in the face of such local opposition. But, as could easily be 
predicted, the motion was lost, and for another year the 
A.C.A. walked alone. 

But the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893 
brought up the problem in another form — through an 
invitation to the Association to appoint a person who would 
be a member on the Advisory Council of the Congress of 
Representative Women, which was to be held in connection 
with the great World's Fair. It was natural that Alice 

Relation to Other Organizations 293 

Freeman Palmer should be chosen to serve on this distin- 
guished council. In May, 1893, the Congress of Representa- 
tive Women met in Chicago. At this gathering a session was 
held under the auspices of the Chicago Branch of the A.C.A., 
and here was presented an account of the history, aims, and 
methods of work of the Association — a statement prepared 
by the secretary, and later distributed as a pamphlet among 
its membership. 

The World's Fair was also made the occasion for staging 
many congresses or * parliaments * — as some of them were 
called — of a national or international character. It was 
natural that when the Educational Congresses were set for 
the month of July, the A.C.A. should decide to hold its 
annual meeting at that time and in Chicago. At this session, 
the Association recorded its thanks to Mary W. Chapin, 
Harriet C. Brainard,^ and Marion Talbot for their successful 
efforts to secure at the World's Fair a fitting exhibition of the 
work of the Association. The first of its kind to be worked 
out, it is easy to realize how arduous and puzzling the work 
had been, yet in spite of difficult details, the various types 
of accomplishment were finally put into concrete form, and 
the exhibit was a noteworthy achievement. The committee 
felt that this success was due to two factors — to the hearty 
cooperation of all who had any share in the work, and to the 
inspiration which was due to the actual participation in so 
notable an enterprise as the great Exposition proved to be.* 

» Mrs. Brainard (Harriet Tilden) later married William Vaughn 

» In the Oak Chest at A.A.U.W. headquarters are diplomas and medals 
awarded the A.C.A. for exhibits which were prepared for the World's 
Fair in Chicago in 1893; for the World's Fair in Paris in 1900; the Pan- 
American Exposition in Buffalo, New York, in 1901; the Louisiana 
Purchase Exposition of 1904 in St. Louis, Missouri; and at the Panama 
Pacific Exposition in San Francisco in 191 5. While no such formal ex- 
hibits have been prepared since 191 5, at each convention of the Asso- 
ciation exhibits have been provided by the International Relations Office 
and by the Educational Secretary which have shown local, national, and 
international achievement on the part of the Association, 

294 Association of University Women 

The fact which emerged most clearly from this experience 
of 1893 was the demonstration in no uncertain form that 
even in its short life the A.C.A. had established itself as a 
genuine educational force, and that it was, moreover, receiv- 
ing among workers in educational fields, an ever-increasing 
recognition. The Secretary records * its duties to education 
and to women were becoming more and more responsible 
while the complete realization of its mission called for a 
broad and tolerant spirit and the most careful and pains- 
taking study of educational problems.' 

Again in the following year (1894), the question of the 
relation of the A.C.A. to the National Council of Women 
was brought up. The Association thereupon went on record 
by unanimous vote as declining to ally itself as an organiza- 
tion with any other organization. After the experience with 
the World's Fair, the conviction of the A.C.A. was strength- 
ened — that at least a part of its prestige at home and 
abroad was due to its singleness of purpose as an organiza- 
tion. Yet its members were continually sought as leaders 
in and speakers for important educational projects — as 
when, for instance, in 1897 the chairman of the A.C.A. 
Committee on Educational Progress, Martha Foote Crow, 
reported to the Association that on invitation she had pre- 
pared and sent a paper on 'The Educational Outlook for 
Women in the United States,' to be read at the Educational 
Congress to be held in connection with the great Fair in 

But the Association was always open-minded, and as 
times and manners changed, so the Association changed its 
mind without in the least abandoning its ideals. Although 
in 1894, the Association had gone on record as holding aloof 
from close affiliation with the National Council of Women, 
by 1898 another organization of women had come to be a 
power for good and had so arrayed itself on the side of 
practical educational work in connection with the public 
schools that the A.C.A. could cordially second its efforts and 

Relation to Other Organizations 295 

assist its labors. On the initiative of its secretary-treasurer, 
Annie Howes Barus, the Association in 1898, as a result of 
correspondence with the executive officers of the General 
Federation of Women's Clubs, appointed a general com- 
mittee of conference with a similar committee of the Federa- 
tion ' to appoint in such States as might seem feasible one or 
more representatives of the Association to confer with the 
members appointed in such States by the State Federation 
of Clubs.' The Association stood ready to add its efforts to 
those of the Federation (which was working through the 
educational departments of the different state federations) 
in forming a sounder and more vigorous public opinion on 
behalf of the public school system, which differed greatly 
from State to State, and was not effective enough anywhere. 
Sub-committees were speedily formed in Illinois, Michigan, 
and Missouri, and soon agreed upon programs for the joint 
committees. Not long afterward, Massachusetts joined the 
group with Ohio, Connecticut, Indiana, and Rhode Island 
following later. Although various lines of activity were fol- 
lowed in the different States, in each case a few clearly de- 
fined purposes were pursued and a feeling of real unity char- 
acterized the movement. In Connecticut the not unusual 
result followed the forming of the sub-committees, for in 
that State the joint conference led the way to a larger 
grouping which became the Connecticut Women's Council 
of Education, a state-wide organization with delegates from 
other bodies besides the A.C.A. and the Federation of 
Women's Clubs. Thus did the A.C.A. often lead the way 
to a larger movement than it could itself have carried to 
fruition, furnishing the motive power, so to speak, in the 
beginning, as in this case the Federation of Women's Clubs 
had also. With such teamwork it is not surprising that from 
time to time when reports showing practical results of value 
were brought to the A.C.A., the Association felt that in this 
case at least the principle of cooperation was amply and 
gratifyingly justified. 

296 Association of University Women 

It will be remembered that in its earliest days the A.C.A. 
had been vitally interested in all questions covering the 
preparation of girls for college. As a corollary it naturally 
was interested in college entrance requirements. With the 
greatly accelerated movement for going to college which 
characterized the years following the panic of 1893, and with 
the heightened public sentiment for high schools which had 
even antedated the * going-to-college' movement, it was 
natural that the A.C.A. should be interested in any phase of 
educational work which dealt with the adjustment between 
high school and college. The National Education Associa- 
tion, an organization made up largely of executives and 
teachers in the public schools — elementary and secondary 
— had been for some years directing its efforts to securing 
such an adjustment between high school and college as to 
open the doors of colleges more widely to graduates of high 
grade public secondary schools. 

In 1899, Dr. A. F. Nightingale, superintendent of High 
Schools in Chicago, Illinois, made an address before the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae on the subject of ' College- 
Entrance Requirements,' which so impressed his audience as 
to lead the Association to direct its Executive Committee to 
take the subject under advisement with a view to assisting 
the N.E.A. in its effort. As a result of this action, the 
Association set itself to study the question and in 1900 a 
series of papers was presented upon different aspects of 
the problem. But the speakers almost without exception — 
and several of them were the best-known educational 
experts in the Association — were decidedly averse to hav- 
ing the colleges yield any part of their control over the field 
of college-entrance requirements. This was partly due to the 
feeling that the period of adjustment between high schools 
and colleges was still in the initial stages, and partly because 
of a fear that college-entrance requirements might be lowered 
in order to meet the demands of the still young high-school 
movement, thus lowering the quality of college teaching and 

Relation to Other Organizations 297 

preventing that integration of college and graduate schools 
which was quite as dear an object to the A.C.A. as was the 
matter of college-entrance requirements. As a consequence, 
the Association determined to take no further steps at that 
time in the direction of cooperating with the N.E.A., since 
the evident desire of the latter organization was to secure 
greater elasticity in college-entrance requirements. 

But that the interest of the A.C.A. in public school mat- 
ters was not lessened by the action taken with regard to 
cooperation with the N.E.A. on the one question, is clearly 
shown when in that same year (1900) the interest in the 
public schools which the Association and its branches had 
shown led to an invitation for the Association to become a 
member of the Public Educational Association, an invitation 
which the A.C.A. accepted. 

It will be remembered that the cooperation of the A.C.A. 
with the Federation of Women's Clubs in the State of 
Connecticut had led to the formation of the Connecticut 
Women's Council of Exiucation, wherein a number of organi- 
zations had joined for practical work. The results of this 
cooperation in Connecticut had been so eminently satisfac- 
tory that in 1905 it was voted to take a step toward jnaking 
the movement national by sending delegates to a conference 
of representatives from five national organizations of women 
for the purpose of considering how these organizations could 
best integrate their work for education. As an earnest of 
their desire to give their best to cooperative educational 
work, the Association authorized their President, Laura 
Drake Gill, and a member of their Educational Legislative 
Committee (one of the most important of their standing 
committees) to represent the A.C.A., in a conference with 
the N.E.A. It was not until 1907, however, that the next 
definite move was made. In January of that year Mary M. 
Abbott, whose fine leadership in the Connecticut Branch 
and whose services as chairman of the Exiucation Depart- 
ment of the Connecticut Federation of Women's Clubs had 

298 Association of University Women 

given her a vision of what might be accomplished through 
joint action, requested the National Education Association 
to send delegates to a conference on February 25, 1907, to 
meet with representatives of the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae, the General Federation of Women's Clubs, the 
Daughters of the American Revolution, the National Con- 
gress of Mothers, the Woman's Christian Temperance 
Union, the Council of Jewish Women, and the Southern 
Association of College Women. At this conference a petition 
was drawn up asking for the incorporation of a new depart- 
ment into the existing body of the National Education 
Association 'in order that by meeting each year with this 
professional body, these national societies of women might 
cooperate more successfully with each other and with the 
educators of the country in bringing the home and the school 
into more helpful relations.' Here is probably the germ of 
that later organization, the Parent-Teachers Association, 
known the length and breadth of the United States as the 
'P.T.A.,' with which the A.C.A. (and the later A.A.U.W.) 
has through its branches worked in the closest fashion. So 
early did the idea of the necessity of the home and the school 
working together grip the imagination of college women. 

That the plans for the conference to which Miss Abbott 
had pointed the way, and that their successful incorporation 
in a program to which she gave the impetus, were almost the 
last of her life, adds vividness to the work she did. At the 
annual meeting of the National Education Association in 
July, 1907, the petition was granted and the School Patrons 
Department was established with Laura Drake Gill as presi- 
dent and Eva Perry Moore as secretary. It is a significant 
fact that both Miss Gill and Mrs. Moore were outstanding 
members of the A.C.A.^ Miss Abbott furnished the initial 
program upon which to embark, setting it forth in five 

» Mrs. Moore had been both president and general secretary of the 
A.C.A. , and Miss Gill had been general secretary and became president 
in November, 1907. 

Relation to Other Organizations 299 

topics of important general educational work, with the hope 
that each of the Associations which had membership in the 
national organization of women would concentrate its efforts 
on studying one or all of them. These five topics present a 
program of profound significance and of practical value. 
They were as follows: 

1. Compulsory education and child labor laws in every State. 

2. Proper material equipment for schools. 

3. Expert supervision of school work. 

4. Thorough training and adequate pay for teachers. 

5. Industrial and ethical instruction in schools. 

On some of them, many branches of the A.A.U.W. are at 
work to-day, for the solution lies for many communities in 
the future and not in the past.* Moreover, these topics lent 
themselves admirably to practica;l programs of work in the 
local branches of the Association as had been proved by the 
experience in Connecticut. With the School Patrons De- 
partment of the National Education Association, both the 
Southern Association of College Women and the A.C.A. 
were allied at one time or another for many years. Ella 
Adams Moore was untiring in her efforts as the A.C.A.'s 
representative, and through the Chicago Branch of the 
Association did for a number of years constructive work. 

An entirely different type of cooperation which was 
undertaken by the Association of Collegiate Alumnae dates 
from 1904. In the report of the general secretary, Laura 
Drake Gill, for the annual meeting of that year, the following 
paragraph occurs: 

A pleasing feature of this year's work is the establishment of a 
joint fellowship of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae and the 
College Settlement Association. This is the first direct contact of 
our general association with the great social movement of the day, 
although many branches have for years found their most satisfactory 
local work in this direction. As will be reported to you elsewhere, 

* See especially under work of branches, civic work, cooperation with 
Other organizations, fine arts, etc., in Chapter XXVI. 

300 Association of University Women 

Miss Frances Kellor has been appointed to this fellowship, and is to 
continue her investigations concerning the character of immigration 
and its relation to household service. The recommendation of the 
Committee on Joint Fellowships of the A.C.A. and the College Set- 
tlement Association, in announcing Miss Kellor's appointment, 
recommended the continuance of sociological fellowships. 

This joint fellowship was awarded for several years, then 
disappeared from the records. There was also cooperation 
for many years with the Naples Table in the appointment 
of a fellowship for study in science. In 1 891, 1895, 1897, 
1906, and 191 5 the Association of Collegiate Alumnae 
through its Fellowships Committee awarded on request of 
the Woman's Education Association of Boston the fellow- 
ships offered by that organization.' A number of other 
organizations having fellowships or scholarships to offer to 
graduate students have from time to time sought the aid of 
the Association's Committee on Fellowships in order to make 
the greatest use of the opportunities it was proposed to offer. 

About 1 9 12, the Association inaugurated a broader policy 
in respect to afftliation with other organizations. Whether 
the reorganization of that year had anything to do with the 
matter, or whether the enlarged membership in both institu- 
tions and members furnished larger contacts, or whether the 
situation grew up naturally, it is impossible to say. In some 
cases, the traditional attitude was still obvious, as for 
example, in 191 5, when at the San Francisco convention it 
was voted 'that Mrs. Moore continue to represent the 
A.C.A. in the formation of the National Council of Women, 
with discretion in the matter of our final affiliation with this 
organization.' The first meeting of the National Council of 
Women after reorganization was held in December, 191 5. 
Mrs. Moore, representing the A.C.A., which at that time 
joined the new organization, was at once elected its presi- 
dent. By its affiliation with the National Council of Women, 

» This organization, its work finished, disbanded in 1929. See also 
Chapter XI. 

Relation to Other Organization's 301 

the Association of Collegiate Alumnae became, although 
indirectly, a part of the International Council of Women, of 
which for many years Lady Aberdeen was president. In 
1929, the A.A.U.W. withdrew from the National Council of 
Women, thereupon losing this slight international connec- 
tion also. 

The World War brought new obligations and new privi- 
leges. When the woman-power of the United States was 
mobilized for service, all organizations promptly offered 
their resources of every kind to the Government without 
reserve. The A.C.A. was no exception, and through its War 
Service Committee, through its officers, through the mem- 
bers of the Washington Branch, the A.C.A. for the next two 
years made many contacts with other organizations. Of 
these the most important were the Children's Bureau of the 
Federal Government, the Association of American Colleges, 
the American Council on Education, the National Education 
Association, the United States Employment Service, the 
United States Public Health Service, the General Federation 
of Women's Clubs, the National Council of Women, and 
emergency committees of all sorts. Even after the war was 
ended, the A.C.A. continued its membership in the American 
Council of Education as well as in those with which it had 
been allied before 191 7. When the Women's Joint Congres- 
sional Committee was organized on the initiative of the 
League of Women Voters, for the purpose of uniting the 
women's organizations of the country in an effort to secure 
an increased amount of educational and social legislation, 
the A.C.A. at once provided a representative to work with 
the newly formed group. Fifteen organizations united soon 
after the war to make up the Woman's Foundation for 
Health, and of this group the A.C.A. was a member. In 
1926, the executive secretary of the Association could write: 

In the field of general educational cooperation, we have partici- 
pating affiliation with five other educational associations: The Asso- 
ciation to Aid Scientific Research by Women, Bureau of Vocational 

302 Association of University Women 

Information, Cooperative Bureau for Women Teachers, Interna- 
tional Federation of University Women, and the American Council 
on Education. The A.A.U.W. contributes fifty dollars a year to the 
Association to Aid Scientific Research by Women. There is much 
exchange of information and assistance between the A.A.U.W. and 
the Bureau of Vocational Information, and the Cooperative Bureau 
for Women Teachers. The A.A.U.W. has three representatives on 
the American Council on Education, and one member on the Ex- 
ecutive Committee. There is an A.A.U.W. member on the Com- 
mittee on Standards. There are close relations between our Com- 
mittee on International Relations and the corresponding department 
of the Council, and also between the Association offices and the per- 
sonnel department of the Council. Two representatives of the 
A.A.U.W. attended the Conference on Academic Rank, Tenure, and 
Standards of Promotion called by the Council in January. There is 
much development of the idea of cooperation among the national 
organizations which center their work in Washington, and three con- 
ferences have been called this year to discuss cooperation in related 
interests and elimination of duplication in the work of national 

In connection with the biennial convention in 1927, provi- 
sion was made in the program for a conference on the relation 
of the American Association of University Women to other 
organizations. Mrs. Herbert Hoover presided. The first 
speaker was Maud Wood Park, former president of the 
League of Women Voters and chairman of a committee of 
the A.A.U.W. on cooperation among organizations, who 
urged a thoughtful study of and reasoned action in the carry- 
ing out of the woman movement in general. Mrs. Park was 
followed by Dr. C. R. Mann, director of the American 
Council on Education, who urged his audience to continue 
to center its interest and its work in educational problems 
large and small. The last speaker was Dr. Stephen P. 
Duggan, director of the Institute of International Educa- 
tion, who urged a continuance of the A.A.U.W. 's interest in 
international affairs. The whole session was a confiirmation, 
so it would seem, of the wisdom of the plans and ideal of the 
Association. The policy at the end of a half-century shows 
an evolution that is as gratifying as it is wise. 



At the twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding of the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae, an interesting question 
was raised — What assistance might the Association lend 
and to what extent to the movement in New York City to 
obtain salaries for women teachers equal to those paid to 
men in similar positions? General discussion thereupon fol- 
lowed, and it was decided to appoint a committee on 'pro- 
cedure to regulate the use of the Association's name in all 
outside matters.* * In 1908, a report was made over the 
signatures of Eva Perry Moore as chairman and Elise 
Wenzelburger Graupner as a member of the committee. 
Mrs. Moore and Mrs. Graupner reported that after com- 
munication with the branches of the Association they desired 
to recommend the following as legitimate work for the 
Association : ^ 

1st. Broad study of, and interest in, the activities of the Associa- 
tion, which include educational affairs of the institutions in member- 
ship, secondary schools and local organizations for the promotion of 
educational movements, college and social settlements, questions 
coming before the National Educational Association, with which we 
are now affiliated... and research work. 2nd. Subjects decided by 
the Association as of interest to the branches, and their legitimate 
work — such as household economics, lecture courses, forestry, civil 
service reform, child study, etc. 3rd. Close study of politics, suf- 
frage history as related to our educational privileges, the problems 
and possible future of suffrage, and the study of sectarian or religious 
tenets. The committee recommends the avoidance of legislative 
action beyond that relating to educational or philanthropic questions. 

Under 'educational' might properly be included members of 

* The Committee on Procedure, 1914-16, was quite another committee 
which had to do only with amendments to the by-laws. 

304 Association of University Women 

school boards, pensions and pay for school teachers, compulsory 
education, and under 'philanthropic' might be included child labor 

The legislation to be avoided would include suffrage, temperance, 
and party-politics. All action relating to these subjects should be 
individual and not collective. . . . 

These recommendations were discussed, only to be laid on 
the table. The following year (1909) the committee was 
discharged with a vote of thanks, for, in spite of the action 
of 1908, their report had considerably cleared the air so far 
as the original question of policy was concerned, and for 
some time the recommendations it contained were in general 

For many years an important Committee on Educational 
Legislation worked consistently both nationally and with 
members of the branches on local and state problems within 
its field.* When in 1921, the reorganization of that year took 
place, there was provided a new committee, one on Educa- 
tional Policy, to consist of seven members who were to direct 
the educational policies of the Association. This committee 
was to consist of the educational secretary (already provided 
in the reorganization) as chairman, the president of the 
Association as vice-chairman, the retiring president of the 
Association, the executive secretary, and three members-at- 
large who must be members of the Association and who 
should represent (i) the woman's college, (2) the coeduca- 
tional institution, and (3) elementary and secondary educa- 
tion. The committee was not only to recommend to the 
Association educational policies by which it should be guided 
in its work, but also to nominate the new educational secre- 
tary who had just been provided by action of the convention. 
In reporting upon the work of the committee at the end of its 
first year of existence, Ada L. Comstock, president of the 
Association,, reviewed the policies already adopted, all of 
which were, of course, furthered by the appointment in 1922 

» See Chapter XVI. 

Committee on Educational Policies 305 

of the educational secretary. Miss Comstock then brought 
forward the project of the nursery school and pre-school 
education as a challenge to the powers of college-trained 
women and as a laboratory for undergraduate women in 
practical experience for child care and child management, 
which 'alone could give vital content to courses in child 
psychology, child health or child welfare.* In stating the 
possibility of this newer field of study for the Association, 
Miss Comstock added that more conventional problems had 
been recommended, but that it was felt that the final deci- 
sion as to the program for the Association must rest with the 
new secretary when she should be chosen. In the summer of 
1922, the first educational secretary of the Association was 
appointed, Frances Fen ton Bernard,^ who began her work on 
September i of that year. She was one of the first tenants 
of the new Washington headquarters on Eye Street and set 
herself at once to study the whole field which the Association 
had covered in the past forty years and might cover in the 

Dr. Bernard found immediately that she had not only a 
tremendous correspondence to undertake, but visits to 
branches, to state divisions, to sectional meetings, and to 
colleges and universities. She attended meetings' of boards 
or committees of the Association or of organizations with 
which the Association was cooperating, or of other organiza- 
tions with which it seemed advantageous to make some 
connections. She assisted in legislative work by membership 
on the Women's Joint Congressional Committee. All this 
was in addition to the fundamental study which seemed 
almost the most vital part, especially in the beginning of her 
work. At the Portland Convention (1923) Dr. Bernard pre- 
sented a series of recommendations which were in effect a 
nation-wide program for branches. States, sections, and the 
Association with regard to education and to the study of 
international relations. By the adoption of this program, the 

» Now Mrs. Park. 

306 Association of University Women 

Association went on record for national and local work in 
these fields directed from headquarters. 

During the second year of Dr. Bernard's tenure (in 
February, 1924), the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial 
passed the following resolution: 

Resolved that the sum of $27,000 be, and it hereby is, appropriated 
to the American Association of University Women for the promotion 
of their educational program: $3000 for the period beginning 
March i, 1924, and ending May 31, 1924; $12,000 for the period 
beginning June I, 1924, and ending May 31, 1925; $12,000 for the 
period beginning June i, 1925, and ending May 31, 1926. 

In reporting this grant, Dr. Bernard rightly said : 

Our success in securing it is a tribute to the Association and to the 
importance of the educational program. By the terms of the appli- 
cation, agreed upon by the executive and educational secretaries 
and by the representative of the Memorial, the grant is to be used 
exclusively for the carrying on of the two projects: the study of the 
pre-school child, and the elementary school study. It provides in 
the case of the pre-school study that a few study groups be formed, to 
work under careful direction as to materials, methods of study, and 
conduct of meetings. From the experience gained in the first year 
in conducting these study groups, improved methods of carrying on 
this project will be utilized in the next year with a larger number of 
groups. It will be possible under this grant to supply the groups 
with much more and better material and to give more frequent and 
better advice on outlines and methods of work than has been pos- 
sible this year with our limited funds and staff. The Laura Spelman 
Rockefeller Memorial is interested primarily in demonstrating 
through our Association the possibilities of extra-mural adult educa- 
tion in the field of the pre-school child. The hope is that we may 
develop in our study groups methods that will be available for other 
groups, that we may make records of pre-school children and con- 
tribute to the knowledge of the learning process in children. 

At this time Dr. Bernard was also closely associated with 
the Committee on International Relations. She assisted in 
the formation of International Relations study groups so 
that the work of the Association was being spread rapidly 
through its branches and its membership in newer fields. 

Committee on Educational Policies 307 

In April, 1924, Dr. Bernard could report one hundred and 
nine branch study groups — thirty-four on elementary 
education, twenty-three on the pre-school child, and fifty- 
two on international relations. In the June following. Dr. 
Bernard resigned as educational secretary to become the 
Dean of Smith College, and was succeeded by Dr. Lois 
Hayden Meek, who served as educational secretary until 
September, 1929. 

In the mean time it had been found impossible to continue 
the committee advantageously as provided in 1921. When 
in 1925 the by-laws of the Association were amended, the 
committee was reconstituted so as to make it more flexible. 
The new by-law provided that 'The Committee on Educa- 
tional Policies shall consist of five ex-officio members, the 
president, the retiring president, the first vice-president, the 
executive secretary, and the educational secretary, and three 
additional members, one representing the woman's college, 
one the coeducational university, and one the secondary and 
elementary schools. The committee shall elect its own chair- 
man every two years.' Since Helen Thompson Woolley was 
at this time vice-president of the American Association of 
College Women, she became chairman of the Cornmittee on 
Educational Policies, a very happy choice, as she not only 
represented the elementary and pre-school educational 
interests, but had been a fellow of the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae and devoted to the interests of the Associa- 
tion through many years. 

Mrs. Woolley stated when she wrote her first report as 
chairman that the Committee on Educational Policies had 
become, by action of the board of directors, a sort of general 
advisory committee for that body. She added that the 
board had frequently been asked to pass upon matters about 
which it felt it had inadequate information, and must there- 
fore refuse action that at times might be desirable and 
peremptory. As a consequence, the board asked the Com- 
mittee on Educational Policies to act in such matters for 

308 Association of University Women 

them making recommendations back to them for action. 
The committee itself would be forced, Mrs. Woolley thought, 
to depend somewhat upon the educational secretary in 
making recommendations, since she might reasonably be 
expected to be an expert for the committee, for the board of 
directors, and thus for the Association. In 1926, Mrs. 
Woolley prepared an article on the educational policies of 
the A.A.U.W., past and future.^ She pointed to the fact that 
the increasing number of study groups and the growing in- 
terest in them showed that her committee had not been 
wrong when it had through Dr. Lois Hayden Meek pro- 
vided leadership in study of the pre-school and nursery child. 
So large and important had Dr. Meek's work become even 
in two years that the Committee on International Relations 
had been compelled to separate its work in 1924 from that 
of the educational secretary, and to maintain its own 
secretary.^ Dr. Meek's work thereafter confined itself to the 
study of pre-school and elementary education and to the 
program of the adolescent boy and girl. The generous appro- 
priations of the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial made 
it possible to plan for successive years of consecutive effort 
with the consequent release from pressure financially which 
the Association might otherwise have found difficult to 

In making its report in 1929, the Committee on Educa- 
tional Policies said: 

It is only fair to say... that the Committee on Educational Poli- 
cies tends to a fairly literal interpretation of the term education. Its 
members seemed to be agreed in believing that the Association 
would achieve its greatest usefulness through adhering, in its na- 
tional activities, to two functions — that of encouraging and devel- 
oping an informed public opinion in regard to education; and that 
of cooperating in the aims of the International Federation of Uni- 
versity Women, of which we are a part. To stray far from these 

» See Journal of A.A.U.W., June, 1926, pp. 15-17. 
* See Chapter XX. 

Committee on Educational Policies 309 

lines of activity would be, in the opinion of the Committee, to give 
the work of the Association an erratic and formless character which, 
in the long run, would greatly detract from its worth and interest. 

The committee has interpreted its task in the broadest pos- 
sible way and has revealed in its statement of what it believes 
to be its task the present day interpretation of the ideals 
with which a half -century ago the A.C.A. began its labors. 


One of the limitations of any organization is its inability tt 
see the importance of its own work at any one moment, or 
to see that work in perspective. As a consequence, it often 
happens that no adequate record is preserved of what prove 
in retrospect to have been epoch-making events, and the 
historically minded person is in despair at the paucity of 
material which so obviously should have been saved. It is 
indeed difficult to estimate the significance of a piece of work 
upon which either an individual or a group of individuals is 
immediately engaged, and it is only with the lapse of years 
that a chain of events can with logic and accuracy be traced 
to the source from which action in the first instance emerged. 
For these reasons very few organizations have the foresight 
to plan their records or their output of publications in any 
orderly sequence, in accordance with a carefully devised 
system out of which a complete story may be made. Still less 
can be foreseen the persistent pleadings of libraries or of 
collectors for the wherewithal to complete their files. And 
least of all do organizations have in mind the historical 
significance of their own archives, and the use that may in 
the future be made of them. 

The Association of Collegiate Alumnae was no exception 
to this rule, having as it did little conception at the outset of 
either the wide range which its activities would cover or the 
scope of the influence which with the years widened beyond 
its dreams. Moreover, neither the founders nor their young 
secretary had had experience or training which in matters of 
this sort would be an infallible guide. In this respect they 
were not unlike most history-makers of any given period. 
The ' trial-and-error ' method had to be used then, and in a 

Publications and Printed Records 311 

way is still to-day being used by the Association. The 
officers did, however, realize that information to be given 
out to a membership so widely scattered as was that of the 
A.C.A., covering a larger geographical area than in the short 
space of time since its inception they had believed possible, 
must take the printed form, no matter how varied that 
form might prove to be. As a consequence the publications 
, issued during the earliest years of the Association have 
.been called *an undated, unnumbered hodge-podge.' This 
condition was in part also the result of the fact that because 
of its slender purse the Association occasionally reprinted 
or used in amended form a good deal of material originally 
prepared and issued by other organizations. It was not 
until 1888 that the numbering of printed issues began, but 
from that time on the work proceeded, so far as record and 
publication went, in a more orderly fashion. 

Naturally — and significantly — the first printed matter 
to be issued, after the material concerned strictly with 
organization (such as the constitution, by-laws, applications 
for memberships, etc.) had been published, was the result 
of the first piece of research done by the Association, the 
circular on 'Physical Education.' ' Closely connected both 
in time and in subject-matter with this circular was the 
notable report on 'Health Statistics of Women College 
Graduates.' * That the financial resources of the Association 
were so slender as to preclude the possibility of publication 
on any large scale made it necessary for the Association to 
avail itself of republications of its own material by other 
media than its own leaflets or bulletins, and thus it often in 
the early days distributed among its members what on the 
surface seemed to be the output of other organizations. For 
instance, there was issued a leaflet of the 'Society to En- 
courage Studies at Home,' giving the * Programme of Studies 
for 1883-84.' That Ellen H. Richards had charge of the 
early university extension work (for such it in reality was) 

' See Chapter VIII. » Ibid. 

312 Association of University Women 

of this society where it dealt with the field of science, at the 
same time that she was serving for the A.C.A. as chairman 
of its important Committee on Graduate Study, made easy 
this piece of cooperation between the two organizations. 
Mrs. Richards's committee also made arrangements with the 
society to give to college graduates special opportunity for 
advanced study. 

The Association also distributed among its members as a 
reprint from the Vassar Miscellany for April, 1884, an article 
on 'Opportunities for Advanced Study,' written by 'Alumna 
*74,* the characteristically modest nom de plume of Florence 
M. Gushing. 

But the Association was not content with reprints and 
drew from its slender treasury a sum large enough to print 
a r6sum6 of the paper which Helen Magill ^ gave on May 13, 
1882, on 'Opportunities for Post-Graduate Study.' 

A little later a question still unanswered but still perti- 
nent * was raised by the striking disparity which, in its vari- 
ous investigations covering college and university-bred 
women, had been brought to the attention of the A.C.A. — 
that of the wide difference between the amount of money 
given by women to men's colleges and to women's colleges. 
Kate Morris Cone thereupon made a study of 'Women's 
Gifts to Educational Institutions,' which was presented to 
the Association on October 25, 1884, and published im- 
mediately thereafter. 

As has been said, most persons are not by nature histori- 
cally minded, and it will doubtless be a surprise to recent 
members of the A.A.U.W. who think of study groups as a 
new development coincident with the appointment of secre- 
taries to guide them, to know that the parent organization, 
the A.C.A., had an organized study group launched under 
the able leadership of Ellen H. Richards in 1883. This was 
the Sanitary Science Club, which met first on November 
9. It issued a sketch of its work in 1884, and in 1887 

» See Chapter X. " See Chapter XIV. 

Publications and Printed Records 313 

published a pioneer volume in its field, entitled 'Home 
Sanitation,' whose editors were Ellen H. Richards and 
Marion Talbot. When in 1885 the public was alarmed by 
the possibility of a cholera epidemic, this little study group 
(or club as it called itself) met the situation by the prepara- 
tion of a special circular describing precautionary measures 
and including a copy of suggestions from the Board of Health 
of the City of Boston. This circular was issued over the name 
of the A.C.A., and was distributed to its membership. 
Although the dreaded epidemic did not occur, the little band 
of pioneers had the satisfaction of knowing that had the 
calamity occurred, it would have 'done its bit' to mitigate 
the blow. 

In still another field the members of A.C.A. prepared to 
put their college training to effective use, when a paper pre- 
sented at a meeting on March 21, 1885, by Katherine Coman 
on the subject 'Work for Women in Local History,* bore 
fruit at once in a full printed report of the discussion which 
followed the reading of the paper, accompanied by practical 
suggestions as to methods by which local historical work 
might be carried on. Here the Association was encouraged 
and helped by the advice of the historian, Colonel, Thomas 
Wentworth Higginson, and by the leader of one of the first 
history seminars in the United States — Dr. Herbert B. 
Adams, of Johns Hopkins University. Closely allied with 
this new field was one opened up by the address of Melvil 
Dewey, given before the Association (March, 1886) on 
' Librarianship as a Profession for College-Bred Women.' 
This, too, the A.C.A. issued in pamphlet form. 

In still another field is the vision of the founders of the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae evident; a small leaflet 
published in February, 1892, bearing the superscription 
'Association of Collegiate Alumnse — Bureau of Occupa- 
tions,' has a measure of significance wholly out of proportion 
to its size. Eight years before, in 1884, Jane M. Bancroft * 
* See Chapter II, page 17. 

314 Association of University Women 

had given a paper before the Association on 'Occupations 
and Professions for College-Bred Women.' At the annual 
meeting in 1890, a report had been read on 'Occupations for 
College Women.' It was thereupon voted that ' the branches 
be requested under the direction of a member of the Associa- 
tion, appointed by the Executive Committee, to interchange 
information concerning work as teachers, librarians, labora- 
tory assistants or in other occupations, for the use of mem- 
bers of the Association, the expense incurred by each branch 
to be paid from its treasury, and those of the chairman, 
which shall not exceed twenty dollars, to be defrayed by the 
Association.' Eva March Tappan was named to be the 
representative for which the motion provided, and forthwith 
the term 'Bureau of Occupations' first appeared in the 
records. The leaflet of 1892 referred to above described the 
work of the Bureau, offered assistance to the members with- 
[ out charge in securing positions, and called for information 
in regard to work other than teaching which was adapted 
/ to the capacity of college women. May Carbutt succeeded 
Miss Tappan, and the Bureau was listed among the activ- 
ities of the Association until 1895-96. But the work had 
become too important and too unwieldy to be administered 
on the slender financial resources of the Association, so that 
it was albeit with reluctance abandoned. 

During these years pieces of research were being carried 
on by special committees — for example, the one which set 
out to inquire into the compensation offered in certain occu- 
pations open to graduates of colleges for women. The data 
thus collected were placed at the disposal of the Bureau of 
Statistics of the State of Massachusetts, and by that Bureau 
published not only in its annual report for 1894, but also as a 
forty-seven-page report which was distributed to the mem- 
bers of the A.C.A. It was already clear then, as it is to-day, 
that the subject was of significance and would furnish food 
for discussion and for study for many years to come. 

An organized body of trained women like the A.C.A. 

Publications and Printed Records 315 

naturally offered an unusual opportunity for the preparation 
of data and statistics necessary for all sorts of investigation. 
An appeal for such cooperation was made in June, 1895, by 
a committee under the chairmanship of Florence Wilkinson 
in securing answers to a series of questions designed to 
ascertain if possible whether there was any relation between 
collegiate methods of education and creative literary work. 
That the cooperation requested was forthcoming is evi- 
denced by the fact that in the October following the request, 
Miss Wilkinson presented before the Association a paper on 
* Creative Literary Power in College Women ' — a piece of 
research based on the replies made to her inquiries, to which 
she added suggestions and conclusions.* 

A survey of the years 1882 to 1898 shows a signal achieve- 
ment in the matter of publications, scattered as they were 
and spasmodic as was their appearance. These sixteen years 
show descriptive material concerning the Association, ap- 
peals for funds, reports of committees, announcements of 
fellowships, and other miscellaneous information of interest 
especially to the members. One of the most significant of 
the announcements is the one stating that in the early part 
of December, 1898, there would appear a publication 'in 
attractive magazine form.' Thus began Series III of the 
publications, and with its first number there disappeared the 
handy little annual register with its list of ofiftcers and mem- 
bers and its reports of activities. But the Association had in 
reality entered upon a new era — one in dignity and stability 
more worthy of its position of influence and responsibility. 
Thereafter under the general name of 'Publications of the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae,' was published the 'Maga- 

* It is interesting to note in this connection that of those replies to the 
question, ' Do you think that collegiate education tends to destroy 
literary power? ' seventy per cent gave an unqualified negative. To the 
impression which to-day seems to lean in the opposite direction, one may 
well point to those graduates of Wellesley, Vassar, Radcliffe, and many 
other colleges, to say nothing of the women who owe to Robert Herrick or 
to George P. Baker their first accurate criticism, for careful consideration. 

316 Association of University Women 

zine' or 'Magazine Number,' with a 'Register' (of officers, 
of members, committees, etc.) usually every two years, with 
a ' supplement ' for printing special articles often represent- 
ing pieces of research work. This series ended with 1910. 
In January, 191 1, as No. i of Series IV, began the Journal 
as it has ever since been known. Sometimes as a quarterly, 
sometimes (during the World War) as a monthly news letter, 
in some form or other the Journal has kept the continuity of 
the record since 1911. 

Many persons had been convinced of the unique value of 
the research which had in the early years been carried on, 
albeit in a small way, by the Association, through its 
branches, either individually or through committees. Some 
few had seen that with more money at command there might 
be carried on a systematic series of statistical researches into 
conditions affecting educational interests which should cover 
a wide range of activities, and the publication of such valu- 
able results might be assured. Through private generosity 
the first publication had been issued as a magazine num- 
bered I of Series III, of the 'Publications of the Association 
of Collegiate Alumnae,' and dated December, 1898. Its one 
hundred and four pages were devoted to the leading papers 
which had been presented at the meeting in the October 
preceding, together with an abstract of the business there 
transacted. This number cost $469.74. Although the raising 
of the fund proved a difficult undertaking, yet a sufficient 
amount was secured to permit the publication in July of the 
following year of a thirty-eight-page pamphlet giving, to- 
gether with all the information needed by possible appli- 
cants, a list of the fellowships and graduate scholarships 
offered to women by colleges, universities, and societies in 
the United States, as well as the undergraduate scholarships 
offered to women by the nineteen institutions at that time 
belonging to the Association. This issue cost $331.85. 

The next publication was the ' Magazine Number,' Series 
III, No. 3, February, 1900, giving the proceedings of the 

Publications and Printed Records 317 

annual meeting in 1899 and costing $441.23. It was only by 
dint of the most strenuous efforts on the part of the com- 
mittee in charge that the health survey of 1900 was under- 
taken. The schedules it contained were completely tabu- 
lated by the Bureau of Statistics of Labor of the State of 
Massachusetts, as had been the case with a similar survey 
made in 1884-85. The results of this study were, however, 
not published until a limited edition, privately printed, was 
made available to a few interested people in 19 17.' 

But the voluntary contributions to the special fund for 
research and publication grew steadily smaller instead of 
larger, fewer rather than more numerous, and the function 
of the Committee on Finance and Publications narrowed 
down to the duties of editing and proof-reading, and occa- 
sionally of publishing. The publishing, however, went on 
with only the small regular funds available in the treasury, 
though the issues included beside the regular magazine num- 
bers a memorial to Alice Freeman Palmer ; a study of child 
development by Millicent W. Shinn ; and a table of informa- 
tion with regard to the requirements for admission, oppor- 
tunity for special study, scholarships, degrees, tuition fees, 
and prices of room and board in the institutions which were 
members of the Association, this last-named table to be used 
as a basis of work by the Committee on Corporate Member- 
ship. In 1905, the chairman of the Committee on Finance 
and Publication, Alice Upton Pearmain,^ reported in detail 
concerning the expense of issuing the magazine, stating that 
the cost per number per member had averaged between thir- 
teen and fourteen cents, and arguing that this did not seem 
too great a charge on the annual income of one dollar per 
member, in view of the fact that ninety-seven per cent of the 
members were unable to attend the general meetings and 
hear the papers and discussions. 

Mrs. Pearmain's committee further reported in 1906 that 

» See Chapter VIII. 

' President of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, 1897-99. 

318 Association of University Women 

a proposed collection of statistics relating to the comparative 
growth in the past twenty-five years of the most important 
American universities and colleges had not as yet even been 
begun, chiefly because of lack of funds to put at the disposal 
of any group which would be willing to undertake their col- 
lection and preparation for the press. 

As has been stated, committees and individual members 
of the Association were, throughout the whole period of the 
existence of the organization, engaged upon research pro- 
blems. Such results had appeared when in 1897 the Boston 
Public Library published for the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae 'Contributions towards a Bibliography of the 
Higher Education of Women,' which had been compiled by 
a committee made up of librarians who were members of the 
Association. In 1905, the Association itself published a 
supplement to the first publication, very full, with an ad- 
mirable index, bringing the bibliography up to 1902, the 
two pamphlets constituting an invaluable piece of work for 
the period covered. 

In 1908, the Association had appointed, under the chair- 
manship of Ellen H. Richards, a committee to make a study 
on the economic efficiency of college women. ^ Associated 
with Mrs. Richards was a committee which secured the 
cooperation of many branches and collected a mass of mate- 
rial bearing upon the subject under investigation. Susan M. 
Kingsbury brought the study to publication in the Journal 
of the Association for 1910.* Here was a piece of research 
which attracted attention and much praise both within the 
Association and outside its ranks. A few months later — in 
June, 1910 — there appeared, as No. 22 of Series II, a study 
recommended for publication by Dr. Millicent W. Shinn's 
Committee on the Study of the Development of Children, a 
'Record of the Development of Two Baby Boys,' by Laura 
Sawin Filley. This study is still a classic in its field. 

» See Chapter XVII. 

' As Series III, page 20, Publications of the A.C.A. 

Publications and Printed Records 319 

Still another piece of pioneer work found its way to the 
public as Bulletin No. I of ' Publications of the Association 
of Collegiate Alumnae,' when in 1 913 there was published the 
results of four years of work of the Committee on Vocational 
Opportunities, entitled ' Vocational Training, a classified list 
of Institutions Training Educated Women for Occupations 
other than Teaching.' * Under the chairmanship of Eliza- 
beth Kemper Adams, the committee had done a piece of 
intensive research, the results of which were embodied in 
this list, the first of its kind in the United States. In 1916 
was published Bulletin No. 2, 'Opportunities for Women in 
Domestic Science,' by Marie Francke. In 1916-18, Bulletin 
No. I was revised and brought up to date by the Committee 
on Vocational Opportunities under the chairmanship of 
Florence Jackson. 

It is impossible to note in detail the papers and articles 
which have been printed in the Journal of the Association 
during the twenty years of its existence, for what it was 
under the A.C.A. it has continued to be under the A.A.U.W. 
An examination of its files will, however, repay any one who 
will take the trouble to see what a wide field they cover, and 
in how many instances they represent pioneer work. 

One of the latest instances of hewing out a new trail is 
a bulletin ' entitled * Report of the Committee on United 
States History Textbooks used in the Schools of the United 
States,' of which Laura F. Ullrick is chairman and editor. 
When, in 1926, the American Association of University 
Women became interested in a discussion which not only 
was blazoned in newspapers, but was the basis for the intro- 
duction of ill-advised bills in several State Legislatures, it set 
about to make a study of the truth of the whole matter. 
Ever since the close of the World War, textbooks of history 
and their use by teachers had been much criticized in hap- 

» See Chapter XVIL 

' Reprinted from the Proceedings of the Biennial Convention of the 
American Association of University Women, 1929. 

320 Association of University Women 

hazard and often in acrimonious fashion. No investigation 
of the truth of the allegations thus made had taken place 
save here and there by an interested author or publisher. 
Yet the question was one of fundamental importance. The 
Association, therefore, appointed in 1926 a committee under 
the leadership of Dr. Mary Williams, of Goucher College, 
which set to work to collect information as to the history 
texts in use throughout the forty-eight States of the Union, 
as well as an estimate of the number of students using these 
texts. It is impossible to give in full this admirable and 
eminently judicial report. As usual, the Association had no 
funds adequate for carrying on so large a piece of research as 
almost at the outset this project was found to be, and as a 
consequence a combination was made between the American 
Association of University Women and the World Federation 
of Education Associations, in which the work of the former 
and the funds of the latter made possible this piece of pioneer 
work done in scholarly fashion. After a critical study of the 
sixty books examined, Miss Ullrick thus concludes her 

The committee believes that if the American Association of Uni- 
versity Women wishes to do real service in this line throughout the 
country, they will establish a standing committee on textbooks 
which will keep in touch with those in use in this country, not only 
in the American history field, but also in all the fields of history. 
After all is said and done, the subjects are taught in the school which 
public opinion demands and textbooks are written with the em- 
phasis which public opinion demands. The textbook which does not 
represent these demands will find no place in the schools. The 
teachers in schools reflect to a large extent the public opinion of 
their communities. It would be the thought of the committee that 
the standing committee of the Association should keep in touch with 
the most progressive thought on the subject of teaching history and 
should test the textbooks as they come onto the market by these 
standards. If the textbooks were found to lag behind these standards 
or if the texts in general should be lagging behind, then the Associa- 
tion might be able, through its wide membership, to help to create a 
public opinion which would demand the progressive type of textbook. 

Publications and Printed Records 321 

A piece of individual research of great importance histori- 
cally is the 'History of the Fellowships awarded by the 
American Association of University Women, 1888-1929, 
with the vitas of the Fellows,' compiled and edited by 
Margaret E. Maltby, Ph.D. This invaluable history ap- 
peared in the summer of 1929, and was in constant use by 
the authors of this history from the moment of its pub- 

From the office of the International Relations Committee, 
especially since its transfer to the Washington headquarters 
of the Association under the secretaryship of Dr. Esther 
Caukin, there have appeared many suggestions for Inter- 
national Relations study groups throughout the branches of 
the A.A.U.W., in typed or printed form, bibliographies, and 
one pamphlet entitled 'Definition of the Monroe Doctrine.* 

From the office of the educational secretary during the 
secretaryship of Dr. Lois Hayden Meek appeared in typed 
or printed form many suggestions, bibliographies, and 'guid- 
ance materials' for use by the many educational study 
groups of the Association. While these groups constitute an 
outstanding activity of most branches, the literature put 
out for their use is also available for parent-teacher associa- 
tions, women's clubs, progressive education, and other inter- 
ested organizations. In the 'List of Publications* from the 
educational office, published as Bulletin I, September, 1929, 
seven other bulletins are named with a paragraph of descrip- 
tion for each ; four other pamphlets under the general head- 
ing of 'Guidance Materials for Study Groups,' with a short 
description of each; five leaflets under the caption 'The 
Educational Program' (of the A.A.U.W.); and nineteen 
'Reprints and Pamphlets,' several of which have appeared 
as articles in the Journal of the Association — certainly a 
work of great magnitude considering the short time Dr. 
Meek was in office, and in comparison with the slender sheaf 
secured with such labor and pains thirty or forty years ago. 
» See Chapter XI. Also Appendix, pp. 443-48. 

322 Association of University Women 

Before the publication of the Journal^ the proceedings 
were either printed as a part of the 'Annual Register,' or 
(as in 1896) in a separate pamphlet. This policy was fol- 
lowed until 1927, when a new plan was inaugurated, whereby 
the Proceedings of the biennial conventions have been 
printed as a separate pamphlet, instead of in the Journal^ as 
was the case from the time that the Journal first appeared. 
The Proceedings have never been dull reading, and are often 
of absorbing interest, especially to one interested in following 
historically the progress of women's education in the United 
States. For in the multiplicity of interests which all these 
records and publications present, it is clear that throughout 
the skein of increasing size and varied threads, one scarlet 
thread has run through warp and woof. And that thread is 
the one of college education for women, sometimes a pattern 
in itself, sometimes a background for another pattern. But 
to its original pattern the whole fabric has nevertheless been 
woven. It must be remembered, too, that the busy women 
who wove this web had manifold interests besides this par- 
ticular one, and so slowly year by year did the work progress 
that it may well have seemed to them that some mysterious 
Penelope had unwoven at night what had been woven in the 
day. It is only when one looks over the span of years, as 
shown in the publications covering the half-century, that the 
accomplishment, instead of appearing meager, seems, in the 
face of the difficulties the workers encountered, astonishingly 
large. That its importance and influence were out of propor- 
tion to its size must always be clear to the thoughtful student 
of the Association. 



When in 1912 the reorganization of the A.CA. took place, 
one of the by-laws provided for the division of the whole 
country into ten sections with a vice-president for each 
section so created.^ It was hoped that by this division sec- 
tional conferences could be held where a larger number of 
members might come together than would be possible at a 
national convention, no matter where the latter might be 
held. Although the sectional vice-presidents began to make 
reports on their districts immediately after 1912, the confer- 
ences were slow in coming into being largely because of the 
intervention of the World War, when railway travel was cut 
to a minimum and it seemed almost a luxury for any one to 
attempt more conventions or conferences than were abso- 
lutely essential. A pioneer sectional conference was, how- 
ever, held in Boston in October, 1916, when on invitation 
of the Boston Branch the fifteen other branches of the North 
Atlantic Section were asked to be for two days guests of the 
hostess branch. Nine out of the fifteen branches accepted 
the invitation. There were present besides the vice-president 
of the sections, Caroline L. Humphrey, then president of the 
A.C.A.; Gertrude Shorb Martin, executive secretary of the 
A.C.A.; Florence Jackson, chairman of the Committee on 
Vocational Opportunities for Women of the A.C.A.; Mar- 
garet Friend Lowenberg, chairman of the National Com- 
mittee on Volunteer Service; and a number of members 
whose connections with the Association dated back to its 
earliest time. Reports were given at this conference from all 
the branches represented. At general sessions were discussed 
* See Chapter III, passim. 

324 Association of University Women 

such vital problems as the relation between A.C.A. branches 
and college clubs, the possibility of a larger part in adminis- 
trative affairs to be played by faculties of colleges and uni- 
versities, and the pros and cons of the then new Gary system 
which had just been put into operation in New York City. 
Perhaps the most outstanding session was 'a delightful 
symposium by President Pendleton of Wellesley, President 
Briggs of Radcliffe, and President Woolley of Mount 
Holyoke on the subject, "How Can an Alumnae Association 
Best Serve Its College?'" 

In the following month, the first conference of the North- 
west Central Section was held in St. Paul, Minnesota, where 
the two problems of educational legislation and of the office 
and duties of dean of women were foremost. In the call for 
this conference, branches were asked for suggestions as to 
the advisability of a continuation of the sectional conference 

No other sectional conferences were held until 1920, 
although whenever the Association met the sectional vice- 
presidents made reports which were thrilling in the variety 
of war work which they recorded. The revelations which 
were brought home to the Association by the examinations 
of the draft board bore fruit in the awareness of branches, 
States, and sections as to the problems of illiteracy and of 
inadequate educational facilities which were revealed to an 
awakened Nation. It was apparent that the work which 
these revelations made imperative could be carried to com- 
pletion by the smaller unit — the State — better than by 
the section. As a consequence the state divisions of the 
Association emerged, although the sectional organizations 
still continued.* 

In 192 1, the South Pacific Section reported two confer- 
ences, one of which was held in 1920, where the recom- 
mendation that the California State Division be organized 
was the most important action taken. In the same year, 

* See Chapter III for an earlier attempt at state representation. 

Sectional Conferences 325 

however, the North and South Rocky Mountain Sections 
reported that sectional conferences were impossible, and it 
was strongly urged that a State officer to work within each 
State to bind the branches together, to form new branches, 
and to encourage the branches already in existence, to 
cooperate in educational and civic problems with other 
organizations already in existence, be provided. 

From 1923 up to 1931, however, the sectional conferences 
have been growing in importance, with an extraordinary 
variety of interests and achievements provided in their 
biennial programs. For instance, the South Atlantic Section 
and the Southeast Central Section, both of which came to 
be important after the union of the Southern Association of 
College Women with the A.C.A. in 192 1, have carried for- 
ward the work of further standardizing the schools and col- 
leges in the Southern States. The Northeast Central Section 
has devoted its conferences largely to branch programs, 
whereas the Southwest Central Section has discussed the 
relations between branch and State, State and section, sec- 
tion and national organization. The North Pacific Section 
was especially helpful in its study of the problem of the ad- 
mission of agricultural colleges. Since 1928 the ' sectional 
conferences have been most largely concerned with the 
Million Dollar Fellowship Fund, and it is here perhaps that 
the importance of this link between the State and the Na- 
tional organization has its greatest significance. The award 
of the sectional fellowships such as that of the Southwest 
Central Section, which it was voted in 1928 should be 
awarded after two years to the amount of fifteen hundred 
dollars, that it should be administered by the national Com- 
mittee on Fellowship Awards, and that it should be open 
*to any woman who holds a bachelor's degree, has done at 
least a year of graduate work, or has had its equivalent in 
practical experience in her field and who gives promise of 
distinction,' is typical. The Northwest Central Section in 
1928 made a similar arrangement, and other sections are 

326 Association of University Women 

falling into line in this great work which the Association has 

One other aspect of the work of the sections cannot be 
omitted. When, in 1921, the Southern Association of College 
Women came into the A.C.A., it was requested by their 
officers that the by-laws be amended to provide, in their 
region at least, a Committee on Recognition of Colleges and 
Universities, whose duty it should be to recommend to the 
Committee on Recognition of the national association for 
study and acceptance or rejection the institutions which 
in the opinion of the sectional committee were ready 
for national membership. This amendment was thereupon 
passed for all ten sections. 

But the problem thus presented to the sections, that of 
acceptance of colleges and universities within their borders, 
presented a difficult situation. In spite of a really deter- 
mined effort, the provision for a sectional committee proved 
unworkable, and as a consequence, in a revision of the 
by-laws in 1929, the following paragraph was inserted in the 
article of the by-laws which provides for sectional, state, 
and branch divisions: 

In each section there shall be an adviser to the Committee on 
Membership.^ This adviser shall be a national member, appointed 
by the board of directors upon nomination of the sectional director. 
She shall inform the Committee on Membership » of local conditions, 
and visit colleges and universities within her section at the request 
of the committee. 

By the appointment of this single officer, it is hoped that the 
work of the Committee on Membership may be simplified 
and made more effective. 

Thus the section for the time being remains as a larger 
entity than the single State, with a theoretically larger point 

1 * See Charter and By-Laws of the A.A.U.W., May, 1929, p. 10. 

» The Committee on Membership is the name adopted in 1929 for the 
former Committee on Recognition of Colleges and Universities. See 
Chapter VI. 

Sectional Conferences 327 

of view, and a larger constituency from which to draw advice 
and help, besides being a valuable link between the branches 
and the States, and the national president, secretaries, and 
headquarters. Whether the sections will continue to func- 
tion indefinitely is a question ; but it cannot be solved save 
as the future shall point out the answer. 

As has been said, it was the World War which brought the 
necessity for state organizations clearly to the attention of 
the national officers of the A.C.A. Yet the new plan related 
itself in a way to an older phase of the organization when 
in the late eighties and early nineties the Minnesota Branch, 
the Ohio Branch, the Pacific Branch, the Indiana Branch, 
and the Rhode Island Branch were formed, with their 
membership scattered throughout a whole State, which 
indeed the one branch represented. The same was true of 
the branches in Milwaukee, St. Louis, Chicago, Detroit, 
Seattle, and Portland, each of which was the only local unit 
within the state boundaries. The state organization as it is 
known to-day, however, dates from the period of the World 

One of the first state conferences was held in the Northeast 
Central Section, when in 191 5, by invitation of the Central 
Illinois Branch, the five Illinois branches met with the presi- 
dent of the National Association, Caroline L. Humphrey, 
and the vice-president of the section, Violet Jane Schmidt, 
to discuss the educational situation in Illinois in the light of 
an educational survey which had recently been made. In 
the following year, 1916, the Ann Arbor Branch called to- 
gether the Michigan branches as well as the branch in 
Toledo, Ohio. The delegates from five branches met for two 
days with 'a notable accession of information, enthusiasm, 
and friendliness.' It was voted, moreover, to make the state 
conference an annual affair. In May, 1917, the Kansas State 
Division had its first meeting, but its conferences were not 
held annually until 1921. The primary purpose of the 
organization of the Kansas State Division was to make it 

328 Association of University Women 

possible for the college and university women to be repre- 
sented on the Kansas State Council of Women, a body 
composed of the presidents of all women's state organiza- 
tions. After its founding, the division became vitally inter- 
ested in the women students in the schools within the State, 
so that it began to foster the forming of new branches and to 
encourage the branches to raise scholarship funds. From 
these beginnings it was an easy step to assist in raising the 
Kansas quota for the National Headquarters Fund and later 
to make contributions to the Million Dollar Fellowship 

In 1 919, Gertrude Shorb Martin, executive secretary of 
the A.C.A., reported that the movement for state organiza- 
tion was proceeding in a number of States and enumerated 
the state conventions of California, Ohio, Wisconsin, Michi- 
gan, Connecticut, Kansas, and New York as having been held 
in 191 9 following the national convention in April of that 
year. Mrs. Martin pointed out that the Connecticut plan 
contained suggestions which other States contemplating 
state-wide organization might well follow. A meeting had 
been called in Connecticut, to which representatives of the 
four branches in the State and several of the independent 
college clubs were invited, to meet in New Haven. All the 
representatives present at the meeting agreed 'that the 
number of branches and of individual members in the State 
could be greatly increased and that through such an organi- 
zation the college forces of the State could be made much 
more effective in improving educational legislation, in rais- 
ing international and local scholarships, and in furthering 
Americanization work.' It was thereupon decided to 
organize the Connecticut State Division of the Association 
to consist of the branches of the State as regular members 
and the independent college clubs as associate members, the 
latter to have full voting power on all matters except those 
pertaining strictly to A.C.A. business. It was also arranged 
that the State Division should have a council made up of the 

Sectional Conferences 329 

president and one delegate from each branch and one dele- 
gate from each college club, to meet at least three times a 
year and to elect one of its members president and one mem- 
ber as secretary-treasurer for a term of two years, these 
persons to be A.C.A. members. It was recommended that 
the state work should be financed by a fee of fifteen cents 
per individual member, to be paid by each branch and club 
belonging to the state organization. It is interesting, in 
connection with the Connecticut organization, to note that 
in the immediate work which the state organization under- 
took — an attempt to further the efforts of the State 
Board of Education for improved school legislation and for 
teachers' pensions — several local alumni associations of 
men joined with the college women to achieve these ends. 

The New York State Division, formed in 1920, discussed 
the suggestion that it might be well to have a branch in each 
county, but this plan was later abandoned and the state 
organization continued as it had begun — with delegates 
from the separate branches, and representatives of general 
members scattered through the State and not affiliated with 
any branch. The New York state organization made provi- 
sion also for affiliated college groups although this provision 
has not been entirely satisfactory. This state organization 
has followed the trend of the national organization in its 
programs and in its work, but the support of the national 
plan has by no means precluded the support of under- 
graduates in college or high school 'where ability and per- 
sonality give promise of exceptional scholarship.' The New 
York state organization has felt an especial interest in the 
quality of its public school teachers, since the report that the 
number of illiterates — that is, those who cannot read or 
write in any language — is large enough to challenge every 
A.A.U.W. member in the State. In 1929, the president of 
the State Division reported that it was hoped to carry on a 
study of school costs and school failures in the belief that 
taxpayers, city officials, and boards of education would be 

330 Association of University Women 

interested, not only in the findings of such a study, but in a 
definite program which might be carried out when actual 
facts were made known. 

The Kansas Division in 1927 undertook the survey of the 
rural schools of that State in order to acquaint the eleven 
hundred members of the branches of the A.A.U.W. with the 
actual conditions in the rural schools and the necessity for 
legislative action to secure better conditions. In this survey 
all branches in the State took a part, thus enlisting the 
woman power of the whole community in a cause which 
should make an effective and universal appeal. 

The Vermont State Division was formed in 1920 at a con- 
ference called to meet at the time when the State Teachers* 
Convention was in session. The original name was the Ver- 
mont Branch, because, says the historian of the division, 
*it seemed to us that in a State predominantly rural one 
branch would be all that was necessary, since we could not, 
at any rate, get together more than once or twice a year. 
Little did we then dream of the enthusiasm that would result 
in the formation of branches in Montpelier, Middlebury, 
Burlington, Rutland, Saint Albans, Bennington, Brattle- 
boro, and Randolph, or that, as now, we would have in our 
files the names of 1372 college women of the State catalogued 
on collegiate-colored cards and geographically, as well as 
alphabetically, filed in order that at any time a college 
graduate may know the other college women of her com- 
munity and start a branch.' With the forming of the local 
branches came the change in name to the Vermont State 
Division with a double work outlined for the officers — 
supervision of the branches and the holding together of 
isolated members throughout the State. This latter group, 
of which Mrs. Calvin Coolidge was the one hundredth mem- 
ber, was considerably reduced by the formation of branches 
with which the general members soon affiliated. The State 
Division has met twice a year, in the fall with the State 
Teachers* Convention, and in the spring with the Vermont 

Sectional Conferences 331 

Federation of Women's Clubs. In addition to these two 
meetings is a unique project of the Vermont Division — 
'College Week.' 

Stories of the varied activities of ' College Week have been 
printed in the A.A.U.W. Journal, yet in perusing these one 
gets but a partial glimpse of the rare communion experienced 
with kindred souls in this week of intellectual "retreat" for 
college women. Mornings are given over to round-table 
discussions, evenings have addresses open to the public, 
afternoons are left free for walks and talks in the lovely 
grounds, for tea on the Circle, and the formation of those 
friendships which are, after all, perhaps the most important 
part of College Week. To its success is due the cooperation 
of all of our New England colleges and many of those farther 
afield, who have sent to us their presidents, deans, and 
prominent faculty members with inspiration to keep us in 
touch with "college days" and what is up-to-date and worth 
while in the college world. At the round tables have been 
taken up not only our Vermont problems of education and 
legislation, but new methods of education in this country 
and abroad, brought to us by specialists with both vision 
and constructive ability. We in Vermont cannot speak too 
strongly of all that College Week has meant to us and we 
hope that many other States will carry on the College Week 
idea.' In connection with this 'Week' the alumnae of the 
different colleges represented meet in groups as well as in the 
general sessions. The membership is not limited, it might 
be added, to the membership of the A.A.U.W. 

The Vermont State Division, like the Kansas Division, 
has undertaken work with the rural schools, and an organiza- 
tion called 'The Better District School Association* was 
organized in 1924 under the auspices of the Vermont State 
Division, although it is open to any one interested in the 
district schools. 

The Oklahoma State Division, organized in 1921 by Amy 
Comstock, president of the Tulsa Branch, began in 1928^29 

332 Association of University Women 

a program whereby each branch in the State undertook to 
visit not less than three rural schools in their vicinity and to 
gather some observations from the county superintendent 
and the teachers, and from records, information specified 
on a form questionnaire. The questions covered subjects 
that could easily be discernible and understandable by a 
layman. The survey was not to be technical, scientific, nor 
pedagogical, but a layman's report, the findings to be com- 
piled by the Educational Committee of the State Division 
and followed by such action as the findings might warrant. 
The branches were asked to invite the newly elected legis- 
lators in their regions to meet with them to discuss the school 
problems and thus become informed of conditions in the 
hope that cooperation in remedies might follow. 

By 1923, the state organizations were fairly on their feet, 
as may be seen by the fact that ten States sent representa- 
tives to meetings in that year. Indeed, the formation of 
State Divisions went forward so rapidly that in December, 
1926, the national headquarters issued a small bulletin bear- 
ing on the subject.^ The executive secretary reported that 
within the past eight years (that is, since 191 8) thirty-three 
States had attacked the problem and of these ' twenty-four 
are fully organized and actively at work.' The State Divi- 
sion was defined as * a unit of organization in the Association 
made up of branches and general members in the State. 
Each State Division has its officers and committees, holds an 
annual meeting, has its own budget financed by dues from 
its members, and is entitled to representation at national 
meetings. Such organization is designed to strengthen the 
branches, and to facilitate cooperation with headquarters 
and with the national committees.' In this bulletin, besides 
stating the advantages of state organization in facilitating 
contacts between the branches and national headquarters 
and providing contacts between the branches, the point was 
brought out that the creation of new branches had been 

» See Bulletin, December, 1926, 'State Divisions of the A.A.U.W.' 

Sectional Conferences 333 

greatly facilitated by the state organizations and that in 
addition the general members had been united in a program 
of practical work as had never been the case before. More- 
over, the State Division had been enabled to carry out a 
state educational program, 'legislative or otherwise, without 
hindrance from local bias or limitations, thus providing 
opportunity to influence educational progress in the State.' 
The report might have enlarged this latter point by enumer- 
ating the States in which there had come into being a 
Woman's Legislative Council made up of representatives 
from all the women's organizations in the State, meeting 
during the months when the State Legislature was in session 
so as to keep informed of the bills presented which had 
especial reference to the interests of women and of children. 
These legislative councils were in a way the outgrowth of the 
war, but they were stimulated much more profoundly by 
the Eighteenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution. 
Such a State as Wisconsin is typical of the situation in other 
States. The various women's organizations like the Federa- 
tion of Women's Clubs have each a representative, usually 
from a club in Madison, the capital of the State, who, with 
representatives of other organizations, meet during the legis- 
lative session every Monday afternoon in the Governor's 
reception room in the State Capitol. There are discussed 
the bills which have been presented during the previous 
week, the hearings scheduled for the current week, and the 
program for the immediate future in which the women's 
organizations have an especial interest. The Madison 
Branch of the A.A.U.W. acts as a representative for the 
Wisconsin Federation of Branches, with the understanding 
that a vote is to be given only in educational matters. The 
Washington State Division working through the branch in 
Olympia, the state capital, in 1927-28 watched all sorts of 
legislation, national and state, with special work on the 
establishment of a children's code commission, of a parental 
school, and of an institution for feeble-minded children. 

334 Association of University Women 

It is impossible to review the state conferences of all the 
States or of any one State throughout its entire history. 
The West Virginia Division feels that its greatest achieve- 
ment is the erection of Elizabeth Moore Hall, the women's 
building on the campus of the University of West Virginia, 
since this building is the direct outgrowth of the cooperation 
of the State Division following a plea made at the conven- 
tion of 1924 by the director of physical education on behalf 
of the women in the university. 

The Pennsylvania-Delaware Division, which met first in 
1924, has been especially active in forming new branches 
throughout the region and in establishing in 1929 by unani- 
mous vote the raising of $30,000 as the division goal for the 
Million Dollar Fellowship Fund — this in addition to the 
$30,000 pledge of the Philadelphia Branch for a fellowship 
in memory of Marion Reilly. 

The Oregon State Division offered for the first time in 
1928 a fellowship of $1200 for study in biology by Laura 
Garnjobst, who by the gift of the fellowship would be enabled 
to complete her work for her doctorate. Miss Garnjobst's 
alternate, who was also named at the awarding of the 
fellowship, was a graduate student in sculpture at the 
University of Oregon. Thus the State Division has recog- 
nized the fine arts as well as the field of pure science as 
subjects for serious study. 

The divisions in the South, like those of South Carolina, 
Tennessee, and Mississippi, find their programs in the grow- 
ing educational needs of the South, especially in rural 
education and in the necessity for state compulsory educa- 
tion laws with adequate enforcement. In Georgia, the 
Division voted at the 1928 meeting to make a survey of the 
preparation of high-school teachers in the State. A state 
survey made in 1924 had shown that only about twenty- 
three per cent of the high-school teachers of Georgia had any 
college training whatsoever. The A.A.U.W. survey of 1929 
showed that only four per cent lacked special training of 

Sectional Conferences 335 

some sort, certainly a remarkable improvement. The lack 
of trained teachers was, moreover, in the view of those who 
cooperated in the survey, due to the low salaries offered, 
and the low salaries were in turn due principally to the lack 
of adequate appropriations. The educational chairman of 
the Georgia State Division thereupon presented a program 
in which all the branches are uniting, first to make a special 
study of their local educational conditions and then to stand 
behind the able and fearless State Superintendent of Edu- 
cation for capitalizing 'the greatest and most genuine 
public interest in education which the State has ever had.' 

The New Hampshire Division, one of the most recently 
organized State Divisions, joined in the summer of 1929 
with the New Hampshire Congress of Parents and Teachers 
in putting on a successful three-day institute in child study 
at the University of New Hampshire, July 10-12. 

In closing the history of the California State Division, 
Florence Herrick Vanderburgh, historian, says: 'The Cali- 
fornia State Division stands between the National Associa- 
tion and the branches in the State. It stands ready at all 
times to help the branches in any way that it can, whether 
with advice in local matters or with help in the carrying out 
of national policies and programs.' In illustration of her 
statement, Mrs. Vanderburgh says: 'The appointment of 
Mrs. Phoebe Hearst as the first woman Regent of the Uni- 
versity of California was the result of the efforts of the San 
Francisco Bay Branch. Recently a continuing committee 
was appointed consisting of Dr. Aurelia Henry Reinhardt, 
chairman, Mrs. E. J. Mott, Mrs. W. W. Douglas, Mrs. 
Edwin Stanwood (the first president of the California State 
Division), to consider alumnae eligible for appointment to 
the Board of Regents. This is to conform with a present-day 
movement in America to have alumni and alumnae repre- 
sentatives on the Board of Regents of such institutions.' 

The Michigan Division in closing its history says: 'The 
Committee on Scholarships and Fellowships was the only 

336 Association of University Women 

one to find each branch had a similar committee formed, 
doing excellent work. In 1922 our organization was expend- 
ing nearly seven thousand dollars each year in loans and 
gifts. Each branch organized since 1922 has offered a scholar- 
ship so that this amount has been greatly increased.' 

The latest State Division to be formed is that of Massa- 
chusetts which met at the Walnut Hills School, Natick, on 
April 26, 1930. 

The work of building up the state organizations has been 
due to hundreds of individual members whose names have 
not gone into the state histories, but whose achievements 
have, nevertheless, been real. The Michigan Division feels 
it has owed most to Fandira Crocker, of the Ann Arbor 
Branch, Wisconsin to Frances Perkins and Alice Wright, 
past and present sectional directors. Oklahoma remembers 
Mrs. George Ransom and Amy Comstock as outstanding 
organizers, as New Hampshire recalls Mrs. William H. 
Schofield. Kansas gives credit to Dr. Ida H. Hyde in the 
old days and Grace Wilkie in the last five years, while the 
North Atlantic Section feels that its state organizations owe 
most to Elizabeth Kirkbride, sectional director. The 
Southern States owe much to the earlier organization of the 
Southern Association of College Women and the leadership 
thus developed. 

The national officers and the national secretaries have 
played a large part in the state organizations. The executive 
secretaries, Gertrude Shorb Martin, Ruth French, Mina 
Kerr, Eleanor Boswell, and Belle Rankin, have made many 
long journeys to foster small beginnings, and the educational 
secretaries. Dr. Frances Fenton Bernard, Dr. Lois Hayden 
Meek, and Dr. Kathryn McHale, have also lent their aid 
and inspiration. Dr. Esther Caukin, the International Rela- 
tions Secretary, has also been tireless in her journeys to 
state and sectional meetings. 

It is obviously impossible, as has been said, for any large 
number of members of the American Association of Univer- 

Sectional Conferences 337 

sity Women to attend a national convention, no matter in 
what part of the country it may be held. The presence of 
national officers at state and sectional conferences goes far 
to make more vital the connection between the smaller units 
and the larger one, and especially through the appeals for 
the Million Dollar Fellowship Fund help to take the 
branches out of a parochial point of view into a national and 
international attitude of mind. 


When the reader has surveyed the history of the A.C A. and 
its successor, the AA.U.W. ; when one has read what has 
been brought to completion through the sectional organiza- 
tions; and when one has read the story of the hopes and 
ideals of the state divisions, one may well feel that the 
greater part of the history of a great organization has been 
completed. Yet none of these organizations could exist 
without the fundamental unit, the branch. The branches 
are made up of the individual members of the Association, 
who, working shoulder to shoulder, do what all the organiza- 
tion in the world could not do — make the aspirations and 
hopes of the educated women of the country bear fruit in 
concrete achievements and actual results. The individual 
member of the national association is a member by virtue 
of the fact that her Alma Mater has been admitted to 
membership in the national association, but she herself is a 
soldier in the army which the national association really is, 
by virtue of her desire to take a part in the campaigns, large 
and small, which have been the program of the national 
association and of the branches for fifty years. The branches 
are the Association and the story of what they have accom- 
plished would fill many a volume.^ Their story, moreover, 
presents in a graphic fashion, a cross-section of American 
life. The branches represent a city like Chicago or a town 
like Iron Mountain (Michigan), or a region like Pomona 

^ It would be a great achievement if each branch of the Association 
could issue as a small volume or as a pamphlet its story from its begin- 
nings to the present. The Boston Branch and the San Francisco Bay 
Branch sent in especially full and significant histories which could be 
used all too meagerly in the present volume. For a list of branches (521 
in all) as of October i, 1930, see Appendix. 

The Branches of the Association 339 

Valley (California), where five towns unite in one group. In 
Vincennes (Indiana) the branch unites nine towns and 
villages roundabout. The Monmouth County (New Jersey) 
Branch serves a whole region, as does the branch in Mon- 
terey County (California). The Concord (West Virginia) 
Branch unites three towns, as does the Illinois-Iowa Branch, 
and in each of these groups the meetings are held in turn in 
each of three centers. Cowlitz County in the State of Wash- 
ington combines the college women of four towns, while the 
Copper Country Branch on Lake Superior has members 
from all the 'Copper Region,' forty-five members in all, 
every one of whom is a member of the national association. 
The historian of this branch says, ' Having a branch up here 
at all in our widely scattered communities is something of 
an accomplishment.' State lines are no barrier, as the 
Illinois-Iowa Branch with members in two States illustrates. 
The same is true of the Fargo-Moorhead Branch uniting the 
borders of North Dakota and Minnesota; and the Marinette- 
Menominee Branch on the border-line of Michigan and 
Wisconsin. The point is that where there is work to be done, 
a branch comes into existence and gathers to itself all the 
like-minded women in the region. 

It is interesting to follow the history of the formation of 
these branches, for as times and conditions have changed, so 
have the impulses which have led to organization changed 
likewise. The branch in Milwaukee (Wisconsin) came to- 
gether to show the community that college training did not 
unfit a woman for either matrimony or society in general. 
The branch in New Haven (Connecticut) arose from a 
desire to assist the women students who came to Yale Uni- 
versity when its graduate school was first opened to both 
men and women. The necessity for work in a community 
that a college or university might raise its standards to the 
point where the A.C.A. would accept the institution for 
membership was a vital factor in the formation of many 
branches, especially those in Texas, Oklahoma, and other 

340 Association of University Women 

States in a region where very few institutions have been able 
to meet the requirements for membership in the national 
association. Sometimes the impulse has been to assist in 
securing a woman's building for the students of a college or 
a university, as was the case at Eugene (Oregon). Sometimes 
a group has been brought together because of a lack of 
intellectual stimulus in the community. In these cases the 
branch has usually set itself to bring lecturers and speakers 
of note to the community, as do the branch at Atlantic City 
(New Jersey) and the one at LaCrosse (Wisconsin), where 
each year a course of lectures has been provided. Oftentimes 
there has been a paucity of entertainments of a high grade 
to offset cheap vaudeville and questionable movies. Branches 
as far removed from one another as Greenwich (Connecti- 
cut), Huron (South Dakota), Hutchinson (Kansas), and 
Iron Mountain (Michigan) have given these reasons among 
those for which the branch was formed. In a number of 
cases, especially in the South, there has been the need of 
working up a sentiment for girls to go to college and the 
branch has set itself to meet the need. Many times a group 
of college women finding themselves rather alone in a com- 
munity, knowing that their college education furnished a 
common meeting ground, have begun the agitation for 
forming a branch. Helen Travis, president of the branch at 
Iron Mountain, Michigan, in telling of the formation of her 
branch, says, ' Does it interest you that the suggestions for 
organization both in this branch and of the branch in Niles 
(Michigan) came to me through the interest acquired in 
membership in the Tacoma (Washington) Branch back in 
1911-14 and through knowing Caroline Humphrey as presi- 
dent of the A.C.A. at Ferry Hall?' The historian of the 
Danville (Illinois) Branch went to Saginaw, Michigan, on 
war work and found her contacts in her leisure hours solely 
through the Saginaw Branch. When she moved back to 
Danville, her old home, she determined that a branch should 
offer to strangers in Danville what the Saginaw Branch had 

The Branches of the Association 341 

offered to her. Once in a while a chapter has been formed by 
an advertisement in a newspaper calling all the college 
women of the community together, as was the case in 
Manitowoc, Wisconsin, in March, 1930. The branch in 
Rochester, Minnesota, was organized through a local group 
composed of teachers, doctors, and those young women who 
were associated with the Mayo Clinic, who met for a larger 
social life which should include the women of the town. 
Where a branch has been formed in this way, the interests 
often continue to be largely social, but the Rochester College 
Women's Club, like many another, has found the necessity 
for study as real as the need for social contacts, and as a 
consequence has organized study groups — in this case a 
pre-school and an international relations group. Pampa, 
Texas, has an interesting beginning. ' Our branch was organ- 
ized January 19, 1928. Pampa has grown from a small town 
of twelve hundred inhabitants to a little city of between 
twelve and eighteen thousand. There were many young col- 
lege women, wives of engineers and geologists whose hus- 
bands had come here with the oil boom. As this was a small 
town with nothing especially to do, we decided to organize 
a college club. We were surprised to find that we had so 
many members and that so many were eligible for A.A.U.W. 
Now we have quite an active branch and the college women 
who are not branch members work with us in all local mat- 
ters. This group set about at once to cooperate in founding 
a public library and to give vocational guidance to high 
school girls, especially seniors, who should ask for it.' 

Once a branch has been formed, if there are leaders in the 
community who are willing to give time, energy, and con- 
structive thought to the place which a branch may occupy 
in a community, the results which through a period of years 
are accomplished become even to the founders themselves a 
matter of amazement and of satisfaction. The place which 
the branch occupies in the community is a matter of gratifi- 
cation again and again. That the local branch of the 

342 Association of University Women 

A.A.U.W. is the most active organization in the city is the 
testimony of Madison, South Dakota, while the fact of 
belonging to the Mankato (Minnesota) Branch 'probably 
means more to its members than membership in any other 
organization in the city.* From the outstanding place which 
the branch occupies comes logically enough the relation to 
other organizations and here the Association, through its 
local units, has played a very large part in adult education.' 
The organization through which the members work in the 
majority of cases are the parent-teacher associations of the 
towns and cities in which the branches are located. This co- 
operation comes about in a number of ways — by opening 
the study groups to members other than college women, by 
furnishing leaders for study groups in the parent-teacher 
associations of the different schools, by organization loan 
libraries for parent-teacher associations, or by a definite 
attempt at the education of parents. This last movement is 
one of the newest and has great possibilities for the future. 
It has come home to many parents that bringing children 
into the world does not necessarily make one an ideal 
mother, nor does marriage necessarily make a man an ideal 
father. With the growing complexity of daily life and the 
changing character of the life in the home, parents have 
become aware of their own need of education and of expert 
assistance on the problems of individual children. These 
needs are being met in such a city as Fresno, California, by 
lectures sponsored by the Fresno Branch. In another Cali- 
fornia city, Visalia, the education committee of the branch 
sponsors and furnishes leaders for a class in parental educa- 
tion conducted with the cooperation of the city superin- 
tendent under the plan of a night school class. The branch 
in Janesville, Wisconsin, sponsors a table of literature for 
parents at the public library, while a meeting for mothers 
forms a part of the regular program. In Hot Springs, 
Arkansas, the president of the combined parent-teacher 
» See Chapter XXVIII. 

The Branches of the Association 343 

associations of the city is a former president of the A.A.U.W. 
Branch who was chosen not only for exceptional experience 
in educational work, but also 'because she is an A.A.U.W. 
member.' The music sections of the Omaha (Nebraska) 
Branch gave in 1925-26 a demonstration of school music for 
the parent-teacher associations of the city which not only 
aroused great enthusiasm, but resulted in very real help to 
the music supervisor of the Omaha schools. The Marshall- 
town (Iowa) Branch and the Monmouth (New Jersey) 
Branch both speak especially of cooperation with the parent- 
teacher associations as a part of their work. As one goes 
through the histories of the branches, one finds again and 
again that the members of the pre-school, elementary school, 
and adolescent education groups become leaders of groups 
in the schools where the children attend, and thus assist 
in meeting problems with which, by virtue of their mem- 
bership in the A.A.U.W., they have become better fitted to 

Not only in the parent- teacher associations, but in other 
organizations the branches have cooperated in every possible 
way. The Norfolk (Virginia) Branch has for a number of 
years held a membership in the Norfolk Chambef of Com- 
merce and has for several years past been a member of the 
Southern Women's Educational Alliance. The Erie (Penn- 
sylvania) Branch cooperates in local work with seven state 
organizations and with four national organizations — all of 
these engaged in educational or welfare work. An over- 
lapping membership of the sort which the Erie Branch repre- 
sents is very common and is often mentioned as an outstand- 
ing feature of the branch, as in Montclair, New Jersey. A 
comparatively new organization of women extending 
throughout the United States, and with international con- 
tacts also, is the Federation of Business and Professional 
Women's Clubs. There is here a very large overlapping of 
membership with the American Association of University 
Women, and of leadership. The chairmanship, for example, 

344 Association of University Women 

of the Committee on Research is headed by Dr. Lillian Gil- 
breth, of the Montclair Branch, the Health Committee is 
under Dr. Olga Stastny, of the Omaha Branch, and the 
Public Relations Committee (in 1927) was led by Thyrsa W. 
Amos, of the Pittsburgh Branch. The A.A.U.W. Branch in 
Portland, Oregon, has members who are prominent in eleven 
of the city's organizations, and has to the credit of the 
branch or to some member the initial impulse to form eight 
different organizations for civic welfare. The Imperial Val- 
ley (California) Branch has been affiliated with the County 
Federation of Women's Clubs as well as with the District 
Federation to which it has furnished presidents and member- 
ship. The organization of the Imperial County Y.W.C.A. is 
due to the branch which also furnished the first president. 
Through the instrumentality of the Y.W.C.A. the Y.W. 
Camp at Hipass was purchased and aided materially by the 
branch. Moreover, the branch was instrumental in procur- 
ing a county school nurse and at Christmas time assists with 
work for the Yuma Indians in the region. The Long Beach 
(California) Branch has furnished the president and a 
member of the Board of Mental Hygiene, while the Social 
Service Committee has cooperated with the city social 
service department. The long list of work which, begun 
by the branches, has been taken over by other organizations 
would fill pages of history. The responsibility which the 
branches feel for furnishing leadership wherever possible is 
an outstanding factor in community life throughout the 

While the branches indicate many times that their pro- 
grams and contacts aim to furnish an intellectual stimulus 
not only to the individual members but to the community, 
it is interesting to see how the programs broaden with the 
growth of the group itself. Beginning with a desire to meet 
women with a similar background of education, the programs 
have grown as, for instance, has that of Charlotte, North 
Carolina, where it is recorded that *as members' interest in 

The Branches of the Association 345 

civic, economic, and world subjects grew, the branch changed 
also.' The branch in Lansing, Michigan, beginning in 1912 
with a deep interest in local educational problems, reports 
that the growth of the branch in numbers and in influence 
has lead to more contacts with state, sectional, and national 
meetings, with the result that 'we have become more 
nationally and internationally minded.' The influence of the 
study groups upon these enlarged contacts and upon the 
enlarged point of view of individual members is an im- 
ponderable but very real factor in the growth of the Associa- 
tion. The branch at Toledo, Ohio, has had a typical history 
in the growth from a college club established in 1900 through 
affiliation in 1914 with the A.C.A. down to the present 

It is interesting [says the historianl to note the awakening and 
development of civic consciousness and the growth of altruistic 
endeavor The aspirations of our numerous committees for muni- 
cipal betterment embraced a wide range, even from the artistic pos- 
sibilities of Toledo's skyline to the amelioration of the expectoration 

nuisance It was with a sense of profound relief that we at length 

discovered our own appropriate work and settled down to its ex- 
clusive furtherance. A lecture committee and a scholarship com- 
mittee were added to our equipment. We set about maintaining a 
college scholarship, deriving funds from an annual course of three 
parlor lectures which served the double purpose of encouraging 
hampered ambition and establishing a new center of intellectual 
light in the community. . . . With the aid of a few outside gifts we were 
able to assist at one time as many as six girls at Oberlin College. 

Thus one branch after another testified to this increasing 
appreciation of the educational function of the branch, 
although other interests according to local conditions are 
often the outgrowth of a more limited beginning. 

The sense of belonging to a community to which one owes 
a definite responsibility is often the result of an individual 
point of view but it is fostered well-nigh universally by 
attendance at a college or university which regards itself as 
a part of and a leader in the community, the State, and the 

346 Association of University Women 

Nation. The historian of the Toledo Branch voiced th<$ 
development of this point of view when she said : * 

Social service is of two kinds, remedial and preventive. Some one 
has used the figure of a precipice: We can take care of all those who 
go over the edge, or we can build a fence to keep them from falling. . . . 
Now this preventive and precautionary work, the study of causes, 
the tracing of evils to their sources and their elimination at the root, 
should be the work of college women as a group; any effort to such an 
end should appeal at once to their intelligence, and to it the whole 
weight of their concerted opinion should give determined support. 
Every group of these women, in every city, should have an active 
civic committee, constantly investigating, reporting, urging better 
conditions, supporting and cooperating with all organizations pro- 
moting the same ends It was these considerations which led to 

the appointment of a Civic Committee of the Toledo Branch.... 
Our biggest effort is toward some provision for the segregation of the 
feeble-minded. We are assisting the Bureau of Juvenile Research 
in taking a census of the feeble-minded in the State. This we do by 
collecting, through various agencies, lists of cases, which are turned 
over to the State Psychologists for examination. Our hope is that 
the facts as to the prevalence of feeble-mindedness will force the 
legislature to take action. 

Second: We have joined with several organizations in requesting 
the City Welfare Department to make an investigation and census 
of prostitution in Toledo. 

Third: We have expressed to the Teachers' Association our will- 
ingness to use our influence to further any social service or social 
center work in the public schools. 

Fourth: We have established a Volunteer Social Service Bureau 
to which new graduates may apply, and by means of which they 
may be brought in touch with the social agencies employing vol- 

The civic work of the branches has been an outstanding 
factor in every part of the United States. The branches in 
Michigan have been working for years for a woman's re- 
formatory, as yet in vain. But they have not yet given up 
the fight, regarding their failure rather as a challenge than 
as a disappointment. The branch at Atlantic City, New 

^ The history sent by the Toledo Branch is a real sociological document 
of unusual quality. 

The Branches of the Association 347 

Jersey, as an outgrowth of the war took the initiative in 
forming a council of women's organizations of the city whose 
first president was a member of the branch. The Austin 
(Texas) Branch founded their city Ubrary, while Conway, 
Arkansas, initiated the movement for a county library at 
which the branch is still working and has also assisted a rural 
school to obtain its library. The branch at Kenosha, Wis- 
consin, was primarily responsible for putting the city man- 
ager plan into operation in the community. The Cowlitz 
County (Washington) Branch conducted a Saturday story- 
hour for children four to twelve years old. Pullman, Wash- 
ington, records its most outstanding activity as the children's 
library originally begun in 1922 and opened for three years 
only during the summer. The use of the books proved so 
valuable to the community that in 1925 the branch was 
opened throughout the year, a place secured in the Chamber 
of Commerce room, a book drive was held, money collected, 
and in 1927 a committee from the Pullman Branch appeared 
before the City Council and secured without difficulty an 
appropriation of three hundred dollars a year. At that time 
the library was moved to a suitable room in a modern store 
building, which was fitted with furniture, draperies, maga- 
zine racks, and pictures, while a capable young woman was 
employed to take charge of the library. *The children who 
have been coming all these years are now in high school and 
are calling for a library equipped with books to meet their 
needs. The parents are also asking for books for themselves. 
We hope that this need will be met and that the library will 
be enlarged into a city library with adequate funds managed 
by a committee of representative citizens. The library is still 
(in 1929) directed entirely by the branch.' 

The branch in San Jos6, California, opened a children's 
«*oom in the San Jose Library as its first undertaking, with 
the result that a county library was established with a 
trained librarian — all this before 1910. Corvallis, Oregon, 
through its branch assisted in the cataloguing of the city 

348 Association of University Women 

library and purchased the nucleus of the children's library. 
Fairmont, West Virginia, gave effective help in securing the 
city library, as did the branch in Fairmont, Minnesota, half 
a continent away. When the Girl Scouts on the Iron Range 
in Minnesota instituted a circulating library, the branch at 
Hibbing began a practice, still continued, of sending books 
and magazines for use there. The international relations 
study group at Lewiston, Idaho, began a collection of books 
and pamphlets for their public library because of the neces- 
sity for literature which their own study developed. The 
branch in Washington, D.C., gave to the Junior High School 
of that city books on vocational guidance with a book plate, 
both in memory of Alice Deal. Huron, South Dakota, began 
a collection of books of progressive education for use by the 
city, while the library of current literature maintained by 
the branch for the use of its members is a part of the program 
at Commerce, Texas. Here the branch belongs to the Book- 
of-the-Month Club and the Literary Guild. A loan library 
of modern fiction is maintained by the Crystal Falls (Michi- 
gan) Branch. A most distinctive library is in the clubhouse 
of the University Women's Club in Los Angeles, California, 
in the shape of a sociological library unit. 'An important 
announcement of June 25, 1926, concerned the gift of $1500 
from the Los Angeles Settlement Association for the creation 
of a Sociological Library unit — $500 in the form of books 
and equipment, and $1000 in endowment. As this Associa- 
tion was the child of the original A.C.A. branch of 1892, the 
gift, presented by three members of both the early and pre- 
sent branches — Mrs. Nathan Weston (Wellesley), Miss 
Mary Bingham (Smith), and Miss Amanda Mathews Chase 
(California) — held peculiar significance.' In 1927, books 
were added to the library with especial reference to modern 
poetry, and thus a basis was formed for an enjoyable Round 

Work for libraries leads to work for theaters, another 
outstanding piece of work by several branches. The Ash- 

The Branches of the Association 349 

land Press, of Ashland, Wisconsin, in an editorial (1927) 

We cannot help but commend the local chapter of the American 
Association of University Women for sponsoring and putting across 
the 'Little Theater' movement in Ashland. It certainly is a worth- 
while thing and the way they are doing it is still more worth while. 
This afternoon they are giving 'The Sleeping Beauty' and 'The 
Fisherman and His Wife.' Both are beautifully done, well costumed 
and altogether enjoyable. 'The Three Bears' and 'Little Black 
Sambo' will be the next offering on Saturday afternoon, March 5. 
The plays are given in the High School auditorium and all school 
children are invited to attend. The plays are kept strictly to the 
text and the beautiful fairy stories are unfolded in a most pleasing 
manner. It cannot help but have a most uplifting influence on the 
children and offset, to a certain degree, some of the blood and thun- 
der they absorb at the ' movies.' We bespeak for the movement the 
heartiest cooperation from one and all. 

Many branches have had the Tony Sarg or the Jean Gros 
Marionettes, notably the branches in Idaho, at Lewiston and 
Pocatello, and the branch at Warrensburg, Missouri. The 
branch at Salida, Kansas, sponsors the Marionettes, and the 
children from the rural schools of the county are invited as 
well as the children of the city schools. Nor has the theater 
movement been confined to that for children. One of the 
earliest branches to encourage interest in dramatic produc- 
tions by its members was that of Columbus, Ohio, where in 
1904 there was given Maeterlinck's 'LTntruse.' The branch 
'ran the gamut from Miracle Plays and Masques to Gaelic 
plays and modern German drama.' The Schenectady (New 
York) Branch has brought to the city plays of the best type 
while the drama groups in many branches have led to a 
'Little Theater' movement in the city where the branch is 
located. The Little Theater in Fresno, California, began 
with about twenty women who came together in 1921 to read 
plays which the members had written. The first public per- 
formance was given February 15, 1923, with a program of 
three one-act plays. From these beginnings developed the 

350 Association of University Women 

Fresno Players with a membership of nearly eight hundred 
members who have a sum of twelve hundred dollars toward 
a building project upon which they have set their hearts. 
Among the more important Little Theaters in the country 
is one at Portland, Oregon, another at St. Joseph, Missouri, 
another at Charlotte, North Carolina, another at Bingham- 
ton, New York, and one less known, but no less vigorous, at 
Iron Mountain, Michigan. All of these as well as the Little 
Theaters at Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Winona, Minnesota, were 
sponsored by the local branches. 

A number of cities have found that something must be 
done to raise the quality of the movies to which children go 
in such great numbers. Saturday mornings have often been 
chosen as a time when a children's movie could be shown 
without interfering with the income which the movie owners 
regard so highly. The branches at Ardmore and Oklahoma 
City, Oklahoma, have both sponsored Saturday morning 
movies, as Eugene, Oregon, has for a number of years. Junc- 
tion City, Kansas, has provided suitable movies for children 
at different times. In 1915 the Kansas City (Missouri) 
Branch 'began supervision of movies so successfully that 
information about the method used was sought by com- 
munities in many parts of the country.' The report signifi- 
cantly adds, 'This work was taken over by the Council of 
Mothers and by Parent-Teacher Associations as well as by 
the Women's City Club.' In Los Angeles, the University 
Women's Club has a motion-picture committee which pub- 
lishes monthly a list of current pictures with comments 
regarding their suitability or non-suitability for children of 
various ages. This club (which is the Los Angeles Branch) 
has secured the active cooperation of the Academy of Motion 
Picture Arts and Science by means of which the privilege of 
previewing pictures enables the branch to be of greater 
service in recommending movies than could possibly other- 
wise be the case. Better movies have also been sponsored 
and provided especially by the branches at Lansing, Michi- 

The Branches of the Association 351 

gan, Rome, Georgia, and Wichita, Kansas. The Kansas City 
(Missouri) Branch for a number of years staged a play or a 
pageant until other organizations took over that particular 
piece of work. The branch in Manhattan, Kansas, as a part 
of its program brings at least once a year to the community 
some outstanding production such as 'The Beggars' Opera' 
or 'The Denishawn Dancers.' Joplin, Missouri, considers its 
drama study groups its most important one, while Kenosha 
and Madison, Wisconsin, are also especially proud of theirs. 
One of the first pieces of international work done by any 
branch was in Seattle, when in 1906, as guest of honor at a 
reception, the newly formed branch entertained Madame 
Sarah Bernhardt, then appearing in drama in the city. 

Closely allied to the theater are the fine arts, and here the 
work in many branches is new. Women's clubs have for a 
long time sponsored music and art sections with more or less 
success, but the development of an interest in the fine arts 
has been, save here and there, a rather recent development, 
so far as the American Association of University Women is 
concerned. In the Indianapolis Branch many years ago the 
group assisted in establishing the Art Institute of that city, 
and as early as 1897 the Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) Branch 
took fifteen dollars from a total treasury balance of $15.75 
to assist in the collection of pictures for a local gallery. The 
Ozark Branch (Springfield, Missouri) has for many years 
held an annual art exhibit. The Portland (Oregon) Branch, 
under the direction of Mrs. J. C. E. King, organized the 
School Beautifying Committee which later became the 
School Art League. The Vermillion (South Dakota) Branch 
landscaped and took care of the space in front of Dakota 
Hall at their state university, while Ardmore, Oklahoma, 
has sponsored the teaching of art in the public schools. The 
branch at Eugene, Oregon, has laid aside one thousand dol- 
lars toward the new fine arts building at the University of 
Oregon. The San Diego (California) Branch from 1926 to 
1928 raised money to buy twenty-three prints, paintings, 

352 Association of University Women 

and other pictures for the San Diego Art Gallery. The 
Columbus (Ohio) Branch long ago provided the initiative 
for schoolroom decoration, while the Washington (D.C.) 
Branch in its early years had a study group on early Italian 
art. The branch at Wausau, Wisconsin, sponsored in 1927 
three lectures on modern art by Professor Oskar Hagen of 
the University of Wisconsin. One of the latest pieces of work 
of the San Francisco Branch is the sponsoring and initiating 
of a fine arts program for study and for community con- 
sideration. In 1927, the movement resulted in provision for 
special fine arts courses in the University of California sum- 
mer session. The Women's University Club of Los Angeles 
makes more of its art section than almost any other branch. 
When Ken Nakazawa was in 1929 the guest lecturer on 
Oriental art at the University of Southern California, he lec- 
tured on Japanese art at the University Women's Club. In 
the same month in which Mr. Nakazawa spoke, an art 
exhibit of Daisy M. Hughes was hung in the clubrooms, while 
a branch meeting at the same time provided a program of 
music by a Russian singer accompanied by a Russian pianist, 
both of whom were for the moment in Hollywood. 

The development of music as an interest of the branches is 
also for the most part recent. Several branches have a music 
section, notably Spokane, Washington. The branch in 
Madison, Wisconsin, has a music committee which furnishes 
an occasional Sunday afternoon program given especially for 
those graduate students who are members of the branch. 
The branch at Seattle has aided the symphony orchestra 
of that city every year, not only by furnishing memberships, 
but in various other ways. The Long Beach (California) 
Branch has done the same thing. The University Women's 
Club of Los Angeles has a musical tea in May of each year. 
The Fond du Lac (Wisconsin) Branch, which was really the 
sponsor for the Fine Arts Committee of the A.A.U.W., has 
had for years a fine arts branch of its own.* 

« See Chapter XXVIII. 

The Branches of the Association 353 

Turning from the fine arts to other types of civic interest, 
one finds a widespread interest and a varied program in what 
is known as Americanization work. With the great influx of 
immigrants from foreign countries into the United States, 
especially in the last twenty-five years when newcomers 
have tended to concentrate in cities rather than to betake 
themselves to the rural sections of the country, it has been 
a problem as to how these newcomers might become assimi- 
lated and within a few years be helpful in their new homes, 
especially in civic afifairs. The branch in San Jos^, Cali- 
fornia, like many other branches, began its intensive work 
at the time of the war when through its suggestion and 
appeal the board of education appointed home teachers to 
carry American ideals and education ' into the homes of our 
new and future citizens.* The work proved profitable and 
successful and became a part of the civic work of the city. 
The branch in Syracuse, New York, gives an informal party 
once a year for all women who have received their naturaliza- 
tion papers during the past twelve months and has found 
therein pleasure, profit, and education for the members of 
the branch as well as for the newcomers. The Beloit (Wis- 
consin) Branch, formed in 1914, found its early wcJrk in the 
Americanization program for the Sicilian and Greek families 
who had come to be industrial workers in the city. Fresno, 
California, which organized its branch in 1916, immediately 
formed an education section for the purpose of obtaining 
definite information about the Fresno schools. Throughout 
the whole of California the problem of assimilation of 
Chinese and Japanese is, of course, an especially difficult and 
challenging task. Separate schools are usually maintained 
for the Oriental children, although this is not always the 
case. The Fresno Committee in 191 7 presented to the city 
the need for kindergartens with the result that two kinder- 
gartens were established in that year. The next year the 
International Institute Committee was formed and the 
following year the Day Nursery Committee, with the result 

354 Association of University Women 

that the Fresno Branch in 1923 set itself more definitely 
under its Social Service Committee to work with Japanese, 
Russian, German, Italian, and Mexican women and girls 
who resided in the city. In 1925, classes to teach English to 
Japanese women were formed, and ever since that time the 
branch has cooperated with the Board of Education and 
other organizations in work with foreign-born women and 
girls in the city. In Greeley, Colorado, the branch has inter- 
ested itself in the ' House of Neighborly Service ' for Spanish- 
speaking residents of the city, not only contributing some- 
what to its support, but until 1929 one of the members of the 
branch lived in the house and was in actual charge of the 
work, while in 1930 a member of the branch was president of 
the board. The Omaha Branch early in its history began to 
work for a social settlement in Omaha where representatives 
of different nationalities should be helped to adjust them- 
selves to the community. By 191 8, the settlement was estab- 
lished 'because its members had worked tirelessly, persist- 
ently, and intelligently for its promotion. Members of the 
A.C.A. taught classes and helped in many other ways.' Ever 
since that time the branch has maintained a settlement com- 
mittee through which help has been given in volunteer 
teaching, in Americanization work and on the board of 
directors of the settlement. The branch at Poughkeepsie, 
New York, has combined Americanization and scholarship 
work in an interesting and valuable way by providing a 
scholarship to be given to some graduate of the local high 
school whereby she might attend Vassar College. In 
1927-28, three hundred dollars was given a girl of Hungarian 
parentage highly recommended by the local high school. ' It 
has been an interesting experiment in Americanization as 
well as by providing education, for the recipient was awarded 
the scholarship for the second year and became a person of 
interest to the entire membership.' 

Although the branches of the A. A.U.W. cooperate with 
many organizations, there is perhaps none with which the 

The Branches of the Association 355 

members are more closely associated than with the work of 
the local Young Women's Christian Associations. This close 
integration between the two organizations is largely because 
of the work which the Y.W.C.A. does for young girls through 
the Girl Reserves and for women in industry through their 
Business Girls' Club. The Y.W.C.A. in Greenwich, Con- 
necticut, was established largely in response to the arous- 
ing of public sentiment by the branch in that city. The 
Y.W.C.A. built in 1915-17, in San Jos6, California, had as 
its most ardent worker and founder a member of the San 
Jos6 Branch — Ruth Laird Kimball. The Imperial County 
(California) Y.W.C.A. owes its inception to the work of the 
Imperial Valley Branch, which not only provided the neces- 
sary interest, but furnished the first president and later aided 
materially in purchasing the Y.W.C.A. Camp at Hipass. 
The Branch in Indianapolis, Indiana, began nearly twenty 
years ago a sustaining membership in the local Young 
Women's Christian Association. The St. Paul College Club 
was asked a number of years ago to aid in the International 
Institute of the Y.W.C.A., and in response help was given by 
members recruited from the branch who taught in the night 
schools of the city under the board of education. The 
branches at Pocatello and Lewiston, in Idaho, report a close 
association with the local Y.W.C.A., the former contribut- 
ing for a few years to the Y.W.C.A. Girls' Camp. Pomona 
Valley, California, has furnished outstanding women to the 
Y.W.C.A. work. The branch in Stillwater, Oklahoma, im- 
mediately upon its organization early in 1923, set to work 
to aid the local Y.W.C.A. in securing a permanent secretary 
who should be of assistance to the girls at the Agricultural 
and Mechanical College. The branch also at this time 
worked for a city nurse and doctor. The branch in Duluth, 
Minnesota, began in 1912 the work of securing homes and 
assistance for girls in the high schools and in the normal 
school who needed such aid, continuing this work until the 
Y.W.C.A. and the schools themselves took it over. 

356 Association of University Women 

The Boston Branch began many years ago a Community 
Service Committee which has had a most interesting evolu- 
tion. Out of the work of this committee grew the Housing 
Committee, which not only did local work of high character, 
but also provided leadership and research for the National 
Committee on Housing of the A.A.U.W.' The Chadron 
(Nebraska) Branch, located in the midst of a large agricul- 
tural community, in 1924 aided other local clubs in equip- 
ping a municipal rest-room in Chadron, while the branch in 
Spokane established a rest camp as one of its projects, and 
the Pipestone (Minnesota) Branch furnished a room in the 
new community hospital. Sweet Briar, Virginia, through its 
branch gave in 192 1 a play, the proceeds of which went to 
support the county supervisor of health, and the next year 
gave the proceeds of a similar play to the Amherst County 
Health Association. From this grew its management of 
'Amherst County Day' inaugurated in the spring of 1922 
at the request of the late Emilie Watts McVea, then presi- 
dent of Sweet Briar College. On 'Amherst County Day' the 
people of the whole county are invited to come to Sweet 
Briar College, to bring picnic lunches and to spend the day. 
Prizes are there awarded for essays submitted to the com- 
mittee by pupils of the county schools. Prizes are also 
offered for orations by high-school students, for athletic 
events, for chorus singing, for group games, and even for 
better babies! In the spring of 1928 the speaker of the day 
was the Governor of Virginia. 

Many of the branches have sponsored the movement for 
a community nurse, for example, that in Fulton, Missouri, 
and a number of branches report their Community Chest 
Fund Association for the welfare and character building 
agencies of the community as the outgrowth of a social 
service committee of the A.A.U.W. This was especially true 
in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The Moscow (Idaho) Branch took out 
a membership in 1927-28 in the Chamber of Commerce of 

» See Chapter XV. 

The Branches of the Association 357 

the city and through this channel sponsors the welfare work 
of the community. The Missoula (Montana) Branch twenty 
years ago placed a list of reliable boarding-places in the 
depots of the city, and fifteen years ago the Milwaukee 
Branch, through a committee, inspected rooming and 
boarding-houses (particularly those where women lived), 
and provided a graded and classified list which was posted in 
the Y.W.C.A. and other places. Beginning with that year 
the Milwaukee Branch has held a membership in the 
Central Council of Social Agencies through which it has 
worked — at one time compiling the first directory of 
philanthropies in the city. Five years ago, through one of 
its members, an investigation was made of conditions in the 
county jail. The San Francisco Branch has a splendid record 
of civic work which is too long to be cited here.^ Other 
branches such as San Jos6, California, report their assistance 
in the Anti-Tuberculosis Association. Many branches have 
either inaugurated or continued work of the Consumers' 
League, notably the Minnesota Branch and the Indiana 
Branch, which list this achievement as one of their earliest 
endeavors. In the days when college settlements were new 
the Omaha Branch began its work as did the branch in 
Washington, D.C. The Los Angeles Branch and the branch 
at San Diego, California, list this work as a part of their 
yearly program for a number of years. The Spokane (Wash- 
ington) Branch was responsible for the summer camp near 
that city and also furnished a few years ago a room for 
children at the Hutton Settlement. 

Those branches which are situated in the capitals of the 
different States, have provided membership for the legisla- 
tive councils which meet in the years when the legislatures 
are in session. These legislative councils use the members of 
the branches of the A.A.U.W. to keep a special watch over 
educational measures which are presented to the legislature 

' See Chapter VII. San Francisco has published its branch history 

358 Association of University Women 

and to attend committee hearings, watch amendments, etc. 
Sometimes these local branches act as representatives for 
all the branches in the State as is the case with the Tulsa 
(Oklahoma) Branch, the Olympia (Washington) Branch, 
the Rhode Island Branch in Providence, and the Indian- 
apolis (Indiana) Branch. Thus the branches have locally an 
imponderable but important part in the educational legisla- 
tion of the different States.^ 

In the development of the United States — a development 
which has of necessity been uneven — the most conservative 
field has been, as in other countries, that of law. To bring 
statutes and legal concepts up to the level of the institutions 
and needs of the day has always been one of the most diffi- 
cult tasks before any government or group of citizens. In 
the development of the last generation in the United States, 
no group has demanded public attention and effective legis- 
lation more insistently than has that of the children. As a 
consequence, children's codes have been studied and pre- 
pared, often largely by social workers, for presentation in the 
legislatures of the different States. One of the pioneers in 
this work was the State of Nebraska, where a member of the 
Lincoln (formerly the Nebraska) Branch, Margaret Thomp- 
son Sheldon, was largely responsible for legislation often 
used as a model for other States. Mrs. Sheldon, who had 
been an extraordinary organizer and administrator during 
the World War, was appointed by the Governor of Nebraska 
as a member of the Children's Code Commission in 1919. 
This commission submitted to the State Legislature a 
printed report of a program of legislation and administration 
in the interest of Nebraska children which Owen Lovejoy in 
the hearing urged because he considered it the best of any 
State or country. In the winter of 1928-29 the Children's 
Code of Wisconsin was passed largely through the efforts of 
Mary Peckham Gross, a member of the Milwaukee Branch, 
and of Marie Kohler, a member of the Sheboygan Branch 

« See Chapters XVI and XXV. 

The Branches of the Association 359 

and president of the Wisconsin State Conference of Social 

A child guidance bureau has proved a necessity in many 
cities. The city of Washington, D.C., through its branch 
raised in 1923 five thousand dollars to help to pay the salary 
of a teacher to give psychological tests. As a result a psychi- 
atrist was added to the staff of the medical department of 
the schools, the branch contributing toward the salary of 
this new officer. The branch is now sponsoring vocational 
guidance and has brought to Washington a lecturer for a 
course on child guidance. The Waco (Texas) Branch has 
also been especially interested in child guidance. The branch 
in Greeley, Colorado, brought to the city in 1928-29 an 
outstanding psychologist. Dr. Franklin B. Ebaugh, of the 
Psychopathic Division of the Denver General Hospital. The 
class, to which a ten dollar fee was paid by each member who 
joined the class, was made up largely of members of the 
A.A.U.W. Branch. Out of this undertaking grew a county 
clinic in mental hygiene conducted in connection with the 
Psychopathic Division of the Colorado General Hospital. In 
Hayes, Kansas, the branch worked to rouse interest leading 
to the securing of a public health nurse and a full-time public 
health physician. An elective course was introduced into the 
Birmingham (Michigan) high school as a result of the local 
branch's bringing Dr. Rachelle Yarros, of Chicago, with her 
film on sex hygiene to show to a thousand school children 
and their mothers. 

The question of infant mortality has been for many years 
a grave concern both for the Federal Children's Bureau and 
for local communities. The Beloit (Wisconsin) Branch in 
1916 did a pioneer work in conducting a baby census with 
resulting recommendations for other organizations to follow. 
The creche at Buffalo, New York, has already been described 
as a pioneer movement.* In 1910, the Fall River (Massachu- 
setts) Branch opened a day nursery because of pressing 

» See Chapter VII. 

360 Association of University Women 

needs in a textile center like Fall River. From small begin- 
nings the branch moved forward, securing valuable property, 
house, and land, with an endowment of thousands of dollars, 
'all paid for by hard work of every member of the branch, 
which also composes the entire board of managers.* One bed 
in a day nursery was supported for several years by the 
Omaha Branch. The Baby Clinic at Madison, Wisconsin, 
was assisted in its beginnings by the Madison Branch, and 
a member of the branch. Dr. Dorothy Reed Mendenhall, has 
been an outstanding worker ever since the clinic was organ- 
ized. A similar enterprise in Junction City, Kansas, is due 
to the local branch. The Lincoln (Nebraska) Branch began 
medical examinations in the public schools in 1 910 to check 
trachoma, with the resulting establishment of a health and 
hygiene department in the Lincoln public schools. The 
A.A.U.W. Branch assists in conducting the examination of 
pre-school children at Blackwell, Oklahoma, and at Chadron, 
Nebraska, while the Fresno (California) Branch tli^ough 
sponsoring such examinations was instrument?:! in the 
establishment of a health center. The San Francisco Branch 
has for many years done a superb piece of service through a 
similar committee. In 19 10, the Certified Milk and Baby 
Hygiene Committee of the branch was organized to work in 
conjunction with the Associated Charities. Sub-committees 
were formed around San Francisco Bay, and the Panama- 
Pacific Exposition, through demonstrations of baby feeding 
and baby welfare clinics in cooperation with the United 
States Children's Bureau, educated tens of thousands of 
visitors to the Exposition. Among its treasured possessions 
the branch holds a silver medal from the directors of the 
Panama-Pacific Exposition for its collaboration with the 
exhibit of the Federal Children's Bureau. The educational 
film, 'Motherhood,' which the Baby Hygiene Committee 
prepared, was purchased by the National Red Cross for use 
in France and was later used in Australia. Through this 
committee well baby clinics have been established, a survey 

The Branches of the Association 361 

made on the causes of maternal and infant mortality, a 
course outlined and equipped in home nursing and care of 
babies for girls of junior-high-school age, a birth control and 
maternal health center established, as well as the first cardiac 
center for examination and reference of school children. The 
pure milk movement was begun in Huron, South Dakota, by 
the local branch. The Omaha Branch in 1928-29 aided the 
milk and lunch fund of the public schools to the extent of a 
gift of fifty dollars. Often the branch sponsors public health 
work throughout the county, as for example, in Hot Springs, 
Arkansas, and in the Imperial Valley, California. The 
Ozark Branch (Springfield, Missouri) helped to make pos- 
sible the employment of a city school nurse, while the San 
Diego (California) Branch arranged in 1926 an evening 
course of eighteen lectures on child problems for the institu- 
tional workers of the city, in which the heads of various 
children's homes in the region were especially interested. 

In remedial work for children the branches have also 
assisted ; for example, the Seattle Branch was a large factor 
in securing a satisfactory juvenile court for that city. The 
administration of what passed for such a court was in the 
period 1909-12 far from satisfactory. The branch set itself 
to work to secure the retirement of an undesirable probation 
officer and the appointment of one better qualified. At the 
invitation of the judge of the superior court, the branch set 
forth in writing suggestions as to improvements in the han- 
dling of juvenile cases, chief among which was the appoint- 
ment of a judge especially qualified for work with children, 
whose primary care should be such cases. By September, 
1 9 14, not only had several of the desired reforms been put 
into operation, but a committee of the branch laid before the 
county commissioners of that year an endorsement of the 
appeal for an appropriation for a new detention home for 
wayward and neglected children. The committee was able 
at the close of that year to report an appropriation of 
$35>ooo for this vitally necessary purpose. The juvenile 

362 Association of University Women 

court in Detroit owes its inception to the Detroit Branch, 
and a number of branches are interested in the introduction 
of mental tests and the aid of a psychiatrist before cases are 
finally disposed of by the judge who has juvenile cases in 

The Aberdeen (South Dakota) Branch through its Service 
Committee has for several years collected magazines to be 
given to children quarantined with contagious diseases. The 
Ripon (Wisconsin) Branch has constantly cooperated with 
the school nurse and in one case purchased glasses for a 
needy child. The Sheboygan (Wisconsin) Branch conducted 
a preliminary survey which was followed by a successful 
clinic for crippled children in the city, a clinic which had an 
especially far-reaching community effect, for as a result the 
city established in the vocational school a department for 
the education of crippled children with a teacher and a 
physio-therapist in charge. The branch at Jefferson City, 
Missouri, contributes regularly to the state fund for crippled 
children, while the Omaha Branch several years ago gave 
nearly forty-five dollars from its war fund to pay for spec- 
tacles needed by school children. The University Women's 
Club in Los Angeles in 1920 gave active support to the 
orthopedic hospital and school and formed an auxiliary to 
the Crippled Children's Guild. The Portland (Oregon) 
Branch became especially interested five years ago in a 
special correction clinic which was opened in the city under 
the direction of a member of the Portland Branch. The 
branch at Spokane furnished for more than two years a 
teacher at the juvenile detention home, a piece of work 
which was followed by the furnishing of such a teacher by 
the board of education. 'This was a splendid piece of con- 
structive work, as the children gathered in the dingy court- 
room through no fault of their own were forced to remain 
there day after day without instruction of any kind until the 
Spokane Branch saw the need and were responsible for the 
furnishing of a teacher. A victrola was also placed in the 

The Branches of the Association 363 

detention home.' The Stanislaus Branch in California, with 
its headquarters at Modesto, has sponsored a clinic for 
crippled children which it considers one of its outstanding 
pieces of work. The branch at Pocatello, Idaho, discovered 
that the children in a school of correction were not being 
furnished any magazines, whereupon the branch voted to 
send new magazines until such time as the State Legislature 
should provide reading material for the children. This work 
was continued for several years with the fund totalling ulti- 
mately nearly two hundred and fifty dollars. 

Turning to more specifically educational work, the de- 
sirability of kindergartens and nursery schools has been 
apparent to A.A.U.W. members for a number of years. One 
of the first activities of the Fresno Branch was the sponsor- 
ing of a kindergarten, and the branch at Eugene not only 
sponsored the city kindergarten, but in the beginning par- 
tially financed it also. The branches at Amarillo, Texas; 
Ardmore, Oklahoma; Hiawatha and Independence, Kansas; 
and Keokuk, Iowa, were responsible for working up senti- 
ment for kindergartens, and in large measure for their ulti- 
mate establishment. The branch at Lewiston, Idaho, was 
directly responsible for the opening in September, 1925, of 
the first and only kindergarten at that time in existence in 
the whole State. The Shenandoah (Iowa) Branch through 
its pre-school study group carried on a six-weeks' kinder- 
garten for pre-school children, underwritten by the branch 
in the beginning, but ultimately paying for itself. Nursery 
schools have been established also by the branches at 
Canyon, Texas, and Kenosha, Wisconsin. In the latter case 
the chairman and inspiration of the child study group of the 
Kenosha College Club, Mabel Ellis Fogwell, fostered and 
directs the Fogwell Nursery School. The Amarillo (Texas) 
Branch employed a full-time worker in the Amarillo Day 
Nursery until the salary of the worker was included in the 
Community Chest Fund. The branch at Kalamazoo, Michi- 
gan, helped equip a nursery school and for three years has 

364 Association of University Women 

maintained a scholarship in it. The college club at Mont- 
clair, New Jersey, contributed one hundred dollars to the 
local nursery school, while the Pocatello (Idaho) Branch 
started a pre-school child school which was carried on later 
under private management. The nursery school at Missoula, 
Montana, was the direct outgrowth of work by a committee 
of the branch in 1924 which had in mind the establishment 
of a pre-school laboratory. The University of Montana co- 
operated in every way through its physical education and 
psychology departments, and the project which began in 
January, 1925, with Mrs. W. T. Williams as director, has 
been a notable factor not only in the branch but in the 
university as well. The branch members arranged the work, 
taught the classes, financed and conducted a day school for 
children of pre-school age in Grand Forks, North Dakota. 
In connection with the nursery school and kindergarten 
movement may also be classed the toy exhibits which have 
been sponsored by many different branches, notably Inde- 
pendence, Kansas; Fort Worth, Texas; Indianapolis, In- 
diana ; Poughkeepsie, New York; and Spokane, Washington. 
Although the branches through the provision for nurses, 
libraries, health clinics, educational movies, and better 
teaching, have manifested their interest in elementary- 
school education and elementary-school problems, the 
achievements have not been perhaps so outstanding as have 
those for the pre-school child and for the high-school group. 
Yet the Jacksonville (Illinois) Branch has 'worked for all 
things pertaining to the betterment of its elementary school 
system even to securing representation on its governing 
board.' In 191 3 the San Francisco Branch inaugurated the 
school survey of San Francisco schools, a work extending 
over two years and resulting ultimately in a charter amend- 
ment reorganizing the school department of the city. Other 
branches have members on the boards of education and in 
that way are able to cooperate in the betterment of the 

The Branches of the Association 365 

Many branches have sponsored the Girl Scout movement, 
especially the San Diego (California) Branch, while others 
stand back of the Girl Reserves (which are afHliated with the 
Y.W.C.A.), notably the branch in Fresno. Similar organiza- 
tions, such as the Camp Fire Girls, enlist the interest of 
branches, especially at Portland, Oregon ; Billings, Montana; 
Edmond and Ponca City, Oklahoma. 

High-school girls receive aid from the branches in very 
specific cases — for example, the branch at Quincy, Illinois, 
was largely instrumental in getting a new high-school build- 
ing. The branch at El Paso, Texas, has a student loan fund 
which is loaned to needy students in the city of El Paso 
and in El Paso County. Through gifts and the raising of 
money in all sorts of ways, this fund was in 1929, $21,000, 
of which $300 was loaned in a single scholarship. Mrs. 
Charles A. Kinkel, founder of the El Paso Branch, was also 
the founder of the El Paso Loan Fund, and it was largely 
through her efforts that the management and distribution 
of the fund were perfected. The branch is now assisted in 
the management of its fund by a board of trustees selected 
from 'our most philanthropic citizens.' In Rome, Georgia, 
in 1923, a house was rented and furnished as a clubhouse for 
girls who lived in the county and wished to attend the high 
school in Rome. The county demonstration agent was 
hostess and the girls kept house on a cooperative basis, thus 
reducing the cost of living very materially. Five girls, who 
would otherwise have been obliged to leave school, were 
enabled to complete their course, while a number of others 
were helped, not only to continue at school, but also in 
standards of living by life in the house. After two years of 
experience the county supplied transportation to and from 
school so that the need for the clubhouse ceased. The work 
has been continued, however, by the Big Sister Fund, 
whereby money is loaned to girls to enable them to continue 
their education and when returned, is loaned again. The 
Saginaw (Michigan) Branch has from time to time had 

366 Association of University Women 

appeals from high-school girls who could not without aid 
finish their high-school course and were given the needed 
assistance at the right moment. The same policy has been 
followed by the branch at Shenandoah, Iowa. 

Many other branches interest themselves in high-school 
girls, oftentimes by entertaining girls about to graduate 
from the high school. The Amarillo (Texas) Branch formed 
in the high school a Junior University Club by which girls 
were stimulated to better scholarship and to a greater inter- 
est in continuing their education. The Birmingham (Michi- 
gan) Branch has a college information bureau for junior and 
senior high-school girls. A tea is given for girls and their 
mothers at which a talk on higher education is made and 
arrangements for personal conferences with girls and their 
mothers are provided. The branch has also a small library 
on higher education for girls and keeps a file of college 
catalogues for reference. Kenosha, Wisconsin, has a similar 
plan. The Lincoln County (Maine) Branch, centered at 
Damariscotta Mills, endeavors to interest girls as soon as 
they enter high school in the possibility of a college course, 
'so that they will take the college preparatory courses and 
not regret later on that they did not prepare in time.* The 
Billings (Montana) Branch has paid part of the expenses of 
delegates to the state high-school girls' conferences, thus 
enlarging the contacts of the local school. The Kansas City 
(Missouri) Branch gives an annual party to all girls going to 
college from public, parochial, or private schools. Some 
branches have worked for the establishing of courses specifi- 
cally adapted to girls: for example, the Greenwich (Con- 
necticut) Branch was largely influential in establishing both 
domestic science and physical training in the Greenwich 
public schools, and thousands of miles away the Missoula 
(Montana) Branch worked twenty years ago to get depart- 
ments of domestic science in both high school and state 
university. In Norfolk, Virginia, an annual college-day 
program for local high-school girls has been a feature of the 

The Branches of the Association 367 

branch work. Dramatic sketches showing scenes from col- 
lege life, a talk on 'Why Go to College?' by an outstanding 
speaker from a near-by college, and in 1928, through the 
cooperation of a moving-picture theater, films furnished by 
the colleges were shown for a week. 

Prizes are often offered to high-school girls. Kansas City, 
Missouri, has for a number of years made an annual gift of 
books to the senior girl in each of the city high schools who 
has the highest standing in her academic work. The Middle- 
bury (Vermont) Branch offers every year a prize to the boy 
or girl in the sophomore class of the local high school who 
has shown the greatest improvement over the work of the 
freshman year. Every June the Central Pennsylvania 
Branch presents a scholarship medal to the student in each 
class in the local high school who has the highest standing. 
Several Missouri high schools (Webb City, Neosho, Baxter 
Springs, and Joplin) offer each year a five-dollar prize to the 
best all-around girl in the graduating class. The Carthage 
(Missouri) Branch offers a prize for good citizenship. The 
branch at Wausau, Wisconsin, offers a scholarship every 
year to the outstanding girl in the senior class of the local 
high school, the award being made at the commencement 
exercises in June. The same plan is followed at Racine and 
Sheboygan, Wisconsin. In Tacoma, Washington, the branch 
has for many years made an annual award to the senior girl 
of each of the city senior high schools who on recommenda- 
tion of a faculty committee is recognized as outstanding 
in scholarship, student activities, and womanliness. In 
1927-28, the College Women's Club (which is the A.A.U.W.) 
in Rochester, Minnesota, purchased a silver cup to be pre- 
sented annually to a girl in the senior class of the Rochester 
High School who best displayed qualities of character, 
leadership, and fine scholarship. In Sapulpa, Oklahoma, the 
most outstanding activity of the branch, 'as it has affected 
the community, has been the founding and continuation of 
our annual honor prize of one hundred dollars to a high- 

368 Association of University Women 

school girl senior to be used for work in an accredited college 
or university.' In preparation for the award of this prize, 
the branch gives an annual tea for all girls in the high-school 
senior class, not only making a pleasant social affair but also 
giving an opportunity for an explanation of the purpose and 
requirements of the honor prize. Following this explanation, 
the members of the branch give personal interviews to the 
girls present at the tea and 'have thus set a precedent to 
which the girls look forward from the moment they enter the 
high school.' The Rhode Island branch of the A.A.U.W. 
centered in Providence, Rhode Island, has had thirty-six 
years of history. Beginning with the purpose of assisting the 
president of Brown University to secure adequate facilities 
for the education of women in that institution, the branch 
assisted not only in the building of Pembroke Hall, the first 
building of the women's college of Brown University, but in 
maintaining for some time a scholarship for a Rhode Island 
girl studying in that institution. For many years the high- 
school girl graduates of the State with their mothers were 
entertained annually at Pembroke Hall, where after an 
address of welcome the college girls acting as ushers showed 
their guests about the buildings and gave them a glimpse of 
student athletics and recreation. Another phase of the same 
work was the placing of college catalogues in every high 
school in the State, and for a few years the offering of a 
fifteen-dollar prize to that high-school girl who should write 
the best essay on the subject, 'Why Go to College?' 

Turning now to work for girls in industry, the branch In 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in 191 3 established 'The Girls' 
Club,' a club and home for girls earning small salaries. The 
original amount raised was $5000. A house was rented and 
occupied for seven years. In 1920, the branch raised $7500 
toward the purchase of a larger house which after a few years 
became self supporting. The branch has been most fortu- 
nate in having the girls' club sponsored through all these 
years by two members of the branch, Gertrude Ross and 

The Branches of the Association 369 

Caroline Murphy, with a committee who work with them, 
all of whom are elected by the branch from its own member- 
ship. The value of this property, which is free from debt, 
is now $38,567.47.^ 

Within the last ten years a movement has arisen, in which 
Bryn Mawr College was a pioneer, for maintaining summer 
schools whose membership should come from girls in in- 
dustry. The Bryn Mawr alumnae were naturally among the 
earliest to be interested in the project which has, however, 
spread to other similar schools which have since been estab- 
lished, notably that at the University of Wisconsin. The 
Kansas City (Missouri) Branch gave a $ioo scholarship to 
help a young woman attend the Bryn Mawr school. The 
Rhode Island Branch in 1922 gave a twenty-five-dollar 
scholarship for the same purpose as did the Minneapolis, 
Montclair, St. Paul, and Tacoma Branches. The Milwaukee 
Branch gives an annual scholarship of $125 to enable a young 
woman to attend the summer school of industry at the 
University of Wisconsin. The Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania) 
Branch has since 1926 contributed $200 annually to the 
Bryn Mawr summer school scholarship fund. The branch at 
High Point (North Carolina), as well as the branches at 
Rochester (New York), and Kalamazoo (Michigan), Supe- 
rior (Wisconsin), and Seattle (Washington) enumerate these 
scholarships as among the regular activities of their branch. 

The branch in Bennington, Vermont, began its coopera- 
tion with the Vermont 'Better Schools Association' in 
1923-24. In the fall of that year the branch entertained the 
rural teachers of the county. Three years later, the branch 
presented pictures to two rural schools which had won prizes 
for the greatest improvement during the year. In 1928, the 
branch raised money for assisting to restore a rural school 
which had been swept away by the flood of that year. Inas- 

' In addition to this girls' club the Milwaukee Branch owns its own 
college women's club valued at nearly $125,000 and has a scholarship 
fund of more than $6000. 

370 Association of University Women 

much as when the fund was raised the need no longer existed, 
the money was transferred to the scholarship fund of the 
branch. Chadron, Nebraska, four years ago began the 
donation of magazines to rural schools and also bought and 
filled emergency kits for first aid which were sent to all the 
rural schools in the county. The Conway (Arkansas) Branch 
in 1926-27, by putting on a program in the rural school 
fifteen miles from Conway, aided the formation of a school 
library to the amount of more than forty dollars. The 
branch in Hot Springs, Arkansas, paid expenses for two 
high-school girls in order that they might prepare for teach- 
ing in rural schools and were especially commended by the 
county superintendent of schools for their effective coopera- 
tion so concretely expressed. In Virginia, the branch at 
Petersburg reported in 1928 that its particular program was 
sponsoring a movement for rural libraries. In Texas the 
branch in Georgetown felt its most vital project was 'to 
establish a point of contact between the rural women of 
Williamson County and the Georgetown women to aid the 
county superintendent in creating favorable sentiment for 
the county unit plan of rural schools.' 

The work for young women attending colleges and univer- 
sities has been one of the most appealing for many branches. 
This need has in some cases led to the formation of a branch, 
while in other cases it has been one of its continuing interests 
and has often held a branch together when otherwise the 
need for its existence in the community might not have been 
clear. For instance, the Connecticut Branch in New Haven 
was formed first to secure dormitory facilities and social 
opportunities for the young women just admitted to the 
graduate school of Yale University. The Boston Branch 
records a most valuable piece of work done a few years ago 
by the Housing Committee of the branch under the chair- 
manship of Mrs. Percy Bolster, in investigating and en- 
deavoring to safeguard living conditions for women students 
in the city. The branch at Ann Arbor, Michigan, has always 

The Branches of the Association 371 

stood back of the need for dormitories, physical education 
facilities, and social centers for the young women of the 
university, contributing to the Michigan League Building, 
which was opened in 1929, more than $7200. The Battle 
Creek Branch worked also for the Michigan League building 
as did the branch at Jackson, which paid $200 to the fund. 
The Huron and Vermillion (South Dakota) and the Eugene 
(Oregon) Branches report work for similar projects, while 
the branches in Madison and Superior, Wisconsin, have 
assisted in the cooperative houses at the University of Wis- 
consin, where young women reduce materially the expenses 
of their college course and may live. The College Women's 
Club of New Brunswick, New Jersey (a branch of the 
A.A.U.W.), gave ten years ago a gift of more than $500 
to the New Jersey College for Women, thereby becoming 
one of the founders of the college, while another gift of $500 
has been since given in memory of Helen Searle, who was 
largely instrumental in founding the branch. This second 
gift was the nucleus of the ' alumnae-student aid fund,' which 
has proved to be of great value to the college. The Connecti- 
cut Branches were instrumental in helping the Connecticut 
College for Women in its early days, both by money and by 
moral support. The branch in Lincoln, Nebraska, was in- 
strumental in securing a dean of women for the University of 
Nebraska many years ago and has at different times labored 
for a better status for women members of the faculty of the 
university. Further effort on behalf of dormitories for 
women led to the purchase of sites for such buildings during 
the ten years, 1916-26. Since most state universities do not 
provide dormitories for graduate women the College 
Women's Club conducted by the branch in Madison, Wis- 
consin, gives preference in assigning rooms to graduate 
students in the University of Wisconsin who become tempo- 
rary members of club and branch by a fee of only five dollars 
a year. The Chicago Branch has carried on a unique work, 
wholly in accord with the original purpose of the Association 

372 Association of University Women 

of Collegiate Alumnse, in giving financial aid to women who 
were candidates for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and 
who were through lack of funds unable to complete the 
necessary research. 

Student loan funds are a project of so many branches that 
it is impossible to cite them all, Ponca City, Oklahoma, a 
branch organized only in 1922, has already assisted ten girls 
in college by a loan fund which in 1929 amounted to $1700. 
The branch at Fresno, California, has an excellent system of 
loaning money, as has the Illinois-Iowa Branch at Daven- 
port, Moline, and Rock Island. The branch in Norfolk, 
Virginia, had in 1929 a loan fund of $1500 which was loaned 
to college girls who by their high-school or college work had 
proved themselves of superior ability and fine character. In 
the seven years before 1929, the club had aided twelve girls, 
one of whom went to a state teachers' college, another to a 
local business school, where through her course in steno- 
graphy she was able to meet her own college expenses, and 
still another was reported as making a fine record as a stu- 
dent at the College of William and Mary. The branch at 
Sioux City, Iowa, gives an annual Christmas tea for the 
undergraduate girls at home from the various colleges for 
the holidays, with the result that the branch is tremendously 
stimulated by meeting these eager and enthusiastic young 
college women. The Stanislaus (California) Branch finds 
homes and work for junior college girls in Modesto who need 
such assistance. The branch in Milwaukee has for many 
years maintained a scholarship given in a competitive 
examination to a girl who makes the best record, and in one 
case at least was given her tuition in an eastern college for 
her four-year course. The branch at Little Rock has ob- 
tained guarantees of $1000 a year for ten years to furnish 
scholarships for girls going to Eastern colleges as well as 
$400 a year for a scholarship to be used in the State of 
Arkansas. In addition to these funds, one member of the 
branch was instrumental in obtaining a gift of $600 a year 

The Branches of the Association 373 

for four years for scholarships to be awarded to college 
students of advanced standing in Wellesley, Smith, and 
Randolph-Macon Colleges. The branch in Montclair, New 
Jersey, which affiliated with the A.A.U.W. in 1928 secured 
from two members in the following year $600 to make pos- 
sible a year's study at Grenoble University in France 'for 
one of our most gifted college girls, a junior at Smith who 
in a competitive examination won the honor of being a 
member of a group of juniors who should spend the year 
1928-29 in study at Grenoble.' A member of this branch 
also gave aid over a period of four years ($1000 in all) to a 
student in the New Jersey College for Women, while the 
branch in Mountain Lakes, New Jersey, gave in 1928-29 
two scholarships for use at the same college. The branch in 
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, in the first year of its existence, 
1921-22, sent three girls to the State University of Okla- 
homa, the second year six girls, the third year six girls, and 
in the fourth year aided ten girls who were allowed to choose 
their own colleges. In 1929, the branch still had their ten 
girls in college, either in the State University, in the Agri- 
cultural College at Stillwater, or in the Oklahoma College for 
Women in Chickasha. The branch in Ripon, Wisconsin, 
began in 192 1 the raising of the Mary C Harwood Memorial 
Scholarship Fund of $2000 to be loaned in sums of $100 to 
promising senior girls in Ripon College. In 1928, a second 
scholarship fund of $3000, honoring Mrs. Clarissa Tucker 
Tracy, was inaugurated to be administered in gifts of $150 
to local high-school girls for the purpose of paying their 
tuition during their freshman year at Ripon College. The 
St. Louis Branch has throughout the years supported about 
$2000 annually in scholarships. The branch has a record of 
149 scholarships given to the amount of $30,202, and 76 
loans made to the amount of $12,286.50, a total of loans and 
scholarships in its thirty years' history of $42,488.50! The 
branch at Joplin, Missouri, was in 1929 aiding one girl at 
the University of Arkansas and another at the Kansas State 

374 Association of University Women 

Agricultural College. The branch had also aided by loans 
and other assistance the entire college course of one girl at 
the University of Missouri. In the years 1923-29, this 
branch had loaned money to six students, three of whom 
had already paid back the loans in full. Literally thousands 
of dollars, probably about $25,000 a year, is given by the 
branches of the A.A.U.W. to college and university students 
to help them in their work. The branches report that their 
scholarship and loan fund work is one of their outstanding 
achievements and a permanent interest. 

The work for foreign students, who come from all corners 
of the world to enjoy the advantages of American study, is 
not a new project, although the last ten years have given it 
an added impetus. For example, the branch in Indianapolis, 
in a report to the Association of Collegiate Alumnae in 191 7, 
outlined its project for bringing a young girl from South 
America to give her a four years* course in a North American 
college. The branch hoped ' to contribute its share toward 
a better understanding and closer sympathy between the 
Republics of North and South America by this project,' 
The Omaha Branch in 191 8 gave $25 for a Latin -American 
scholarship. When the young women from France came as 
students from 1918-20 to colleges in the United States, 
many branches assisted these young women in adjusting 
themselves to conditions here. The North Dakota Branch 
(in Grand Forks) raised funds for two French women stu- 
dents to spend their junior and senior years at the University 
of North Dakota. The funds raised were sufficient to pay 
all the expenses of these young women, who obtained their 
bachelor's degrees and have to-day positions of responsibility 
in American colleges. The branch in Northfield, Minnesota, 
gave each year, from 19 18 to 1920, $300 as a scholarship to 
a French girl who was a student at Carleton College. The 
branch at Vermillion, South Dakota, provided scholarships 
for two French students in 1920-21. The branch at Iowa 
City, Iowa, has for a number of years cooperated with the 

The Branches of the Association 375 

University of Iowa Young Women's Christian Association 
and with the University itself ' to give students from other 
countries a more comfortable social position.' Individual 
members of the branches in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and 
Madison, Wisconsin, have made the same effort as have the 
branches in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Lansing, Michi- 
gan. The Philadelphia Branch has had 'an especial concern 
for the care of foreign students who come to study in the 
colleges in and around Philadelphia.' The branch at Pull- 
man, Washington, cooperates with the State College in 
entertaining the Cosmopolitan Club composed of students 
from other lands. Mrs. E. R. Vanderslice, a member of the 
Lansing (Michigan) Branch, in 1922, on her own initiative 
arranged for the entertainment in homes of the city during 
the holiday vacation all the foreign students in the Michigan 
Agricultural College. The following year, Mrs. Vanderslice 
persuaded the local branch to take over this work and as 
state chairman of international relations for the A.A.U.W., 
the idea soon spread to other cities in Michigan. With the 
cooperation of the Lansing Chamber of Commerce, foreign 
students are also entertained in Lansing in the spring, when 
they are taken on a special trip of inspection to tshe chief 
industrial plants of the city, and social gatherings are 
arranged for their pleasure. About two hundred young men 
and women from other lands attending various Michigan 
colleges have thus enjoyed the hospitality of the Lansing 
Branch, ' exclusive of the members of the Cosmopolitan Club 
of the Michigan State College who have always shared in 
these meetings.' The historian of the branch writes, 'We 
feel that this is one definite way in which we can give for- 
eigners a better understanding of American home life and 
ideals and to secure for ourselves a more sympathetic know- 
ledge of the people of other lands.' The branch in Ames, 
Iowa, which was established in 191 8, has each year since its 
organization made itself responsible for a share of all ex- 
penses (board, room, fees, and books) of at least one foreign 

376 Association of University Women 

woman. Besides meeting such expenses, the branch assumes 
personal interest in the holder of the scholarship, taking care 
of her through holidays, advising and helping out in the 
matters of personal necessity, small gifts and entertainment. 
The list of over ten young women thus aided by this branch 
ranges from a graduate student who went as a chemist to the 
Pasteur Institute in Paris, to a graduate student in agricul- 
ture who assisted in reclamation work in France until her 
marriage. Another of the branch's prot6gees studied me- 
chanical engineering and went into drafting v/ork in an 
aviation factory just outside of Paris until her marriage. 
Still another graduate of a New Zealand college studied 
home economics and chemistry at Ames and went to the 
faculty of the University of Washington in Seattle, while 
another is now dietitian in a hospital in Warsaw, Poland. 
Yet another, who had been secretary to Dr. Alice Mazaryk 
in Prague, after studying clothing and fabrics from the 
standpoint of hygiene, returned to her native country to 
make use of her studies in Red Cross work. Another student 
thus helped at Ames was from Esthonia. The branch in 
Spokane, the Rhode Island Branch at Providence, and the 
branch in Worcester, Massachusetts, also keep in especially 
close touch with students from foreign countries. 

The branches of the Association sometimes interest them- 
selves in new courses of study for college girls. The unique 
course in occupational therapy which is given at Milwaukee- 
Downer College was the result of several factors, one of 
which was the interest of the Milwaukee Branch in the 
handicapped people who through the branch's membership 
in the Council of Social Agencies came to their notice. The 
branch in Ithaca, New York, stood back of the movement to 
make the Department of Home Economics in the College of 
Agriculture, which is a part of Cornell University, develop 
into a College of Home Economics, with a dean at its head. 
A comparatively new field of work for high schools and col- 
leges is that of vocational guidance. The problem of those 

The Branches of the Association 377 

boys and girls who leave school too early has been remedied 
after a fashion by the compulsory education laws of the 
several States, which when enforced not only assist in the 
eradication of a child-labor problem, but also make neces- 
sary longer and better training for future wage-earners. The 
variety of occupations for which boys and girls can be 
trained is still thousand-fold, in spite of the tremendous de- 
velopment of machine manufacture. The tragedy of an 
ineffective life is often due to ignorance as to the possibilities 
for which one is fitted by nature and prepared by education. 
The branches of the A.A.U.W. have, therefore, sponsored 
both vocational guidance in high schools and colleges, and 
vocational conferences held as an introduction to vocational 
guidance or as a substitute for a better-organized program. 
The Omaha Branch has a particularly fine achievement to 
its credit. The Oklahoma City Branch through its vocational 
committee each spring assists senior girls in high school who 
are considering what their vocation after graduation shall 
be. The same program is followed by San Antonio and by 
Grand Forks, where the conference is open to both college 
and high-school girls. Pueblo, Colorado, has interested 
itself in the same project, as have La Crosse, Wiscousin, and 
Waterloo, Iowa. A pioneer in the work was the Ohio Valley 
Branch (now the Cincinnati Branch), which in 1913-14 
began its interest in vocational guidance and published a 
bulletin on the subject in 1917. Columbus, Ohio, was 
aRother pioneer along the same lines. The branch in Great 
Falls, Montana, secured a department of vocational guid- 
ance in the high school through its influence with the school 
board. The Illinois-Iowa Branch sponsors a vocational 
guidance meeting annually at which senior girls of all the 
high schools in Moline, Rock Island, and Davenport are 
entertained, and a talk is given on some phase of vocational 
training. The State University of Oklahoma began its 
vocational conferences through the local branch, as was the 
case at the University of Wisconsin, where Katherine S. 

378 Association of University Women 

Alvord," working through the Madison Branch of A.C.A., 
and, through the University Y.W.C.A., provided in 1912 the 
first conference at the University. The branch in Northfield, 
Minnesota, has sponsored a vocational conference for both 
college and high-school girls, as have the branches in Orono, 
Maine, and in Waukesha, Wisconsin. 

Perhaps the outstanding piece of work in this field belongs 
to the branch in Chicago, Illinois, where the local branch, 
through its work in juvenile vocational guidance, was re- 
sponsible for a committee of the national association. In 
January, 1911, the Chicago Branch furnished a delegate to 
the Juvenile Protective Association. In April of that year, 
three clubs, the A.C.A., the Women's City Club, and the 
Chicago Women's Club gave seventy-five dollars each for 
the employment of a trained investigator to discover just 
what opportunities were offered to boys and girls of fourteen 
in the down-town district of Chicago. Ella A. Moore, vice- 
president of the Vocational Supervision League of Chicago, 
furnished for the Journal of the A.C.A. in June of 191 7, a 
detailed report of the work which had just been taken over 
by the city board of education. Following Mrs. Moore's 
report there was appointed by the National A.C.A. a com- 
mittee on juvenile vocational supervision of which Mrs. 
Moore was made chairman.* Although this committee, 
owing to the close of the war and the rise of vocational guid- 
ance throughout the country, made no outstanding report, 
nevertheless the Chicago Branch itself has aided in carry- 
ing on the work to the present time through scholarships 
and in other ways. 

Another thing that many branches do, when they are 
located in cities or towns where there is a college or univer- 
sity, is that of interesting senior girls in the work of the 
A.A.U.W. This is done sometimes by means of a tea or 

' Since 19 15 Dean of Women at DePauw University. 
' Mrs. Moore died in 1924, whereupon the work she inaugurated fell 
to the lot of others, notably Katharine P. Pomeroy. 

The Branches of the Association 379 

other social gathering given by the branch or by the presence 
of a representative of the branch at a senior supper or 
banquet. The national headquarters in Washington pro- 
vides literature for such a presentation and the seniors are 
thus made aware of the opportunity of which they may 
avail themselves in connection with their first teaching 

Nor is it entirely with schools, school children, high-school 
girls, girls in industry, and college and university students 
that the branches concern themselves. The teachers in the 
public schools find the branches of the Association one of 
their greatest aids to adjustment in a new position and to 
friendships and intellectual interests outside of their work. 
The branch in Whittier, California, each year has a buffet 
supper with a program following to which all the teachers 
in the city are invited — those in the college, in the public 
schools, and in the state school for boys. The branch at 
Pipestone, Minnesota, gives an annual reception to the 
teachers in the public schools as do many other branches. 
The Sequoia Branch of Visalia, California, meets the new 
teachers in the fall and through its Housing Committee helps 
them to find places to live. The branch in Conway, Arkan- 
sas, assumed responsibility of petitions which the branch 
circulated in Conway and adjoining rural districts whereby 
the Conway district could be an enlarged special district 
with more money and the possibility of becoming an *A* 
grade high school. The Kansas City (Missouri) Branch 
assists teachers by means of scholarships in order that they 
may take summer school courses. The branch in Little 
Rock, in January, 1924, obtained subscriptions of $1000 to 
send to the Sorbonne for the study of French an outstanding 
high-school teacher — Myrtle Charles, who became in 1929 
president of the Arkansas State Division of the A.A.U.W. 
Miss Charles returned in June of 1925 with her Sorbonne 

The problem of teachers' salaries is one that has interested 

380 Association. OF University Women 

a number of branches. For instance, the Seattle Branch 
in 19 1 7-1 8 championed the cause of the women teachers of 
their city in a demand for equal pay with men for equal 
services, after the school board had discriminated against 
women in granting to men a salary increase of twenty-five 
dollars a month. The branch in Birmingham, Michigan, by 
a petition was able to get the teachers' salaries of that city 
raised, and the branch in Buffalo, New York, is working 
to-day on the same problem for the teachers in the public 
schools and in the state normal schools. The branch at 
Kenosha, Wisconsin, has a particular piece of work to its 
credit. A few years ago the school board proposed a dis- 
crimination against married women as teachers in the public 
schools. The Kenosha Branch 'sprang to arms,' and after a 
conference with the city attorney in which it was proposed 
to have a ruling from the attorney-general of the State of 
Wisconsin with regard to the application of the 'Equal 
Rights Law' to this local situation, the school board quietly 
withdrew the form of contract it had proposed. So varied 
has the work of the branch at Olympia (Washington) been 
for the teachers and the schools that the superintendent of 
the city schools, in 1927, said, 'This is the first time any 
organization in this city has come forth to help the schools 
earn money for their needs.' The branch regards as one of 
its two greatest achievements the cooperation 'effectively 
with that greatest of public services, the schools, so as to 
assist them in earning an extremely liberal and unusual 
increase in their own funds.' 

Closely allied to such material aid for teachers, for 
students, and for the schools themselves is such a project 
as a state elementary education conference which the branch 
in Kalamazoo sponsored in that city. The program was 
arranged by the superintendent and supervisors of the 
Kalamazoo public schools, and although the conference 
was attended by a comparatively small group of women 
from outside the city, nevertheless the program was so 

The Branches of the Association 381 

instructive and constructive that its influence was immedi- 
ately felt in other parts of the State in a renewed and more 
intelligent interest in the problems of the elementary- 

The branches sometimes undertake research projects. 
Long ago the Washington Branch carried through a piece of 
research on the economic efficiency of college women. The 
San Francisco Branch made an extraordinary survey of the 
city schools which led to striking changes in the administra- 
tion and conduct of the school system of that city. The 
branch at St. Louis, Missouri, made a survey of the city 
charities and a second survey of the educational needs of 
the city. The relation of the Milwaukee Branch to research 
in the city philanthropies has already been mentioned. The 
branch in Pullman, Washington, is at present making a 
state-wide survey of women with advanced degrees. In 
Tulsa the branch made a street-trades survey of the city, 
in which they were aided by the Children's Bureau at Wash- 
ington. As a result the legislative committee of the Tulsa 
Branch was. In 1928, working for an ordinance regulating 
the age and hours of work of newsboys. The Brattleboro 
(Vermont) Branch made a survey of living conditions of 
high-school girls who were working for their board. The 
Hibbing (Minnesota) Branch did a piece of research on 
reasons why high-school girls leave school before completing 
their course. This branch was stimulated to this survey by 
the fact that 'we have a very special problem due to the 
large percentage of children of foreign parentage and also 
because so many of the mines close in winter, throwing the 
miners out of work. ' A committee of the Los Angeles Branch 
is working at present on a survey in order to better serve 
their Mexican fellow citizens. The branch at Missoula, 
Montana, organized, in 1909, through the efforts of Caroline 
Cushing Dunlway, a former member of the California 
Branch and a later Sectional Director of the Northwest 
Central Section, began at the outset a study of child labor 

382 Association of University Women 

conditions in Montana and followed up the problem with 
research on state laws pertaining to health of children, the 
problem of epileptics in the State, and the conditions at the 
state penal and charitable institutions. The branch at 
Ames, Iowa, made a local study of the relationship between 
salary and qualifications of the teachers in the public schools 
of the city. All Kansas branches have cooperated in a survey 
of rural schools, as have the branches in Texas, the branches 
in Oklahoma, and the branches in Vermont. Ten years ago, 
Mrs. Maurice Deutsch with a committee made a survey of 
the opportunities for women in educational work in the 
State of Nebraska. As a result of that report, the women 
members of the faculty of the University of Nebraska were 
put on a more nearly equal footing with men. This short 
survey does not exhaust by any means the research projects 
of the branches, but is merely a list of some of the principal 

A number of branches maintain clubhouses and from the 
centers which these buildings provide radiate the varied 
work of the branches. The club and headquarters in Wash- 
ington, D.C., could not have been inaugurated when they 
were had it not been for the interest, the time, the money, 
and the devotion of the Washington Branch. This branch 
is organized as the National Club, under which name it oper- 
ates the clubhouse for the A.A.U.W. It rents the first two 
floors and a portion of the third floor for club purposes and 
manages the rental of the bedrooms for the national asso- 
ciation. The Philadelphia Branch and the College Club 
long existed side by side, but have now united forces and 
thus the Philadelphia Branch has a clubhouse, comfortable 
and most useful, not only for its members, but for the dis- 
tinguished guests whose names made their guest book a very 
significant one. The University Women's Club of Los 
Angeles is the local branch of the Association. The club- 
house is enriched by two libraries, one a sociological col- 
lection, the other a small memorial library which is the gift 

The Branches of the Association 383 

of Nora Hussey , and is a sort of ' browsing-room * in addition 
to the regular library. In 1928, a fine loan collection of 
books of general literature, which had been a part of the 
library of a member, Isabella Worth Harper, was added to 
the already unusual resources of the Los Angeles Club's 
library. The Milwaukee Branch maintains a college club 
with a separate dormitory in which at an unusually low 
price young college women who are working in Milwaukee 
can live. The College Women's Club of Madison, Wiscon- 
sin, is an historical house in the city, where graduate 
students and teachers find a home and the members of the 
branch and their friends a recreational center. The Minne- 
apolis Branch has its College Women's Club, as have 
St. Louis, the East Bay Branch (on San Francisco Bay), 
and Baltimore. College clubs in other cities like those in 
Boston, Chicago, and Cleveland are not branches of the 
A.A.U.W., but have grown up alongside the branch, often 
largely for social reasons. It is hoped that before many 
years have elapsed all of the college clubs in the country 
may be branches of the Association. The Association has 
national and international contacts which college clubs 
as such do not have, and it would be to the advantage of 
both the college clubs and the branches if the work of the 
two could in these cities be united. 

Growing out of, and sometimes in connection with, the 
clubhouses have come the intercollegiate bureaus of occu- 
pations which are discussed elsewhere.^ But it may not be 
amiss here to remind the reader that the Intercollegiate 
Bureau of Occupations in Chicago was begun by the 
Chicago Branch; that the one in Philadelphia was a child 
of the Philadelphia Branch and College Club; that the in- 
terest of the Los Angeles Branch through its president, 
Mary Putnam, led to the development of the Vocational 
Bureau which was later taken over by a similar agency. 
The Omaha Branch operated a woman's industrial ex- 

« See Chapter XVII. 

384 Association of University Women 

change, which was taken over a number of years ago by the 
women's clubs of the city. The Denver Bureau, the Kansas 
City Bureau, and others were begun either by a branch of 
the A.C.A. or some member of the branch. 

Financial statements which the branches of the A.C.A. 
and A.A.U.W. have been able throughout the years to make, 
show receipts and expenditures of hundreds of thousands of 
dollars. The older branches enumerate among their early 
gifts those to the Woman's Table of the Zoological Station in 
Naples, Italy. Many of the early branches supported this 
project, notably those in Rhode Island, Boston, and Pitts- 
burgh. Many branches made gifts to the Alice Freeman 
Palmer Memorial Fellowship. There is a long list of con- 
tributors to the Mme. Curie Fund which the A.A.U.W. as- 
sisted in raising ten years ago. Gifts to foreign students, to 
Oriental colleges, to Crosby Hall, to the University of Lou- 
vain, to Kobe College in Japan, for the support of French 
and Belgian orphans, for Near East relief, for the categories 
of war enterprises — all these find their place in financial 
statements, long or short, of the branches of the Associa- 
tion. Besides are the great gifts for scholarships and loan 
funds mounting into hundreds of thousands of dollars. The 
branches which maintain clubhouses have the largest 
amount of invested funds. The Milwaukee Branch, with 
its clubhouse and its girls* club and its invested funds, has a 
total of at least a quarter of a million in investments and 
buildings. The St. Louis and Minnesota Branches estimate 
that they have about $25,000 invested in their clubhouses, 
with scholarship and loan funds outside of these property- 
holdings. The question rises in one's mind, 'How is all this 
money raised?' The answer is, *ln every way that human 
ingenuity can devise.' The methods range all the way from 
individual gifts to sponsoring plays and lectures, providing 
luncheons for alumni associations, holding art exhibits or 
displays of historical relics and antiques, giving dancing- 
parties and card-parties, arranging 'rummage' sales, food 

The Branches of the Association 385 

sales, sales of everything under the sun, giving bridge les- 
sons, taking over the dining-room of a hotel, or a store or a 
theater for a day, and sharing in the proceeds. These are a 
few of the ways in which the money has been raised. 

One cannot leave the subject of finance without a mention 
of the sums of money which the San Francisco Bay Branch 
raised in its forty-four years of existence. All records of the 
branch from 1886 to 1906 were destroyed by the San Fran- 
cisco fire, but since that time a few items are significant. 
For the school survey undertaken in 1913-15, the Educa- 
tional Committee raised from its own funds $1300 for the 
preliminary survey by the branch committee itself and 
$8500 to finance the complete survey made by the United 
States Department of Education. The San Francisco 
Chamber of Commerce contributed $1500 toward the 
$8500 fund, but the balance of the contribution was raised 
in sums from fifty cents to $100. In 1919 and 192 1, in the 
two campaigns necessary to secure the charter amendment 
for reorganizing the school board of the city, the committee 
of the branch again raised sums of approximately $5000 and 
$4000 each. The branch itself made one contribution of 
$100, and its members contributed almost to a member. 
The work of the Baby Hygiene Committee calling for a 
budget of $5000 annually is now entirely financed by the 
San Francisco Community Chest, but the work at the begin- 
ning was financed by the branch. The branch has, more- 
over, invested funds of $3000. To the San Francisco Branch 
the national association owes in a way one of its greatest 
debts, for Marion Kinney Brookings as chairman of the 
Washington Fund and a life member of the San Francisco 
Branch, was the person who did most to raise the money 
for the Washington headquarters in the campaign which 
closed successfully in 1927. 

Through Margaret Blaine, for some years its president, 
the Boston Branch did an outstanding piece of work in the 
raising of a large sum of money in aid of Crosby Hall, the 

386 Association of University WomeM 

proposed hall of residence for university women coming to 
London for advanced study or research. The American As- 
sociation of University Women had voted to raise one 
thousand pounds to endow a room in the Hall. Miss Blaine 
was appointed chairman of the American Crosby Hall 
Committee. The project came at a time when the branches 
of the Association of University Women were making every 
effort to raise the funds needed for the Washington head- 
quarters. Miss Blaine and her committee could therefore 
appeal to the members only to a limited extent. They se- 
cured a distinguished honorary committee, headed by Mrs. 
Calvin Coolidge, which, through educational, historical, 
antiquarian, or international interests, would be sympa- 
thetic in the cause. Through a working committee located 
in different parts of the country, letters were addressed to 
the presidents and deans of all colleges in the Association, 
requesting that the matter be brought to the attention of the 
undergraduates, to the presidents of alumnae organizations, 
and to individuals to whom such an object might well ap- 
peal. So successful was this work that the sum desired was 
raised by the spring of 1924, and forwarded to England; 
while a second contribution followed in July, 1927, in time 
for the formal opening of Crosby Hall. The two sums ag- 
gregated $10,000, endowing two rooms instead of one. 

And who are the members of the branches? They are the 
women represented on boards of regents of universities, 
boards of trustees of colleges, church boards, library boards, 
boards of education, boards of Young Women's Christian 
Associations, boards of all sorts of clubs, art galleries, and 
other civic enterprises. They are the women who are patron- 
esses for lectures, musical entertainments of all sorts, lec- 
tures of every kind, and all worth-while intellectual and 
artistic entertainments in their cities or towns. They are the 
women who cooperate with other organizations, losing them- 
selves in work which others sometimes direct. They are the 
women whose names appear in 'Who's Who' as professors 

The Branches of the Association 387 

and administrators in colleges, universities, state teachers' 
colleges, normal schools, and high schools. They are women 
whose names appear in 'Who's Who in Science,' in lists of 
authors of literature and poetry. Their names will be found 
in lists of new books or in tables of contents of magazines. 
They are the mothers of the little children who will be the 
next generation of college students, but whose interest at 
the present moment is primarily in home and family. So 
one might enumerate by thousands women of position and 
distinction who in one way or another have furthered the 
work of the branches and of the national association. A 
few branches have honorary members. Salt Lake City has 
as the only honorary member of its branch Mrs. Lucius 
Endicott Hall, graduate of the class of 1869 at Mount Hol- 
yoke, whose mother entered Mount Holyoke in 1837. Pough- 
keepsie has Dorothy Canfield Fisher as an honorary mem- 
ber. Pittsburgh has Mrs. William Reid Thompson as honor- 
ary president of the branch, while there are other branches 
who have honorary members because of the positions which 
at the moment these women or their husbands hold, such, 
for example, as the wife of the governor of the State or the 
wife of the president of a college or university. The wife of 
the President of the United States, Mrs. Herbert Hoover, is 
claimed as a member by both the San Francisco Bay Branch 
and the branch in Washington, D.C. The Boston Branch 
has had an extraordinary membership. It has supplied to 
the Association seven presidents, the first, Jane Field Bash- 
ford; the second, Florence M. Gushing; the third, Alice E. 
Freeman Palmer; and Marion Talbot,' Alice Upton Pear- 
main, Martha Foote Crow, and Caroline L. Humphrey. 
Closely associated with it have been two more, Ada L. 
Comstock and Mary E. Woolley. The San Francisco Bay 
Branch has furnished three presidents of the Association — 
May Treat Morrison, Lois Kimball Mathews (Rosen- 

* Miss Talbot was a member of the Chicago Branch when she became 

388 Association of University Women 

berry),' and Aurelia Henry Reinhardt. One of the cher- 
ished privileges which new members coming into a branch 
often hold dearest is that of meeting in such friendly fashion 
the distinguished women of the community who by virtue 
of their college education have not only achieved great 
things, but have kept a sympathy with young college women 
which is of the choicest and rarest quality. 

Of the war work of the branches mention has been made 
elsewhere.' It may have occurred to the reader of these 
chapters that much of the work which the branches do 
might be done by other organizations. To that statement 
the members of the branches make reply that the educated 
woman should, by virtue of her opportunities and her ad- 
vantages, be better fitted to give an objective, unprejudiced 
point of view and thus a more far-reaching program of work 
than her sister not so fortunately circumstanced. The 
branches are a part of the life of their community and the 
testimony everywhere is to the effect that the branches 
furnish, not only to their own organization, but through 
overlapping membership in other organizations, some of the 
greatest leadership which the local communities, the States, 
and the Nation have had, have now, or will perhaps ever 

* Mrs. Rosenberry has been a member of the Madison (Wisconsin) 
Branch, 1911-31, but was a member of the San Francisco Branch, 1903- 

» See Chapter XVIII. 



The first branch organized far away from the center of the 
Association's activities was formed in the Philippine Islands 
on October 17, 1912. Mrs. James A. Robertson, wife of the 
Director of the Philippine library, called the college women 
of Manila together to consider the organization of some 
sort of college club. Mrs. Robertson presented the condi- 
tions necessary for membership, the lines of work carried 
on by various branches in the United States, and ofifered 
suggestions as to possible undertakings for Manila itself. 
Mrs. Robertson's presentation was so convincing that the 
Manila Branch of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae was 
organized at once and has been in existence ever since. 

One of the special projects which the branch has carried 
out has been the organization of a Little Theater. From the 
acquisition of a large Spanish residence there developed the 
organization 'The Community Players,* which gives some 
of the best modern plays in a community where first-rate 
productions would otherwise be impossible. Mrs. John W. 
Osborne, in cooperation with the Little Theater Board, 
arranged for the donation of a library and reading-room for 
American and European children. The establishment of a 
scholarship fund to assist an American girl to complete her 
college education has been the work of the Scholarship 
Committee, thus providing for any American girl living in 
or near Manila if she has a fine scholastic record and a fine 
character the possibility of graduating from college in the 
United States. Already two young women who were recipi- 
ents of these scholarships have been graduated with honors. 

During the World War, the Manila Branch adopted 

390 Association of University Women 

several French orphans, 'rolled bandages, and helped the 
Red Cross in various ways, besides giving their support as a 
club with the other women's clubs of Manila to help in any 
war relief work in the city.' The branch also gave a party 
at the home of one of its members for sailors and soldiers 
then stationed in Manila or on the ships in the harbor, 
thereby arousing the interest of the people of the city in 
similar work. 

As might be surmised, the Manila Branch has been able 
to give unusual intellectual stimulus to its members by the 
presence among them of people from all over the world 
traveling in the Orient. Moreover, there are many dis- 
tinguished citizens of Manila itself who have traveled widely 
and have engaged in unusual activities. In reading over the 
list of the members of the Manila Branch, one becomes 
-aware of the wide distribution of activities in which Ameri- 
can women in Manila engage. Lois Stuart Osborne was con- 
nected with the Bureau of Education for many years during 
which time she was especially successful in building public 
school libraries, and is at present a professor in the College 
of Agriculture, University of the Philippines. Julia Hayes 
is principal of the Philippines School for the Deaf and Blind. 
Dr. Hawthorne Darby, the president of the Manila Branch 
from 1925-29, at the Mary Johnston Hospital, Tando, as- 
sisted in the birth of over a thousand babies. The work 
which Dr. Darby is doing for the crippled children of Manila 
and its vicinity is financed by the Masonic Lodge. Dr. 
Rebecca Parish founded the Mary Johnston Hospital and is 
at present its superintendent. 

The second branch across the seas was that of Honolulu, 
which, although established in 1905 as the Honolulu College 
Club, in 191 7 became a branch of the A.C.A. Beginning 
with 1908, the College Club established a student loan fund, 
and in the twenty-one years ending in 1929 had loaned to 

Branches Outside the United States 391 

twenty-eight girls $14,422, a large proportion of which had 
been repaid. In 1908, the Honolulu College Club began its 
interest in the anti-tuberculosis work which ultimately be- 
came so important as to be taken over by the Anti-Tuber- 
culosis League. It was Dr. Francis R. Day who had been 
responsible for the College Club's interest in the work at its 
inception, and at his death the Club established a perma- 
nent memorial dedicated to his memory. This memorial 
took the form of a cottage built and furnished with a small 
endowment to be devoted annually to buying equipment to 
add to the comfort of the three patients and the nurse whom 
the cottage housed. To the College Club was due the pre- 
liminary examination in one or two of the public schools in 
order to show the legislature the imperative need of provid- 
ing health supervision and medical inspection throughout 
the schools. The results were so convincing that the legis- 
lature voted a large appropriation for the purpose. Immedi- 
ately after the Club became a branch of the A.C.A., it advo- 
cated a federal survey of the public schools. The legisla- 
ture, because of the efforts thus begun, paved the way for 
the survey issued under the United States Department of 
the Interior as Bulletin No. 16. The results of this survey 
are apparent down to the present time, and in the program 
thus provided the Education Section of the Honolulu 
Branch has cooperated at every stage. In the Palama Set- 
tlement the Honolulu Branch has assisted in establishing 
free baby clinics and ultimately, after ten clinics had been 
established, gave the work over into other hands. 

The Honolulu College Club maintains a book review 
section, a drama section, an international relations section, 
an educational section, and a travel section — all these in 
addition to its social work and its community service. 

Among the members of the Honolulu College Club are 
writers, teachers, and community workers, a busy group 
who, nevertheless, find time to assist either as members or as 
chairmen of sixteen committees of the branch. 

392 Association of University Women 

In 1918, Dr. Caroline E. Furness, of Vassar College, on 
sabbatical leave from her professorship of astronomy, made 
a visit to the Orient. The president of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnse commissioned Dr. Furness to represent 
the Association in Japan with a view to the possible exten- 
sion of work to that country. Upon her return. Dr. Furness 
reported that in January, 191 9, the Tokyo Branch of the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae was organized on the 
occasion of her visit to that city.^ The group which met 
with Dr. Furness consisted of unmarried American women 
who were for the most part either missionaries or connected 
with the Young Women's Christian Association, or married 
women graduates whose husbands were in business con- 
nected with the American Embassy, or women teachers, 
with a few young American women who had arrived to work 
on Japanese newspapers. 'Everybody was busy at some- 
thing, so that there was no leisure class such as we depend 
upon in America for carrying on the burden of such an or- 
ganization,' wrote Dr. Furness. The Japanese women who 
met on that day were teachers in the Government schools 
or married Japanese women, almost all of whom had been 
sent to the United States by the various missionary bodies 
and on their return had become teachers in the schools from 
which they had been sent. Very few had obtained a degree, 
having spent only two or perhaps three years in college 
work. Moreover, Tokyo was broken up into small groups 
with little opportunity for intercourse between Japanese 
and American women. As a consequence, the task con- 
fronting the groups was an especially difficult one, and yet 
the stirring addresses of Miss Yasui, dean of the new 
Christian College for Women and of Mme. Ibuka, a gradu- 
ate of Mount Holyoke, with that of Dr. Furness, were suffi- 
cient to determine those present to form a branch. The 
offices were divided equally among the Japanese and foreign 
* See Journal of the A.C.A., January, 1920, pp. i-v. 

Branches Outside the United States 393 

members, with associate members accepted from the outset. 
Committees on education, scholarships, and social service 
were at once organized, the constitution of the Seattle 
Branch being used as the model for the Japanese Branch. 
In 1922, the president of the Japanese Branch, Bernice 
Gallup Tucker, wrote an account of the work of her organ- 
ization for the Japanese Advertiser of January 26. Part of 
this article was published in the United States and gives a 
r6sum6 of the work of these early years.' 

From 1922 to 1930, the branch has felt that these early 
committees were its most important feature, and, either as 
a small group or in cooperation with other groups, the branch 
thus contributes to the educational program of Japan. The 
Japanese Branch has been especially fortunate in its public 
meetings, to which non-members are free to come. Many of 
the people traveling in the Orient have been available as 
speakers, and the list of speakers and publications for 1929 
was certainly a notable one. In the list of members of the 
Japanese Branch are Miss Ai Hoshino, president of Tsuda 
College; Miss Tano Jodai, professor at the Woman's Uni- 
versity of Japan; Miss Michi Kawai, formerly general 
secretary of the National Y.W.C.A. of Japan, at* present 
principal of Keisen Jogakuen; Mrs. Tomi Koda, Ph.D., pro- 
fessor at the Woman's University of Japan; Miss Michi 
Matsuda, head of the Girls' College of Doshisha University; 
Dr. Kameyo Sadakata, head of the Child Clinic at St. 
Luke's International Hospital; Mrs. Matsu Tsuji, president 
of the National Y.W.C.A. and chairman of the Japanese 
Women's Organization of International Relations; and 
Dr. Tetsu Yasui, president of the Woman's Christian 
College of Japan.^* 

When in February, 1927, a Japanese college student in the 
United States was sent as a delegate to the A.A.U.W. Con- 
vention of that year, the Tokyo Branch sent thirty yen to 

» See Journal of the AA.U.W., April, 1922, pp. 57-58. 

■ The branch did not in its history list its American members. 

394 Association of University Women 

help to defray her traveling expenses as their representative. 
It is probably only a matter of a short time when this Jap- 
anese Branch will be the center of the Japanese Federation 
of University Women and the American Association of 
University Women will with mingled regret and joy see this 
daughter grow up and begin her independent career. 


The next branch in point of time was the Peking American 
College Women's Club in what is now Peiping, China. 

An outgrowth of those Red Cross days in 191 7-1 8 when the 
'workroom' in the Standard Oil Company's hospitable compound 
was the daily rendezvous of American women from all over Peking, 
the branch included members from the American legation, from the 
various missions, from the China Medical Board, from the business 
community, from the ranks of writers, artists, educators, old resi- 
dents and new that came, even to the latest tourist recruit. 

Waiting for their weekly consignment of camel's wool one October 
morning in 191 8, three Red Cross workers who chanced also to be 
college women — graduates of Beloit, Smith, and Mount Holyoke, 
respectively — discussed over their knitting the possibility of giving 
permanence, through the medium of a college women's club, to many 
congenial contacts thus made. Such a club would, as the constitu- 
tion was to state, (i) bring together the American college women of 
Peking and vicinity for mutual benefit through social and intel- 
lectual activities and (2) develop a closer relationship between col- 
lege women of whatever nationality and Chinese women contemplat- 
ing study in America. The latter, it was felt, should be the special 
aim of the club. As the plans matured a canvass was made of all 
college women so far as known, with special emphasis on the returned 
Chinese student. All women graduates of an American college giving 
a bachelor's degree were to be admitted to active membership and all 
women who had done a year or more of work in such a college were 
to be eligible to associate membership. In addition, any Chinese 
woman who had completed a year's work in any American institu- 
tion beyond a secondary school would be welcomed as an associate 
member. This did not mean that there were in Peking at the time 
no Chinese graduates of American women's colleges. It did mean 
that the club wanted to include as well the larger group of students 
who had spent a year or two in America, perhaps after graduating 
from Ginling or Yenching, and had taken special courses in nursing, 

Branches Outside the United States 395 

social service, medicine, kindergarten training, music, or household 

With the promise of temporary clubrooms on the premises of an 
American firm, and with an assured membership of fifty-seven, the 
new club was organized in February, 1919, at a luncheon held in the 
old Hotel de Peking. The first regular meeting was held on March 
17th and bi-monthly thereafter until 1926, when the oft-arising 
problem of a meeting-place was happily settled and monthly gather- 
ings in the Auditorium of the Peking Union Medical College inau- 
gurated. From the maze of rather confused beginnings which aimed 
to please each one of the fifty-seven and included a class in Chinese 
cooking, hikes to the Western hills, sight-seeing trips, classes in 
Chinese art and Chinese history, plus fortnightly teas, the club 
emerged at the end of the second year, a trifle bewildered, to be sure, 
but with an increased membership — ten Chinese were on the list 
that year — and a more formal outlook on life! j 

The membership cards of the Peking Branch for the year 
1928-29 showed sixty-four Americans, sixteen Chinese, and 
one Japanese member, besides eight members who because 
of their graduation from European universities were also 
eligible to belong to the Peking Branch. In a membership of 
one hundred and twenty in 1928-29, thirty-eight different 
colleges and universities were represented. Although the 
dues have been small, yet the income has covered the actual 
running expenses of the branch with its dues to the National 
Association. Through its garden party and dramatic per- 
formances it has met the annual obligations which it as- 
sumed in 192 1 to maintain a scholarship fund for Chinese 
girls and assistance to the North China American School in 
Tunghsien and to the Peking American School. The Com- 
mittee on Foreign Study for Chinese Women which began 
to function in 1922 has been allotted every year fifty dollars 
for performing a very valuable service in 'answering appli- 
cations, collecting records and credentials and investigating 
records. In the five years from 1922 to 1927, seventy women 
students went to the United States entirely or partially 
through the help of this committee,' many of whom had in 
1929 already returned to China. The historian of the 
Peking Branch says: 

396 Association of University Women 

The club has its special problems. Its membership list registers 
changes more rapidly than a New England barometer. In the ten 
years of its existence, clubs innumerable have arisen to bring East 
and West together, and intellectual as well as social programs are in 
danger of overlapping. To differentiate the aims and activities of 
the Peking American College Women's Club under changing condi- 
tions is a nice problem and one which demands the thoughtful 
cooperation of all its members. 


Although it had only a brief existence, the branch in 
Paris, France, nevertheless deserves a word as a matter of 
record. Organized in 1922 by a group of American women, 
the branch met monthly until 1925, where at luncheons and 
teas social contacts were furthered and newcomers and 
strangers were brought into the circle of the older residents 
of Paris. During the three years there were in the group 
women 'from every State and representing almost every 
college or university, with a membership of from forty to 
fifty.' The opening of the American University Women's 
Club made the Paris Branch seem superfluous, especially 
since the house at 4 rue de Chevreuse was the center, not 
only for women from the United States, but for women from 
all countries as well as for the French Federation of Univer- 
sity Women. With Reid Hall, as it is now called, and the 
American Women's Club of Paris, the field seemed fully oc- 
cupied. As a consequence there is no longer a Paris Branch 
of the American Association of University Women, but here 
as elsewhere the American college and university women 
feel that they should help in the work of a federation in the 
country of their adoption, becoming guest members rather 
than to continue as a branch of the American Association. 


The Tientsin (China) Branch of the American Association 
of University Women was formally organized on April 28, 
1927. For fourteen or fifteen years preceding this organiza- 

Branches Outside the United States 397 

tion, American college women had met together at dinner, 
tea, or tiffin in order to keep up their social contacts and to 
know one another as 'strangers together in a strange land 
may well do.' A national officer of the Association who was 
a guest at one of these informal meetings gave the initial 
impulse to affiliate with the American Association and to 
bring about a more formal organization. 

The American School which was opened in 1922 to prepare 
American children for entrance to American schools has been 
continuously in existence since that time, and is the especial 
ward of the Tientsin Branch. Mrs. Edward K. Lowry, 
president of the branch, writing in 1928, said: 

Noticing in the Journal of the American Association of University 
Women that the organization in the United States is paying great 
attention to elementary education, we have decided to adopt the 
Tientsin American school as our special ward. There are in this city 
British, German, French, Japanese, and Russian schools besides 
large numbers of Chinese schools. None of these, however, fitted 
American children for entering American schools in the homeland. . . . 
[ ... We now number eighty-six pupils in actual attendance, though 
ninety-one have been enrolled during the autumn term. Of these 
sixty-five are American children, the others being Chinese, Russian, 
Japanese, and Armenian. The majority of these non-Americans 
hope eventually to pursue a higher education in America. Instead 
of one teacher we now have four full-time and fully qualified Ameri- 
can teachers as well as teachers of kindergarten, French, Chinese, 
and physical drill. 

The Tientsin Branch at the same time asked for gifts from 
friends in America — books for a school library, victrola 
records, museum specimens, and a projector for showing 
educational pictures. 

Fully one half of the membership is made up of Chinese 
graduates of American colleges or universities. 


In 1922, the Shanghai College Club transformed itself 
into the Shanghai Branch of the American Association of 
University Women. In asking for acceptance by the Ameri- 

398 ^ Association of University Women 

can Association, the branch made the interesting suggestion 
that there be created ' a Far Eastern Section ' in addition to 
the sections in the United States. Such a project has never 
come to fruition, but it is possible that the three Chinese 
branches, those of Peiping, Tientsin, and Shanghai, may at 
a happier time become the nucleus of a Chinese Federation 
of University Women. 


On February 12, 1924, the Woman's College Club of 
Porto Rico, an organization which had been in existence 
since 1922, moved unanimously to ask for affiliation with 
the American Association of University Women. Following 
the annual convention of that year, there was held on 
May 13 the first meeting of the Porto Rico Branch of the 
American Association of University Women. From the 
outset the Porto Rico Branch took ' advantage of its oppor- 
tunities to observe and study Latin-American culture at 
first hand, not only through its programs, but in the follow- 
ing ways: on September 8, 1925, Spanish classes under a 
competent Porto Rican teacher were arranged for members 
of our branch, and these classes have been carried on con- 
tinuously ever since. At the same meeting a sight-seeing trip 
around historic San Juan, our capital city, was announced. 
This was significant as being the first of a yearly series of 
trips sponsored by the branch, arranged by its Travel Com- 
mittee, and usually conducted by Miss Grace Powers, one 
of our members. These trips have included not only the 
island of Porto Rico, but have been to such places as 
Martinique, the Virgin Islands, the Dominican Republic, 
and South America. The educational and pleasurable value 
of such travel is obvious.' 

Since 1925 the Porto Rico Branch has annually presented 
a play as a feature of its activities. In 1926, the branch 
began its scholarship fund with one hundred and fifty dol- 
lars, to become the nucleus of the 'Bertha Lattimore Butte 

Branches Outside the United States 399 

Memorial Student Loan Fund ' in memory of a past presi- 
dent of the branch. This memorial loan fund has as its pur- 
pose 'to encourage young women in their ambition for a 
college education. The loan fund of the Porto Rico Branch 
shall be used to aid young women who wish to continue their 
studies.* This loan fund of the Porto Rico Branch is elastic 
and not restricted to one girl each year. The chairman re- 
ports that 'as many may borrow from the fund as the 
amount on hand permits.' The sum usually raised, how- 
ever, has been three hundred dollars. The total amount 
loaned since 1926 is fourteen hundred dollars, used for the 
benefit of six young women. The Porto Rico Branch made 
a contribution to the National Headquarters Fund as well 
as a first payment toward the Million Dollar Fellowship 


One branch on the continent of Europe Is affiliated with 
the North Atlantic Section of the American Association 
of University Women, that in Madrid, Spain. While the 
history of the Madrid branch is significant, it is not long, 
and reads as follows: 

In the spring of 1926, Miss Helen Phipps, who was in Madrid at 
the Residencia de Seiioritas as American representative of the Inter- 
national Institute for Girls, and Mrs. J. Prescott Carter organized a 
club of American university women and in the autumn of 1926 it 
became a branch of the A.A.U.W. 

The first president of the club when a branch of the A.A.U.W. was 
Mrs. Homero Seris (Herlinda Smithers de Seris); vice-president. 
Miss Helen Phipps; and secretary, Mrs. J. Prescott Carter. 

Through the courtesy of Seiiorita Maria de Maeztu, directoress of 
the Residencia de Senoritas and of the resident manager, our meet- 
ings have been at the Residencia and their hospitality has been a 
great help to the branch 

The American colony in Madrid is small and has very few univer- 
sity women, and the branch depends a great deal upon the members 
we have each year from the professors and teachers in Madrid 
temporarily. Therefore, our membership changes greatly each 

400 Association of University Women 

year, and we feel it worth while to have the meetings where the 
American university women traveling or studying in Spain may 
meet socially those residing here. 

We also are in touch with the sister Spanish organization, * Juven- 
tud Universitaria Faminina,' and at our first meeting this year we 
entertained their executive committee and their president, Senorita 
Clara Campoamor, talked to us most interestingly of the Interna- 
tional Congress. 

During the first year we had sixteen national members and three 
associate members. At present time we have twelve national mem- 
bers, also four national members from other branches as local 
members and four associate members. 

Miss Mary Sweeney is resident manager of the Residencia de 
Sefioritas this year and very successfully promotes international 
fellowship among Spanish and Americans. 

Last year a very helpful member was Miss Mary Louise Foster 
(A.B. Smith, Ph.D., Chicago), who had leave of absence as Professor 
of Chemistry at Smith, and came to Madrid to carry on and enlarge 
the work of the chemical laboratories founded by her some years ago 
for Spanish girls living in the Residencia and students at the 

We have only a small fund on hand and we expect to add to this 
and with it assist the Spanish group in their contribution to the 
Million Dollar Fellowship Fund. 

These branches outside the boundaries of the United 
States give an added interest to the national organization 
at the same time that the national association gives in- 
spiration to these far-away members. In time these branches 
will, it is hoped, all become assimilated into the fabric of a 
national organization in the country in which their Ameri- 
can members find themselves either permanently or tempo- 
rarily in residence. The policy of the International Federa- 
tion in urging the formation of national federations the 
world around is heartily seconded by the A.A.U.W. Not as 
a separate small group of nationals in a foreign country, but 
as internationally minded college women, sympathetic with 
their distant abode, does the A.A.U.W. conceive its mem- 
bership resident in other lands. 



From the beginning of its history half a century ago, the 
American Association of University Women has been a 
great experiment in adult education. The pioneers who 
founded the Association had for the most part gone to col- 
lege because of a tremendous urge to an intellectual life on a 
higher plane than had been possible to their mothers or their 
grandmothers. Moreover, these first members of the Asso- 
ciation of Collegiate Alumnae had taken their college course 
seriously and felt an obligation to return to the community 
some meed of the idealism and power which their college 
course had stored up in them. As a consequence the Associ- 
ation was from the outset an experiment in the 'continuing 
education ' about which college and university administra- 
tors are to-day so vitally concerned. 

In asking three years ago for a speaker for the National 
Conference of Extension Divisions of the colleges and uni- 
versities of the United States, the assistant director of the 
Extension Division of the University of Wisconsin said, * I 
consider the American Association of University Women the 
outstanding organization in existence in this country in its 
intelligent and far-sighted plans for adult education.* He 
was referring to the study groups which the branches main- 
tain and which are planned in the large at the headquarters 
of the Association in Washington. 

But these study groups to which the speaker referred are 
no new thing in the American Association of University 
Women. In 1883, shortly after the establishment of the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae, there began just the sort 
of program which is carried on by the branches to-day. 

* See also chapters on 'The Committee on Educational Policies' and 
on 'The Committee on International Relations'; also consult the Index. 

402 Association of University Women 

Two study groups were formed in Boston, one publishing in 
1884 a sketch of what they were doing and sponsoring in 
1887 a volume on Home Sanitation;* the other (formed in 
1884) calling itself the Political Science Club. At a meeting 
held May 11, 1885, a report of the initial meeting and work 
of the latter group was given and a signal honor was paid it 
when by invitation one of its members spoke on the aims 
and methods of the club at the first meeting of the newly 
organized 'American Historical Association' held in Sara- 
toga, New York, September 9, 1885. 

No sooner were the branches of the Association organized 
than study groups appeared in all of them. There was evi- 
dently everywhere a strong feeling for the continuation of 
study after college. One of the early secretaries wrote : ' It is 
noticeable that each branch has dwelt with more or less 
detail upon social problems. The fact that in widely sepa- 
rated clubs the same thought has possessed them all seems 
to indicate not merely the spirit of the time, but a definite 
and important connection between the interests and respon- 
sibilities of college women and their work as exponents of 
some, at least, of such social questions. Should not the local 
work of alumnae, while contributing to general culture and 
temporary benefit, also be so organized that each club may 
contribute definite funds of information to the General Asso- 
ciation, which differences in local interests and conditions 
will make invaluable for work in social and political 

This report was made in 1891. The following year the 
same officer reported 'in nearly all the branches we find 
more thorough, systematic work being done.' Sometimes 
the subject of study was sight-reading in Latin or in Greek, 
sometimes reading German plays, sometimes an intensive 
study of English literature, and in one case a study of one 
phase of the fine arts. Moreover, the branches began from 
their earliest day to cooperate with the national organiza- 

« See Chapters II, IV, Vll, Xll, etc. Also see the Index. 

A Program of Adult Education 403 

tion, just as has been the case ever since. As a consequence 
each branch had early in its history an Education Com- 
mittee which concerned itself either with these study groups 
or with educational legislation and interest in local educa- 
tional conditions. Cooperation with Millicent Shinn's im- 
portant studies in child development was recorded from 
1895 for nearly twenty years, although such cooperation was 
often sporadic and interrupted.^ All through the early years 
of the Association the reports at the annual meetings indi- 
cate this cooperation with study and research projects of 
the national organization at the same time that there are 
recorded studies of local problems in which the branches 
interested themselves, each in its own way. In 1897-98, 
when there were twenty-one branches of the Association 
extending from Boston to San Francisco, north to Duluth 
and south to St. Louis, a report of that year comments upon 
the almost universal interest of the branches in college settle- 
ments, with the statement that nearly every branch con- 
tributes in either time, money, or interest to this newer de- 
velopment of urban life. As a direct outgrowth of the work 
of Mrs. Richards, nearly every branch was interested in the 
sanitary inspection of the schools in the vicinity 'of the 
branch. Public libraries and home libraries were also a 
matter of interest and concern to almost every branch. 
The 'suddenly developed interest in child labor, child legis- 
lation, reform schools, child penology, and kindred topics* 
is also noted as characteristic of the branches along with the 
child study groups which several branches were at that time 
carrying on. The branches in Chicago, Buffalo, and Detroit 
had already begun to consider occupations other than teach- 
ing which were open to women college students. The Rhode 
Island Branch had, in 1899 and the years following, a study 
group on home economics. The fact that the interest of the 
branches was following the trend of the intellectual and 
social life of their day is striking and significant. 
» See Chapter XII. 

404 Association of University Women 

The programs of the branch meetings as well as of the 
annual meetings of the Association show throughout their 
history a widespread desire for the ' continuing education ' of 
which we have spoken. Although more informal than the 
study groups, such programs often represented either the 
initiation or the culmination of a plan of study. The inaugu- 
ration by the Indianapolis and Minneapolis Branches of uni- 
versity extension courses belongs in the same category as 
the programs of the meetings, since there was often one 
interpretative lecture in which the objects of the course to 
be given or which had just been completed were set forth, 
sometimes to a larger audience than the extension course had 

But the development of study groups as one knows them 
to-day belongs to the last ten years. During the years when 
the World War filled people's minds and in the years imme- 
diately following its close, it was evident that the whole 
field of education in the United States was undergoing a 
period of unrest and of change. In accordance with its whole 
history, the American Association of University Women 
became convinced of the necessity for a more far-reaching 
and intelligent study of child life and education. As a result 
of this widespread feeling, the Association employed an edu- 
cational secretary in 1922, and beginning with that date the 
growth in numbers and in interest of the Association has 
been remarkable. To many branches the study groups are 
to-day the center of its life and the reason for its existence. 
Again and again one comes upon the statement in the 
branch history, *we have attracted the young women of our 
community by our study groups centering around child life, 
and the older women of our community as well as the 
younger in our international relations study groups.' Often 
these groups are open to women who are not eligible to mem- 
bership in the Association, but who, nevertheless, wish the 
type of intellectual stimulation and opportunity for intel- 
lectual growth which these study groups represent. In the 

A Program of Adult Education 405 

branch of Poughkeepsle, New York, both men and women 
are admitted to the stud}^ groups of the branch, a plan which 
works well and perhaps offers a suggestion for other branches 
to follow. 

The international relations study groups were first offi- 
cially recognized and directed by the A.A.U.W. from head- 
quarters in 1923. When the international relations secretary 
came permanently to the headquarters in Washington, 
one hundred and forty branches reported that they had 
organized international relations round-tables. The follow- 
ing year the number had grown to one hundred and forty- 
eight, and in June of 1929 to two hundred and forty-three, 
which were distributed over forty-four States and in the 
Territory of Hawaii. These groups had chosen as topics for 
study international politics and economic situations in 
various parts of the world, and most of them had made use 
of the ten study courses on international problems prepared 
by the central international relations office. In 1928-29, 
the office sold 1151 of these outlines including seventy-eight 
copies of branch programs and eighty-eight bulletins of 
'Information for Study Groups' which were sent out to the 
chairmen of the groups in the branches. In the same year 
eighty-three copies of a 'Handbook for Leaders' were sold. 
Of the study courses the 'Foreign Policy of the United 
States' was reported as having been most widely used, with 
the outline on 'European Diplomacy,* 'Pan-American 
Policies,' and 'Problems of the Pacific' almost equally in 
demand. The International Relations Office had further 
served the members of the Association by distributing the 
materials of other organizations such as The Carnegie En- 
dowment for International Peace, the Foreign Policy Asso- 
ciation, the Institute of International Education, the 
League of Nations Non-Partisan Association, the National 
Committee on the Cause and Cure of War, National Council 
for Prevention of War, National League of Women Voters, 
the Inquiry, the World Peace Foundation. 

406 Association of University Women 

These study groups are conducted, of course, in different 
ways. Perhaps the commonest usage is that of a committee 
of the branch whose chairman or some committee member 
presides at the meeting of the group. For example, Mrs. 
William Palmer Lucas, of the San Francisco Branch, herself 
a trained student of international affairs, leads the group in 
study and discussion according to a program which in the 
main she herself prepares. The plan in Madison, Wisconsin, 
has been for the chairman of the committee to preside at the 
monthly meetings, where a speaker, usually from the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, presents the subject of the evening and 
the audience present, having prepared itself by reading be- 
forehand, enters into the hour of discussion which follows. 
In other branches textbooks or selected volumes form the 
basis of an informal discussion. In other cases the study 
takes the form of book reviews or a resume of articles bear- 
ing upon the topic in hand. Often the meeting is preceded 
by a luncheon or a dinner affording an opportunity for social 
intercourse and conversation. 

In the field of history and politics two other types of 
projects have been recommended and followed by the secre- 
tary. Dr. Caukin. ' The first is the holding of local institutes 
on international relations, preferably in cooperation with 
other organizations in the community. Such institutes 
have been held during the past two years (1927-29), in New 
York City; in Lubbock, Texas; in Syracuse, New York; and 
in Denver, Colorado. All of them were carried on in cooper- 
ation with other community groups, the university women 
usually taking the initiative in suggesting the institute. 
They have contributed to the programs by securing special- 
ists on international questions and also by bringing to the 
discussions the results of their own study.' The second type 
of project which has been encouraged, 'has been an investi- 
gation into local community problems which have a bearing 
on international questions. On the recommendation of the 
Pacific Coast members of the International Relations Com- 

A Program of Adult Education 407 

mittee the Los Angeles and San Francisco Branches, re- 
spectively, have undertaken surveys of the situation in 
regard to Mexican immigrants and the second generation 

In making her report to the Association in 1929 Dr. 
Caukin said: 

During the past two years the international program of the Asso- 
ciation has developed along two lines: more widespread acquaintance 
with the International Federation of University Women, and greater 
determination to create in our own country an intelligent public 
opinion on international affairs. 

The development of the study program is encouraging, not only 
because the number of round tables has increased, but also because 
the quality of the work done in the round tables is steadily improv- 
ing. Many groups which started with a program of lectures, more 
or less uncorrected, have come to devote themselves to an intensive 
study of one phase of international relations, over a period of a year. 
As a result, the members of the groups are gaining a deeper insight 
into the processes of history and politics, which must be reflected 
in a more intelligent approach to current problems. 

The programs for the study of the pre-school child date 
from 1923, when Dr. Frances Fenton Bernard, after a year 
of study, began the direction of these groups, and the pro- 
gram she recommended was adopted as a national plan, to 
be directed from headquarters in Washington. The branches 
took up the plan with enthusiasm. For instance, the branch 
in Hays, Kansas, reports that it had to suspend in 1926 for 
lack of numbers. Thereupon two members organized a co- 
operative play school working with mothers in the com- 
munity, with the result that the branch was reorganized for 
the purpose of studying the pre-school child, under the 
direction of the educational secretary at headquarters in 
Washington. During the first year of Dr. Bernard's secre- 
taryship, the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial made 
the grant for promoting the pre-school and elementary 
school projects of the Association — the more willingly 
because fifty-seven round-tables had been established within 

408 Association of University Women 

the few preceding months in branches as far removed from 
one another as New Haven, San Francisco, North Carolina, 
Texas, and Wyoming. From that beginning the study 
groups under Dr. Lois Hayden Meek and Dr. Kathryn 
McHale have grown apace. These groups have concerned 
themselves preeminently with three subjects of study — the 
pre-school child, the elementary-school child, and the 
adolescent girl and boy. Here, as has been noted with the 
international relations study groups, the ways in which the 
groups have conducted their study have varied widely, from 
informal discussion to research under a trained leader. 
Often the study groups have been open to women not eli- 
gible to membership in the Association and thus have be- 
come a most helpful force in the parent-teacher associations 
of many towns and cities. Not only have the members been 
engaged in their own education, but an increasing absorption 
in various kinds of community educational projects has 
been the outgrowth of the study group work. For example, 
in 1929-30, one hundred and fifty-six branches had pro- 
moted two hundred and forty-nine community projects in 

When, in 1929, Dr. Meek offered her resignation to under- 
take another important piece of work, she outlined the work 
of the five years during which she had guided the educational 
activities of the branches on recognition, on fellowships, 
and on international relations. With the increased de- 
mand for her services by the branches, it had been possible 
to receive a report on the educational activities of three 
hundred and seventeen out of a total of four hundred and 
sixty-two branches. In the year 1928-29 she had sent out 
seven hundred and forty- three copies of a bulletin suggesting 
programs for branch study and work. 

Perhaps the most important part of her work, aside from 
the guiding of the branches, was the distinguished work 
in research which the educational office carried on. She 

A Program of Adult Education 409 

... During the last two years important projects have been com- 
pleted which have been under way since 1924. Both of these were 
cooperative projects undertaken with other agencies. 

The first of these is the book on pre-school and parental education 
which was published in February, 1929, as the Twenty-Eighth 
Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education. This 
society has published each year since about 1895 a yearbook which 
surveys the most recent thought on some phase of education. Your 
educational secretary presented to the society in February, 1925, a 
request to issue a year-book on pre-school and parental education 
which would attempt to integrate the various aspects of these move- 
ments in education and present to educators the important field of 
child development and parent education. The Board of Directors 
of the National Society for the Study of Education approved the 
request and appointed your educational secretary as chairman of the 
committee. . . . 

The second research project had to do with the establishment in 
Washington, D.C., of a center which would afford facilities for the 
scientific agencies located in Washington. The educational secretary 
with others in Washington has been working on plans for such a 
research center since 1924. The reward came in February, 1928, 
when the Washington Child Research Center was opened under a 
grant from the Spelman Fund. The center was established through 
the joint efforts of the Educational Office of the A.A.U.W. ; the 
American Home Economics Association; the National Research 
Council ; two universities — George Washington University, and the 
University of Maryland; three government bureaus — the Bureau of 
Education, the Bureau of Home Economics, and the United States 
Public Health Service.... 

The educational secretary of the American Association of Uni- 
versity Women serves as chairman of the Executive Board. The 
study groups have been conducted by the educational secretary and 
the assistant educational secretary. This center offers an unusual 
opportunity to the Educational Office to undertake during the next 
few years some fundamental research either in that phase of adult 
education which is called parental education or in child development. 

Furthermore, the educational secretary reported much 
time given to establishing cooperative relations with other 
educational agencies. She had, moreover, been serving for 
the past two years on committees outside the A.A.U.W. 
These were (i) on the Executive Committee of the American 

410 Association of University Women 

Council on Education, as proxy for Dean Gildersleeve; 
(2) on the Executive Committee, Southern Woman's Educa- 
tional Alliance; (3) on the Executive Board, Progressive 
Educational Association ; (4) on the National Committee on 
Nursery Schools, as chairman; (5) the Governing Board, 
National Council of Parent Education; (6) the Committee 
on Nursery Schools, International Kindergarten Union; 
(7) the Executive Committee, Washington Child Research 
Center, as chairman; (8) the Committee on Pre-school and 
Parental Education, National Society for the Study of 
Education, as chairman. 'Besides such formal cooperation 
the Educational Office is continually called upon for inter- 
views and consultations on various phases of education by 
educational institutions and organizations.' 

A very interesting development of Dr. Meek's term of 
office was a return to an early project of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae — the Bureau of Collegiate Information 
established in 1887 by Kate Morris Cone.^ Forty- two years 
later, Dr. Meek wrote: 

The Educational Office has continued to answer inquiries concern- 
ing all phases of education from pre-school through college. There 
have been two hundred and sixty-eight such inquiries since the last 
Biennial. The inquiries concerning various aspects of collegiate 
education have gradually increased during the past five years. To 
meet this increasing demand for information about colleges, a part- 
time assistant in collegiate education, Mrs. Frances Valiant Speek, 
was added to the staff of the Educational Office in January, 1929. 
Besides answering the immediate requests, Mrs. Speek is assembling 
material on collegiate education. 

When Dr. Meek resigned. Dr. Kathryn McHale came to 
the headquarters of the Association as educational secre- 
tary, and has since September, 1929, continued the program 
so auspiciously begun under Dr. Bernard and Dr. Meek. In 
speaking of the national program in April, 1930, Dr. McHale 

* For a full account see Chapter XIII, pp. 179-81. 

A Program of Adult Education ' 411 

The American Association of University Women has as you know 
dedicated itself to an increasingly conscious and concerted effort to 
establish itself in the field of education by a maintenance of high 

Though we have gone a long way in realizing this purpose, there is 
still much to do. Our future educational possibilities are innumer- 
able. One needs only to contemplate the range of educational condi- 
tions, and the interests of our membership in this country to be con- 
vinced that our work must concern itself with education from the 
infant to the distinguished scholar. In developing our present na- 
tional educational program, two considerations have been upper- 
most: first, the present-day educational needs and the Association's 
place in their satisfaction; second, the wide range of educational 
interests among our members. 

Following the introduction, Dr. McHale has pointed the 
way to a really great program of adult education. 

Adult education applies to all if we understand the meaning of 
culture — not only to those whose education has been neglected 
but also to those who have come through the conventional school. 
The generalization can be made more obvious. Education means 
more than classroom experience; it means continuous learning. Ac- 
cording to the results of E. L. Thorndike's psychological experiments 
in adult learning, no one under forty-five should 'restrain himself in 
a learning situation because of a belief that he is too old.' From 
twenty-five to forty-five we are able to learn better than ever before; 
even at sixty our learning efficiency is eighty-eight per cent. 

The college and university bodies have not begun to realize the 
responsibility to project into the adult life of their graduates the 
deeper and more cultural desires and inspiration of study and 
thought. Some agency has a rightful function in the fulfillment of 
this need; is it not a logical one for this organization to perform? ' 

One of the newer fields of cultural studies to which 
Dr. McHale refers is that in which a beginning has as yet 
scarcely been made — the fine arts. In October, 1922, the 
Fourth State Conference of Branches of the American Asso- 
ciation of University Women in Wisconsin was held in 
Madison. A member of the branch of Fond du Lac, Wis- 

* See Journal of the A.A.U.W. for April, 1930. Also available as a re- 

412 Association of University Women 

consin, Agnes Bassett, herself a teacher, made so convincing 
a plea for the inclusion among the standing committees of 
one upon art and drama that it was determined forthwith to 
constitute one of which Miss Bassett should be the chair- 
man. From the Fifth State Conference of Wisconsin 
Branches (1923) a recommendation was sent to the national 
association urging the inclusion of a committee on the fine 
arts in the list of standing committees of the Association, 
The matter had probably been brought before the directors 
before this time, but it is recorded in the history of the Wis- 
consin Federation of Branches that the movement to inter- 
est the national association in education in the fine arts 
originated in the Wisconsin Fine Arts Committee. 

At the national convention of the A.A.U.W. in 1924, a 
Committee on Fine Arts was appointed, and in 1926 
Marjorie S. Logan summed up the pros and cons of the 
whole subject in an article entitled 'The Fine Arts in Their 
Relation to Academic Study,' ' while the report made by 
Lura Beam as chairman of the Committee on Fine Arts in 
1929,* together with five articles published at the same time 
as Miss Beam's report, were significant in their facts and 
figures. Only one fellowship had, up to the time Miss Beam 
wrote, been awarded to an art teacher, and this was, quite 
suitably, to a Wisconsin woman, Ethel J. Bouffleur, who, 
out of her experience in the State Teachers' College at 
Oshkosh, had become interested in the problem of creative 
children's art and the teaching of art to children. The 
second point made by Miss Beam's committee was a plea 
for full college courses of virile content to be developed in 
the arts. In such a program the A.A.U.W. must necessarily 
have a part, and that a committee should already be study- 
ing seriously what the Association might do to further this 
enrichment of life is again to go back to the ideals of 188 1, 
bringing them into the enlarged vision of the present day. 

« Journal of the A.A.U.W., April, 1926, pp. 8 ff. 
» Ibid., April, 1929. 

A Program of Adult Education 413 

Dr. McHale is furthermore carrying forward the research 
informational service in the field of secondary and collegiate 
education as one of the outstanding projects for the immedi- 
ate future. She says : 

We have invited cooperation in a study of current changes and ex- 
periments in secondary and collegiate education. Educational 
foundations have been approached to assist in financing the research 
work of the study. The study is to cover a two-year period and to 
be climaxed by a national critique or forum on adolescent education, 
to be held in Boston in April, 1 931, as a part of our biennial conven- 
tion program.... 

The Educational Office of the American Association of University 
Women will receive inquiries on all topics in secondary and collegiate 
education. Those inquiries which are found to lie within a field very 
thoroughly covered by another organization will be referred to that 
organization. Other inquiries will be answered directly by the Edu- 
cational Office. In a way, then, the Association will act as a clearing 
house for information on secondary schools and colleges and it will 
endeavor itself to specialize in the giving of certain of this infor- 

The subjects in which the Association is proceeding to build up a 
body of fact and reference material and in which it plans to be 
especially well equipped to answer inquiries may be listed as follows: 
Subjects relating to the care and direction of students; subjects 
relating to curricula and instruction; and subjects relating to organ- 
ization and administration.* 

In the Educational Office, as in the International Rela- 
tions Office, the work of assembling materials for study 
groups and distributing them to the branches has been a 
task requiring an unusual equipment on the part of the 
secretaries, both in actually preparing the materials and in 
the organization of the office for effective work with the 
study groups. Literally thousands of copies of all kinds 
have been sent out, bulletins, leaflets, reprints, and pam- 
phlets, besides the Journal of the Association. 

Outside of the study groups, as has been said, there are 

* See Bulletin of January, 1930, entitled, 'Research Information Serv- 
ice in Secondary and Collegiate Education,' American Association of 
University Women. 

414 Association of University Women 

other means provided by the local branches for the intel- 
lectual growth of their members. With a membership made 
up in large part of women who are teaching or whose profes- 
sions occupy them during the day, several branches have 
provided special facilities for the coming together of these 
busy members. The Minneapolis College Women's Club 
found that an evening section met a long-felt need and con- 
siders its large active membership makes the evening section 
the outstanding one of the branch. The Philadelphia 
(Pennsylvania) Branch sponsors supper conferences which 
make a wide appeal. The branch in Madison, Wisconsin, 
has had for two years a project in which other branches may 
be interested. Through the suggestion of Abby L. Marlatt, 
president of the branch, 1927-29, there is held from the first 
of December to the middle of April on alternate Saturdays a 
luncheon conference, with a speaker who presents his or her 
special interest, with a discussion following which is usually 
of a most enlightening and delightful kind. The luncheon is 
presided over by some member of the branch and is open to 
both men and women. Other branches have similar lunch- 
eon or supper meetings open to all members of the branch, 
but to which a small interested group usually comes. Out- 
side of such efforts as these the branches carry on adult edu- 
cation of other sorts; for instance, the branch at Waupun, 
Wisconsin, immediately upon its organization engaged upon 
the wholly altruistic task of securing for the women in the 
state penitentiary situated in their city, the first oppor- 
tunity for correspondence courses taken through the Univer- 
sity of Wisconsin Extension Division which had ever been 
possible for them. The men confined in the institution had 
long had such privileges, but no one had ever made the pos- 
sible education of the women inmates a matter of concern 
or interest.* The branch at Grand Forks, North Dakota, 
arranged to have a night school open to the public for any 

* A leading article which appeared in the Atlantic Monthly several 
years ago was written by a woman inmate of this penitentiary. 

A Program of Adult Education 415 

person desiring training of a vocational character. When 
the project had proved its worth, the board of education 
took it over and established it on a permanent basis. The 
financial aid given by many branches to the summer schools 
for women in industry is another example of a widespread 
interest in adult education. 

The account here given proves what was said at the begin- 
ning — that the American Association of University Women 
both nationally and locally has a program of adult education 
outstanding in its character and in its effectiveness. This 
program has been greatly strengthened by a decision of the 
board of directors, which came to fruition in September, 
1929, with the appointment of Dr. Kathryn McHale as 
acting director of the Association and educational secretary 
as well. It had gradually, since 1923, become clear that the 
whole national program must be correlated and coordinated, 
with an expert adviser to plan future work but for the whole 
organization and for the branches. With the appointment of 
Dr. McHale, the possibility of unity in the entire program 
of adult education was made secure. 



The story of a half-century of idealism has come to an end, 
but the story is rather a challenge for the future than the 
record of a closed book. There is no other country in the 
world to-day where the higher education of women is so 
much a matter of course as in the United States of America. 
Every auturnn, when the college year begins, thousands of 
young women leave their homes for the hundreds of colleges 
and universities which receive them; and every year the 
stream grows larger both in the undergraduate and in the 
graduate courses. Yet this great movement began but little 
more than half a century ago, and its greatest increase 
covers a space of but thirty-five years. Only in countries 
recently out of their pioneer conditions, where individualism 
and independence are in the air one breathes, where one is 
hampered by no settled customs, by no time-bound tradi- 
tions, and by no conventional class distinctions, could such 
conditions arise so naturally or to any such extent as has 
been the case in the United States. To this country many 
others will inevitably turn in their search for ways and 
means whereby their own young women can take advantage 
of similar opportunities and thus raise the general average of 
intelligence and of civic responsibility in a new world which 
is recovering from the cataclysm of the World War. It is 
partly for this larger fellowship that the project of this his- 
tory was undertaken. 

From the days when the founders of the A.C.A. relieved 
the loneliness of their pioneering by association, one comes 
to the fellowship of college and university women through- 
out the world. The experience of those early days was not 
unique. Lady Stephen, in writing of Emily Davies and 
Girton College, relates that in 1870, at the close of the first 

The End of the Story 417 

year of the college at Hitchin (later Girton College), Emily 
Davies, one of the founders, asked the students whether it 
would be worth while to come for a year only. Louisa I. 
Lumsden, now Dame Lumsden, one of the five students who 
first registered for work at Hitchin, said that before she came 
she used to feel fearfully solitary.* She was always having 
said to her, 'Oh, but you are so exceptional.' By associating 
herself with other students at Hitchin she felt that she be- 
longed to a group and so had lost the sense of loneliness. 
Doubtless the pioneers of other countries have felt the same 
overwhelming isolation, some even recently, since higher 
education is not everywhere in the world so natural as it is 
in the United States. This association of like-minded women 
has already had its great effect throughout the United 
States and throughout the world through affiliation with the 
International Federation of University Women. 

It must be clear to the reader that the history of the 
Association of Collegiate Alumnae and of its successor, the 
American Association of University Women, has been con- 
temporaneous with the development, not only of the higher 
education of women, but also of great and fundamental 
changes in the Nation and among the nations. Beginning 
with the old classical tradition, the Association has moved 
forward and acceptf^i as members the newer colleges which 
have been organized or reorganized in the interest of the 
great advancement of science, pure and applied. The United 
States, in 1881 preeminently rural and agricultural, has dur- 
ing the half-century become predominantly urban and in- 
dustrial. This great fundamental change the Association has 
followed also, keeping in step with legislation, national and 
state, and with municipal ordinances and village proceed- 
ings. The membership of the Association has played its part 
in the great movements for adapting the education of a half- 
century ago to present-day needs. These tasks are by no 
means completed. 

' See Emily Davies and Girton College, by Lady Stephen, p. 235. 

418 Association of University Women 

*It takes imagination to belong to the A.C.A.,' said a 
member ten years ago to the president of that day. And so 
it has and so it does, and so it always will. For it is the im- 
ponderables of life, the elusive hopes, the nebulous ideals of 
one generation which become often the transcendent and 
challenging program of the next. Not only has this proved 
true for the Association as a whole, but also for the branches 
scattered the length and breadth of the country from Canada 
to Mexico and from Maine to California. In the membership 
of these branches one still finds the names of a few of the 
pioneers of the early day, many of whom have been presi- 
dents of women's colleges, or professors in colleges or uni- 
versities, or publicists and writers of effectiveness and 
prominence. In the five hundred and twenty-one branches 
are registered to-day the names of alumnae of nearly two 
hundred colleges and universities, each name representing a 
soldier in a marching army. For not only are these members 
attached to their own colleges and universities, but by dint 
of imagination they have devoted themselves to the program 
of the Association. 

There is a little pamphlet entitled, *What Does the 
A.A.U.W. Do?' 

It would take a long time to answer this oft-repeated question in 
full detail, but the following summary at least indicates the scope of 
our work, with which our members should familiarize themselves by 
reading the Journal and sending to headquarters for the pamphlets 
which are available on various items of our national program. 

1. By means of an accredited list of colleges and universities the 
Association works for the establishment and maintenance of high 
standards in institutions admitting women, requiring not only aca- 
demic excellence, but recognition of women on the faculty and in 
the administration, as well as adequate provision for the health, 
physical training, housing, and social life of the students. 

2. The Association's Committee on Fellowships awards fourteen 
fellowships for graduate work in the United States and abroad. Most 
of these awards are annual, a few biennial or triennial. 

3. The office of the educational secretary suggests and directs 
educational work in the branches, particularly study groups in pre- 

The End of the Story 419 

Bchool, elementary and adolescent education, carries on educational 
research and cooperates with other educational organizations and 

4. The office of the Committee on International Relations sup- 
plies materials and guidance for round-table discussions of various 
phases of our international relations and cooperates with other 
organizations concerned with the international aspects of education. 

5. The Association is a constituent member of the International 
Federation of University Women and participates in a program 
which includes the creation of international fellowships, the exchange 
of professors and teachers, the exchange of information and hospi- 
tality, and a triennial international conference. 

6. Permanent headquarters are maintained in Washington, D.C., 
for the business of the Association, for cooperation with other na- 
tional organizations and for a center of information and for the dis- 
tribution of supplies and materials. 

7. The Association also provides, through the cooperation of the 
Washington Branch, a national and international club, housed in 
the Headquarters Building, in which all national members of the 
Association are entitled to non-resident privileges. 

8. The Committee on Legislation sponsors such federal educa- 
tional legislation as is consistent with the policies of the Association 
and is approved by the national convention, and gives active support 
of these measures through representation on the Women's Joint 
Congressional Committee. 

9. The Association publishes a quarterly Journal, subscription to 
which is included in national membership dues, containing articles 
of general interest and importance to university women, as well as 
departments devoted to the educational program, international rela- 
tions, committee activities, current events, and book lists. 

10. The branches carry on local educational work of many vari- 
eties, notably the provision of scholarships and loan funds for under- 
graduate women and participation in civic movements for better 

You may further ask — 

What Does the A.A.U.W. Do With Your $2.00? 

1. It creates the general fellowship fund by setting aside twenty- 
five cents of every $2.00 dues. 

2. It helps to finance the work of the board of directors and the 
national committees. 

3. It is enabled to affiliate with such organizations as the American 
Council on Education and the Association to Aid Scientific Research 
by Women. 

420 Association of University Women 

4. It pays for the administration of the national treasurer's office. 

5. It pays for the administration of the national executive office, 
including the preparation and distribution of publicity materials and 
branch supplies and the recording of all memberships. 

6. It partially finances the educational and international relations 

7. It partially finances the publication of the Journal. 

8. It maintains membership in the I.F.U.W., thereby making 
every member of the A.A.U.W. a member of the I.F.U.W. and en- 
titled to the use of the international clubhouses. 

In other words, the income from $2.00 memberships, supple- 
mented by the income from corporate, sustaining, and affiliated 
memberships and Journal subscriptions, finances all the work of the 
Association, with the exception of the partial subsidizing of the 
educational and international relations programs by the Spelman 
Fund and the Carnegie Corporation. The Association has no capital 
or permanent endowment. 

The A.A.U.W. needs, therefore, not only the moral and financial 
support, but the active participation of every university and college 
woman in the United States in order to carry on the large tasks to 
which it is pledged. Other as yet undeveloped lines of activity and 
service await us on every hand. Above all, the A.A.U.W. offers you 
the opportunity to repay in some measure your debt to your Alma 
Mater and to those who made possible your own education. 

To the program here outlined the A.A.U.W. is committed. 
In addition, a great enterprise is now going forward, the 
greatest undertaking financially to which the Association has 
ever set its hand. This is the raising of the Million Dollar 
Fellowship Fund for fellowships national and international. 
No time limit has been set for the accomplishment of the 
task of raising this fund, but it is hoped that by the time of 
the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the Association 
in April, 1 931, all of the fund will have been pledged and a 
large portion of it raised. In the words of Dr. Caroline F. E. 
Spurgeon, first president of the International Federation of 
University Women, 'The fortunate holders of International 
Fellowships seem to me like the Brethren of Saloman's 
House, pictured by Lord Bacon three hundred years ago, 
who sailed forth into far distant countries in order to bring 

The End of the Story 421 

back knowledge of the affairs and state of learning of those 
countries for the good of the whole, to throw light on the 
whole. Like those imagined adventurers of long ago, our 
student and scholar adventurers of to-day may aspire to call 
themselves "Merchants of Light," for, like them, we "main- 
tain a trade, not for gold, silver or jewels; nor for silks; nor 
for spices; nor any commodity of matter, but only for God's 
first creature which was Light: to have light of the growth 
of all parts of the world."* 

The story is not a closed book. Nor is the enterprise upon 
which the Association started a half-century ago completed. 
There is still a great field for labor in cooperative effort 
directed toward larger opportunities for women in research, 
in fields of scholarship, in positions of administration and 
educational leadership, in advancement for scholars, both 
personal and professional. The Association has like hu- 
manity itself been dynamic, never static. The Association's 
pride is that it has been a part, through fifty years, of a great 
movement for human civilization especially as it relates to 
women. A great movement of centuries — not of years. Is 
not this a challenge to high resolve for accomplishment in 
the next half-century commensurate with the accomplish- 
ment of the last fifty years? 





Association of Collegiate Alumnae 

Jane ^ Field Bashford 1882-1883 

Florence M. Gushing 1883-1885 

Alice E. Freeman 1885-1887 

Helen Hiscock Backus 1887-1889 

Alice Freeman Palmer 1889-1890 

Bessie Bradwell Helmer 1890-1891 

Annie Howes Barus 1891-1893 

Martha Foote Crow 1893-1895 

Marion Talbot 1895-1897 

Alice Upton Pearmain 1897-1899 

Abby Leach 1899-1901 

Elizabeth H. Howe 1901-1903 

Eva Perry Moore 1903-1907 

Laura Drake Gill 1907-191 1 

May Treat Morrison 191 1-1913 

Caroline L. Humphrey ^1913-1917 

Lois Kimball Mathews 1917-1918 

Lois Kimball Mathews Rosenberry 1918-1921 

Western Association of Collegiate Alumna 

Jane M. Bancroft [Mrs. G. O. Robinson] 1883-1886 

May Wright Sewall 1886-1887 

Esse Bissell Dakin 1887 

Louisa Reed Stowell 1 887 

May Wright Sewall 1888-1889 

Southern Association of College Women 

Celestia S. Parrish 1903-1905 

Grace W. Landrum 1905-1906 

Lillian Wyckoff Johnson 1906-1908 

Emma Garrett Boyd 1908-1910 

* Jennie is the form of the name in the records. 

426 Appendix 

Annie May Dimmick (Mrs. J. B. Jones) 1910 

May Lansfield Keller 1910-1914 

Elizabeth Avery Colton 1914-1919 

Mary Leal Harkness (Mrs. S. C. Black) ,, 1919-1921 

American Association of University Women 

Ada L. Comstock 1921-1021 

Aurelia Henry Reinhardt iQ2';-iq27 

Mary E. Woolley *.'.'*; 1927- 




(Copied from Book I, Records of A.C.A., page 13) 

Meeting for Organization — January 14, 1882 

List of original members who were present when the organization 
was formed ; 

Vassar College — 
Ellen H. Richards, '70 
Elizabeth G. Houghton, '73 
Florence M. Cushing, '74 
Annie G. Howes, '74 
Mary L. Skillings, '74 
Ella Gardner, '77 
Sarah B. Freeman, '78 
Lydia P. Ray, '78 
Mary H. Rollins, '78 
L. M. Barr, '79 

K. E. Aldrich, '80 

Louise L. Brockway, *8o 

Jane Cushing, '80 

M. S. Morris, '80 

Elizabeth A. Skinner, '80 

Jessie F. Smith, '80 

E. B. Wentworth, *8o 

Mary L. Woodward, *8o 

Alice Hayes, '81 

C. E. White, '81 (20) 

Boston University — 
Agnes F. Williams, '77 
Martha M. Eddy, '78 
Lydia B. Godfrey, '78 
Sara S. Grimke, '78 
Ellen J. Lane, '78 
Clarimond Mansfield, '78 
Alice D. Mumford, '78 
Mary S. Butler, '79 

Elizabeth Curtis, '79 
Mary A. Molineux, '79 
Lucy G. Peabody, '79 
Mary A. Todd, '79 
Marion Talbot, '80 
Carrie E. Todd, '80 
Alice S. Blackwell, '81 
Harriet C. Peirce, '81 


Wellesley College — 
Mary R. Bartlett, '79 
Helen P. Wadleigh, '79 
Dora Freeman, '80 
Edith Metcalf, '80 
Harriet M. Peirce, *8o 

Harriet P. Rood, '80 
E. Maude Blodgett, '81 
Alice G. Egerton, '81 
Margaret P. Waterman, '81 
S. Adelaide Wells. '81 (10) 


Cornell University — 
Cornelia P. Upham, '74 
Mary H. Ladd, '75 
Margaret Hicks, '78 

Smith College — 
Julia H. Gulliver, '79 
Kate E. Morris, '79 
Anna L. Palmer, '79 

Wisconsin University — 
Jennie F. Bashford, '74 
Carrie A. Barber, '75 

Oberlin College — 
Lucy Stone, '46 

Michigan University — 
Alice E. Freeman, '76 


Cornelia D. Smith, *8o 

Robina S. Smith, '80 

Alice Goddard, '81 (6) 

Mary S. Locke, '80 

Eliza P. Huntington, '81 (5) 

Almah J. Frisby, '78 

Maria M. Dean, '80 (4) 

Ellen A. Hayes, '78 (2) 

i > 

Anna B. Gelston, *8i (2) (65) 



With Date of Admission 


Women with approved degrees (*) ^ from these institutions are eligi- 
ble to national membership. It should be noted that not all degrees 
conferred by these institutions have been recognized. Women who 
have completed two full years of academic work in one of the 
following institutions are eligible to associate membership in any 
branch granting such membership. 

1924 Adelphi College, Garden City, New York 

1921 Agnes Scott College, Decatur, Georgia 
1929 Albion College, Albion, Michigan 

1919 Allegheny College, Meadville, Pennsylvania 

1929 Baker University, Baldwin, Kansas 

191 8 Bates College, Lewiston, Maine 
1 92 1* Baylor University, W^aco, Texas 
1914 Beloit College, Beloit, Wisconsin 

1925 Birmingham-Southern College, Birmingham, Alabama 
1882 Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 

1929 Bradley Polytechnic Institute (College of Arts and Sciences, 
except B.S. in Industrial Education), Peoria, Illinois 

1 914 Brown University (Pembroke College), Providence, Rhode 

1890 Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania 

1915 Carleton College, Northfield, Minnesota 
1929 Carroll College, Waukesha, Wisconsin 

1922 Carthage College, Carthage, Illinois 
1929 Central College, Fayette, Missouri 

1919 Coe College, Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

1923 Colby College, Waterville, Maine 

1929 College of New Rochelle, New Rochelle, New York 

» Approved degrees are BA., B.S., B.L., B.Ph., the graduate degrees, and other 
bachelor degrees except the B.M., which require at least two years (a minimum of 
sixty credit hours) of non-professional, non-technical work which would be credited 
for the B.A. degree. 

• Star removed 192s* 

430 Appendix 

1 91 9 College of St. Catherine, St. Paul, Minnesota 

1919 College of St. Elizabeth, Convent Station, New Jersey 

1 91 9 College of St. Teresa, Winona, Minnesota 

1929 College of the Pacific, Stockton, California 

1927 College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Virginia 

1 91 7 College of Wooster, Wooster, Ohio 

1 91 4 Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colorado 

1899I Columbia University (Barnard and Teachers Colleges), New 

1917] York City, New York 

1925 Connecticut College for Women, New London, Connecticut 

1 92 1' Converse College, Spartanburg, South Carolina 

1 91 7 Cornell College, Mt. Vernon, Iowa 

1882 Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 

1922 Denison University, Granville, Ohio 

1 91 6 De Pauw University, Greencastle, Indiana 

1925 Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pennsylvania 

1913 Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 

1923 Drury College, Springfield, Missouri 

192 1 *Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 
1 916 Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana 

1 91 6 Elmira College, Elmira, New York 

1921 *Florida State College for Women (1917), Tallahassee, Florida 

191 7 Franklin College, Franklin, Indiana 

1921* George Peabody College for Teachers, Nashville, Tennessee 
1929 George Washington University, Washington, District of Co- 
1 92 1 *Georgetown College (191 9), Georgetown, Kentucky 

1914 Goucher College, Baltimore, Maryland 
191 2 Grinnell College, Grinnell, Iowa 

1929 Grove City College, Grove City, Pennsylvania 

1 92 1 Hamline University, St. Paul, Minnesota 

1927 Hillsdale College, Hillsdale, Michigan 

1924 Hood College, Frederick, Maryland 

1 92 1 *Howard College (1920), Birmingham, Alabama 

1922 Hunter College, New York City, New York 

1924 Illinois College, Jacksonville, Illinois 

1925 Illinois Wesleyan University, Bloomington, Illinois 
1921 Illinois Woman's College, Jacksonville, Illinois 

1 91 2 Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 

191 7 Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa 

1924 James Millikin University, Decatur, Illinois 

1924 Kansas Agricultural College, Manhattan, Kansas 

* Star removed 1923. * Star removed ipsS. 

Appendix 431 

1913 Knox College, Galesburg, Illinois 
1918 Lake Erie College, Painesville, Ohio 

1914 Lake Forest College, Lake Forest, Illinois 
1912 Lawrence College, Appletott, Wisconsin 

1921* Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 
1929 Macalester College, St. Paul, Minnesota 
1925 Margaret Morrison Carnegie College for Women, Pittsburgh, 

1882 Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massa- 


1924 Meredith College, Raleigh, North Carolina 

191 7 Miami University, Oxford, Ohio 

1921 Middlebury College, Middlebury, Vermont 

191 8 Mills College. Mills College, California 

1918 Milwaukee-Downer College, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 

1929 Mississippi State College for Women, Columbus, Mississippi 

1927 Monmouth College, Monmouth, Illinois 

1925 Montana State College, Bozeman, Montana 
1920 Montana State University, Missoula, Montana 
1920 Morningside College, Sioux City, Iowa 

191 2 Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, Massachusetts 
1929 Mount Union College, Alliance, Ohio 

1929 New Jersey College for Women, New Brunswick, New Jersey 
1927 New York University (Washington Square College), New 

York City, New York 
1927 North Carolina College for Women, Greensboro, North 


1883 Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 
1882 Oberlin College, Oberlin, Ohio 

1922 Occidental College, Los Angeles, California 

1913 Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 
1927 Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 

191 5 Ohio Wesleyan University, Delaware, Ohio 

1929 Oklahoma College for Women, Chickasha, Oklahoma 

1924 Oregon State Agricultural College, Corvallis, Oregon 

1929 Otterbein College, Westerville, Ohio 

1924 Park College, Parkville, Missouri 

1925 Pennsylvania College for W^omen, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

1919 Pennsylvania State College, State College, Pennsylvania 
1915 Pomona College, Claremont, California 

191 5 Purdue University, LaFayette, Indiana 
1897 Radcliffe College, Cambridge, Massachusetts 
* Star removed lO^S- 

432 Appendix 

1919 Randolph-Macon Woman's College, Lynchburg, Virginia 

1917 Reed College, Portland, Oregon 

1920 Ripon College, Ripon, Wisconsin 

1918 Rockford College, Rockford, Illinois 
1925 Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois 
1927 Russell Sage College, Troy, New York 
1927 St. Lawrence University, Canton, New York 

1929 St. Mary-of- the- Woods College, St. Mary-of-the-Woods, 


1927 St. Olaf College, Northfield, Minnesota 

1929 Seton Hill College, Greensburg, Pennsylvania 

1929 Shorter College, Rome, Georgia 

1925 Simmons College, Boston, Massachusetts 

1927 Simpson College, Indianola, Iowa 

1929 Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, New York 

1882 Smith College, Northampton, Massachusetts 

1929 Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 

1897 Stanford University, Stanford University, California 

191 2 Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, Pennsylvania 
1921 ' Sweet Briar College, Sweet Briar, Virginia 
1882 Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York 
1927 Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 

1925 Texas State College for Women (College of Industrial Arts), 
Denton, Texas 

1 92 1 * Transylvania College, Lexington, Kentucky 

1 91 5 Trinity College, Washington, District of Columbia 
191 7 Tufts College (Jackson College), Tufts College, Massachusetts 
1 92 1 Tulane University (Sophie Newcomb College), New Orleans, 

1920 University of Akron, Akron, Ohio 

1 92 1 3 University of Alabama, University, Alabama 
1924 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 
1929 University of Bufifalo, Buffalo, New York 
1886 University of California, Berkeley, California 
1886 University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, Cali- 

1 92 1 *University of Chattanooga, Chattanooga, Tennessee 
1897 University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 

1 91 3 University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 

1914 University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 

1929 University of Delaware (Woman's College), Newark, Dela- 
■ Star removed 1933. ■ Star removed 1923. * Star removed 1929* 














921 * 






921 3 



University o 
University o 
University o 
University o 
University o 
University o 
University o 
University o 
^ University o 
University o 
University o 
University o 
University o 
University o 
University o 
University o 
University o 

Denver, Denver, Colorado 
Georgia, Athens, Georgia 
Hawaii (A.B. degree only), Honolulu, Hawaii 
Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 
Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 
Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 
Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 
Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 
Louisville (191 5), Louisville, Kentucky 
Maine, Orono, Maine 
Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 
Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 
Mississippi, Oxford, Mississippi 
Missouri, Columbia, Missouri 
Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska 
Nevada, Reno, Nevada 
New Hampshire (College of Liberal Arts), 

Durham, New Hampshire 
University of North Dakota, University, North Dakota 
University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 
University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 
University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 
University of Redlands, Redlands, California 
University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 
University of South Dakota, Vermillion, South Dakota 
University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 
University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 
University of Texas, Austin, Texas 
University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont 
University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 
University of West Virginia, Morgantown, West Virginia 
University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 
University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 
Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, New York 
W'ashburn College, Topeka, Kansas 

' During a probationary period ending May 31, I93i. women holding approved 
degrees from these institutions (which were recognized by the Southern Association of 
College Women, but have not yet completely met the requirements of the American 
Association of University Women) are eligible for national membership. At the end 
of the probationary period, those institutions which have not fully qualified will be 
dropped and their graduates will no longer be entitled to apply for national membership. 

The date in parenthesis following the name of a college indicates the year in which 
eligible degrees were first granted by that college. 

• Star removed 1924. * Star removed 1927. 

434 Appendix 

191 7 Washington State College, Pullman, Washington 
1914 Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 
1882 Wellesley College, Wellesley, Massachusetts 

1916 Wells College, Aurora, New York 
192 1 » Wesleyan College, Macon, Georgia 

1921 Western College for Women, Oxford, Ohio 

1899 Western Reserve University (College for Women), Cleveland, 

1921 « Westhampton College, Richmond, Virginia 
1924 Westminster College, New Wilmington, Pennsylvania 

1923 Wheaton College, Norton, Massachusetts 

1 91 9 Whitman College, Walla Walla, Washington 
1929 Willamette University, Salem, Oregon 

191 7 William Smith College, Geneva, New York 

1924 Wilson College, Chambersburg, Pennsylvania 

1925 Wittenberg College, Springfield, Ohio 

1922 Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 



Graduates with higher degrees from these institutions are eligible 
to national membership. 
Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts. 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina 
University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 
Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 

Foreign Universities 

Graduates holding degrees from the universities approved by 
the International Federation of University Women are eligible to 
national membership. Women who have completed two full years 
of academic work are eligible to associate membership in any branch 
granting such membership. 

For a list of these universities write to the A.A.U.W. headquarters, 
1634 Eye Street, N.W., Washington, D.C. 
■ Star removed 1925. * Star removed I923« 


October i, 1930) 


Greenwich 191 2 
New Haven 1892 
New London 191 5 
Norwalk 1923 
Norwich 1925 

Wilmington 1923 

Bangor 1925 
Houlton 1929 
Lincoln County 1926 
Orono 1924 
Waterville 1924 

Boston 1886 
Connecticut Valley 1925 
Fall River 1899 
Gardner 1929 
Lowell 1929 
New Bedford 1930 
Worcester 1926 

New Hampshire 
Great Bay 1928 
Littleton 1930 
Merrimack Valley 1929 
Monadnock 1929 

« Formerly Eastern New York Branch. 

• Formerly Eastern Steuben Branch. 

* Formerly part of Chautauqua County 

New Jersey 
Atlantic City 191 7 
Bloomfield 1928 
Camden-Merchantville 1929 
Elizabeth 1927 
Essex County 1926 
Hackensack 1928 
Madison 1929 
Monmouth County 1928 
Montclair 1928 
Mountain Lakes 1923 
New Brunswick 1928 
Northern Valley 1927 
Nutley 1927 
Somerville 1929 
Trenton 1929 
Orange 1930 • 

New York 
Adirondack 1926 
Albany 1890* 
Binghamton 1900 
Buffalo 1889 
Central New York (Syracuse) 

Corning 1920* 

Dunkirk and Fredonia 1927 * 
Elmira 1916 
Ithaca 1918 
Jamestown 1921 
Nassau County 1926 




New York City 1886 
Oswego 191 8 
Poughkeepsie 1925 
Rochester 191 5 
St. Lawrence County 1927 
Schenectady 1923 
Utica 1 91 3 
Waverly 1926 
Westfield 1927 » 

Beaver Valley 1930 
Bethlehem 1929 
Blair County 1927 
Bradford 1921 
Carlisle 1924 
Chambersburg 1925 
DuBois 1928 
Easton 1926 
Erie 1902 
Harrisburg 1 921 
Huntington 1926 
Johnstown 1923 
Meadville 1926 

Philadelphia 1886 
Pittsburgh 1895 
Reading 1923 
Sayre 1923 
State College 1916 
Stroudsburg 1926 
Washington 1925 
Wilkes-Barre 1925 

Rhode Island 
Kingston 1923 
Providence 1892 

Bennington 1926 
Brattleboro 1926 
Burlington 1922 
Middlebury 1922 
Montpelier 1922 
Randolph 1928 
Rutland 1923 


Madrid 1926 


District of Columbia 
Washington 1884 

Central (Orlando) 1928 
Gainesville 1926 
Jacksonville 1926 
Miami 1926 
Pensacola 1926 
St. Petersburg 1924 
Sarasota 1926 
Tallahassee 1923 ' 

Tampa 191 6 

Athens 1926 
» Formerly part of Chautauqua County 

Atlanta 1905 
Augusta 1919 
Macon 1926 
Milledgeville 1925 
Rome 1 91 9 
Savannah 1925 
Valdosta 1930 

Baltimore 1921 
College Park 1929 
Frederick 1925 

North Carolina 
Chapel Hill 1922 
Charlotte 191 3 



Durham 1913 
Greensboro 191 2 
Greenville 1929 
High Point 1926 
Raleigh 1909 
Statesville 1929 
Western (Asheville) 191 5 
Winston-Salem 191 4 

South Carolina 
Columbia 1923 
Gaffney 1927 
Greenville 1920 
Greenwood 1930 
Hartsville 1920 
Rock Hill 1925 
Spartanburg 1921 

Blacksburg 1926 
Charlottesville 1923 
East Radford 1928 
Harrisonburg 1929 
Lynchburg 1920 

Newport News 1926 
Norfolk 191 8 
Petersburg 1926 
Richmond 1909 
Roanoke 1923 
South Boston 1928 
Sweet Briar 1921 
Williamsburg 1923 

West Virginia 
Athens 1925 
Cameron 1929 
Charleston 1925 
Clarksburg 1925 
Fairmont 1923 
Huntington 1908 
Keyser 1930 
Logan County 1927 
Martinsburg 1927 
Morgan town 1922 
Parkersburg 1923 

Porto Rico 
San Juan 1924 


Aurora 191 9 
Bloomington 1913 
Carbondale 1926 
Carthage 1920 
Chicago 1889 
Crawford County 1927 
Danville 1925 
DeKalb 1930 
East St. Louis 1923 
Elgin 1920 
Eureka 1925 
Illinois-Iowa 1909 
Jacksonville 1922 
Lincoln 1930 
May wood 1930 
Monmouth 1924 

Pekin 1930 
Quincy 1923 
Rockford 1930 
Springfield 1906 
Urbana 1902 
Waukegan 1928 
W^estern Springs 1926 
Wheaton 1929 

Anderson 1925 
Bloomington 1913 
Connorsville 1924 
Crawfordsville 1925 
Evansville 1923 
Greencastle 1924 
Indianapolis 1889 



Johnson County 1924 
Lafayette 191 6 
LaPorte 1926 
Logansport 1925 
Marion 1923 
Michigan City 1925 
Muncie 1925 
Peru 1925 
Richmond 1924 
South Bend 1922 
Terre Haute 1924 
Vincennes 1926 

Albion 1922 
Alma 1929 
Ann Arbor 1902 
Battle Creek 191 7 
Birmingham 1920 
Copper Country 1923 
Crystal Falls 1923 
Detroit 1889 
Flint 1919 
Hillsdale 1928 
Iron Mountain 1 92 1 
Jackson 1926 
Kalamazoo 1914 
Lansing 191 2 
Marquette 1929 
Niles 1916 
Port Huron 1 920 
Romeo 1929 
Saginaw 1921 

Ada 1930 
Akron 1927 
Athens 1927 

Central (Granville) 1925 
Cincinnati 1907 
Cleveland 1891 

Columbus 1903 
Gallipolis 1929 
Hamilton 1923 
Kent 1927 
Kenton 1930 
Marietta 1928 
Martins Ferry 1927 
Middletown 1925 
Oberlin 1914 
Oxford 1922 
Painesville 1924 
Springfield 1927 
Toledo 1900 
Warren 1923 
Westerville 1929 
Wooster 1923 
Youngstown 1898 
Zanesville 1930 

Appleton 1 91 3 
Ashland 1926 
Beloit 1 91 4 
Fond du Lac 1922 
Green Bay 1927 
Janesville 1923 
Kenosha 1919 
LaCrosse 1922 
Madison 1909 
Manitowoc 1930 
Marinette- Menominee 1928 
Milwaukee 1894 
Oconomowoc 1923 
Oshkosh 1 914 
Racine 1922 
Ripon 1920 
Sheboygan 1923 
Superior 191 4 
Watertown 1924 
Waukesha 1925 
Wausau 1921 




Anniston 1926 
Athens 1929 
Auburn 1925 
Birmingham 1907 
Florence 1925 
Montevallo 1928 
Montgomery 1907 
Tuscaloosa 1929 

Danville 1923 
Hopkinsville 1928 
Lexington 191 4 
Louisville 191 8 

Baton Rouge 1914 
Lafayette 1927 
Natchitoches 1916 

New Orleans 1908 
Shreveport 1928 

Columbus 1909 
Grenada 1930 
Gulf port 1924 
Jackson 191 6 
Meridian 1924 
Oxford 1929 
Vicksburg 1923 

Chattanooga 1927 
Harrogate 1927 
Knoxville 1903 
Memphis 1926 
Murfreesboro 191 3 
Nashville 1907 


Ames 1918 
Cedar Falls 1925 
Cedar Rapids 1927 
Cherokee 1929 
Des Moines 1914 
Fairfield 1926 
Hardin County 1926 
Indianola 1924 
Iowa City 1925 
Keokuk 1923 
Marshalltown 1920 
Mt. Vernon 191 9 
Nashua 1929 
Pocahontas County 1929 
Rockford 1929 
Shenandoah 1922 
Sioux City 191 5 
Waterloo 191 9 
Waverly 1928 

Albert Lea 1928 
Bemidji 1929 
Duluth 1908 
Ely 1926 
Fairmont 1920 
Faribault 1925 
Hibbing 1923 
Mankato 191 8 
Minneapolis 1889 
Northfield 1916 
Pipestone 1923 
Red Wing 1927 
Rochester 1919 
St. Cloud 1922 
St. Paul 1909 
Winona 1923 

Kearney 1926 



Lincoln 1900 
McCook 1930 
Omaha 1907 
Wayne 1928 

North Dakota 
Dickinson 1929 
Fargo-Moorhead 1922 
Grand Forks 191 7 
Valley City 1916 

South Dakota 
Aberdeen 1924 
Black Hills 1927 
Huron 191 7 
Madison 1926 
Rapid City 1927 
Sioux Falls 1923 
Springfield 1929 
Vermillion 191 7 
Yankton 1927 


Conway 1925 
El Dorado 1926 
Fayetteville 1922 
Hot Springs 1923 
Little Rock 1922 
Magnolia 1929 
Texarkana 1930 

Atchison 1927 
Baldwin 1923 
Chase County 1928 
Coffey ville 1928 
Dodge City 1925 
Emporia 191 6 
Fort Scott 1926 
Hays 1928 
Hiawatha 1926 
Hutchinson 1925 
Independence 1923 
lola 1927 

Junction City 1923 
Kansas City 1927 
Lawrence 1906 
McPherson 1929 
Manhattan 1921 
Northwest kansas 1930 
Ottawa 1927 
Parsons 1924 
« Formerly Jasper County Branch. 

Pittsburg 1926 
Salina 1924 
Topeka 1 91 7 
Wellington 1925 
Wichita 1920 

Cape Girardeau 1923 
Carthage 1926 ^ 
Chillicothe 1930 
Columbia 1907 
Fayette 1929 
Fulton 1922 
Jefferson City 1928 
Joplin 1926^ 
Kansas City 1893 
Kirks ville 1922 
Marshall 1927 
Maryville 1918 
Nevada 1929 
Rolla 1930 

St. Frangois County 1929 
St. Joseph 1925 
St. Louis 1898 
Springfield 192 1 
Vandalia 1923 
Warrensburg 1920 


Ada 1929 



Ardmore 1922 
Bartlesville 1923 
Blackwell 1926 
Chickasha 1921 
Edmond 1923 
Enid 1928 
McAlester 1928 
Muskogee 1922 
Norman 1921 
Oklahoma City 1921 
Okmulgee 1927 
Ponca City 1922 
Sapulpa 1922 
Shawnee 1926 
Stillwater 1923 
Tulsa 1 91 8 

Amarillo 1923 
Austin 1923 
Belton 1928 

Brownwood 1930 
Canyon 1928 
Commerce 1925 
Corpus Christi 1927 
Dallas 1908 
Denton 1927 
El Paso 1 91 5 
Fort Worth 191 4 
Georgetown 1923 
Greenville 1928 
Huntsville 1928 
Kingsville 1929 
Lubbock 1926 
Marshall 1930 
Pampa 1928 
Plainview 1928 
Port Arthur 1930 
San Antonio 1909 
vSan Marcos 1928 
Waco 1926 
Wichita Falls 1927 



Boulder 1926 
Colorado Springs 191 5 
Denver 1898 ' 
Fort Collins 1921 
Grand Junction 1927 
Greeley 1924 
Gunnison 1927 
La Junta 1929 
Pueblo 1 91 7 
Rocky Ford 1927 

New Mexico 
Albuquerque 1927 
Carlsbad 1928 
Las Cruces 1923 

Salt Lake City 191 7 

Laramie 1925 * 
Sheridan 1914* 


Idaho Twin Falls 1926 
Boise 1930 

Lewiston 1922 Montana 

Moscow 1922 Billings 1924 

Pocatello 1 91 9 Bozeman 1924 

• Formerly Colorado Branch. 

■ Formerly Laramie and Sheridan were organized as the Wyoming State Branch. 



Butte 1930 
Great Falls 1914 
Helena 1923 
Missoula 1909 

Astoria 1927 
Baker 1930 
Corvallis 1921 
Eugene 191 2 
Klamath Falls 1925 
La Grande 1930 
Portland 1905 
Roseburg 1928 

Salem 1922 

Bellingham 1918 
Cowlitz 1923 
Gray's Harbor 1 91 9 
Lewis County 1923 
Olympia 1925 
Pullman 1917 
Seattle 1904 
Spokane 1909 
Tacoma 1907 
Walla Walla 1921 
Yakima 1910' 


Bisbee 1929 
Phoenix 1923 

Bakersfield 1926 
Chico 1920* 
East Bay 1925 
Fresno 191 6 
Glendale 1924 
Imperial Valley 1914 
Lindsay 1925 
Long Beach 1920 
Los Angeles 1907 
Monterey County 1928 
Napa County 1929 
Orange County 1925 
Palo Alto 1930 
Pomona Valley 191 8 
Porterville 1930 
Rio Hondo District 1930 
Sacramento 1920 
San Diego 191 7 
San Francisco Bay 1886 
San Gorgonio 1909 

* Formerly Yakima Valley Branch. 

■ Formerly Northern California Branch. 

San Joaquin 1928 
San Jose 1909 
Santa Barbara 191 5 
Santa Monica 1924 
Sequoia 1926 
Stanislaus 1925 
Ventura County 191 7 
Whittier 1925 
Yuba Sutter 1928 

Carson Valley 1924 
Reno 191 7 


Peking (Peiping) 191 9 
Shanghai 1922 
Tientsin 1927 

Honolulu 191 7 

Tokyo 1 91 9 


Philippine Islands 
Manila 191 2 




The Association of Collegiate Alumna 
The American Association of University Women 
The Western Association of Collegiate Alumnae 

(With List of Fellows, i 888-1 931) 

Association of Collegiate Alumnae American (discontinued) 

1891-92 Alice Carter (Mrs. O. F. Cook) 

1892-93 Susan Braley Franklin 

1893-94 Elizabeth Deering Hanscom 

1894-95 Helen Bartlett 

1895-96 Nellie Neilson 

1896-97 Margaret Lewis (Mrs. Winfield Scott Nickerson) 

1897-98 Ethel D. Puffer (Mrs. Benjamin A. Howes) 

1898-99 Caroline Ellen Furness 

Anna C. Brackett Memorial • 

191 3-14 Minnie E. Waite 

1915-16 Dorothy A. Hahn 

1 91 7-1 8 Elizabeth A. Herrmann (Mrs. N. Henry Black) 

191 7-1 8 (second half) Mary Lilias Richardson 

1919-20 Harriet E. O'Shea 

1921-22 Anna Leila Martin 

1923-24 Margaret Schlauch 

1925-26 Mary Albertson 

1927-28 Eugenie M. Morenus 

1929-30 Edna Gordon 

Alice Freeman Palmer Memorial 
1908-09 Nettie Maria Stevens 
1910-11 Mary Inda Hussey 
1911-12 Anna Prichitt Youngman 
191 2-13 Bertha Haven Putnam 
1 91 3-1 4 Katherine Berry Judson 

444 Appendix 

1 914-15 Louise Fargo Brown 

191 5-16 Laetitia Morris Snow 

191 8-19 Bertha Haven Putnam 

1920-21 Helen Moore Johnson 

1921-22 Emilie J. Hutchinson 

1922-23 Dora Neill Raymond (Mrs.) 

1924-25 Elizabeth Stuart Gatewood (Mrs. Wallace Pietsch) 

1925-26 Annie H. Abel Henderson 

1926-27 Viola Florence Barnes 

1927-28 Hazel Dorothy Hansen 

Alpha Xi Delta 

1926-27 Cecelia Riegel 

1928-29 Ava Josephine McAmis 

1930-31 Ethel Burack 

Boston Alumnae 

1 91 2-1 3 Florence Peebles 

1914-15 Olive C. Hazlett 

191 7-1 8 Charlotte Elliott 

1919-20 Martha Richardson Jones 

1920-21 Myra Melissa Sampson 

1922-23 Dorothy Louise Mackay 

1923-24 Alice Hall Armstrong 

1924-25 Katharine Canby Balderston 

1925-26 Mildred Watkins Grafflin 

1927-28 Isabel Ross Abbott 

1929-30 Elizabeth Juanita Greer 

1930-31 P'rances M. Ryan 

A.A.U.W. European 

1890-91 Louisa Holman Richardson (Mrs. Everett O. Fisk) 

1891-92 Ruth Gentry 

1891-92 Julia Warner Snow 

1892-93 Alice Walton 

1893-94 Ida Henrietta Hyde 

1894-95 Annie Mackinnon (Mrs. Edward Fitch) 

1895-96 Margaret Eliza Maltby 

1895-96 Mary Frances Winston (Mrs. H. B. Newson) 

1896-97 Mary Taylor Blauvelt 

1897-98 Mary Gilmore Williams 

1897-98 Fanny Cook Gates 

1897-98 Grace Neal Dolson (Sister Superior) 




Caroline Taylor Stewart 

EloivSe Ellery 

Helen Bradford Thompson (Mrs. Paul G. Woolley) 

Susan Helen Ballou 

Frances Gardiner Davenport 

Florence Mary Fitch 

Kate Gordon 

Alma Blount 

Aurelia Henry (Mrs. George F. Reinhardt) 

Edith Abbott 

Geneva Misener 

Adolphine B. Ernst 

Alma de Lande Le Due 

Hope Emily Allen 

Edith Corrinne Stephenson (Mrs. Radoslav A. Tsanoff) 

Margaret Coleman Waites 

Ruth Holden 

Angle L. Kellogg 

Judith Blow Williams • 

Hilda Hempl (Mrs. Edmund Heller) 

Margaret M. Justin (used in 1922-23) 

Helen Elizabeth Patch 

Margaret Buchanan (Mrs. H. O. Cole) 

Mary Ballantine Hume (Mrs. John McArthur Maguire) 

Wanda I. Fraiken (Mrs. Emery E. Neff) 

Marguerite Lehr « 

Elizabeth Wilson Marshall 

Mary Anngenette Noble 

Elizabeth Acly (Mrs. Martin C. Teves) 

Marie L. Channing Linthicum 

Dorothy Louise Mackay 

Eleanore Boswell 

Georgia Robison 

Gamma Phi Beta 

1917-18 Inez May Neterer 

1919-20 Amelia Kellogg MacMaster 

1922-23 Margaret T. Hodgen 

1923-24 Dorothy W. Atkinson 

1924-25 Martha Oliver Eckford 

1926-27 Dorothy Ann Koch 

1928-29 Mildred Fairchild 

1930-31 Effie Marie Ross 

446 Appendix 

A.A.U.W. International 

1923-24 Leonore Brecher 

1924-25 Gudrun Ruud 

1926-27 Tatiana Warscher 

1927-28 Jeanne Vielliard 

1928-29 Tatiana Warscher 

1929-30 Hilma Natalia Granquist 

1930-31 Wilhelmina P. Frylinck 

Julia C. G. Piatt Memorial 

1918-19 Mary Lilias Richardson 

1920-21 (first half) Elmira Lodor 

1921-22 (second half) Hannah Grace Roach 

1922-23 Mary Emily Sinclair 

1924-25 Adele Wildes (Mrs. Thomas F. Comber, Jr.) 

1928-29 Ethel J. Boufifleur 


1 91 7-21 Virginia P. Alvarez (Mrs. Lindley M. Hussey) 

1921-23 Maria Teresa Mora (Mrs. Domingo Nochera) 

1923-24 Margarita Mieres-Cartes (Senora de Rivas) 

1924-25 Ruth Belin Esparza 

1927-28 Emilia Deseo 

1928-29 Lidia Santelices V. 

1929-30 Sofia Pincheira 

1930-31 Adelpha C. S, Rodrigues 

Latin- American Investigation 

1926-27 Mary Wilhelmine Williams 

Margaret E. Maltby 
1926-27 Esther Caukin 
1927-28 Es telle Freeman 
1928-29 Charlotte Tempest Perry 
1929-30 Dorothy Richardson 
1930-31 Autrey Nell Wiley 

Mary Pemberton Nourse Memorial 
1925-26 Martha Koehne 
1927-28 Helen Tracy Parsons 
1929-30 Rachel S. Hofi'stadt 

Appendix 447 

Northwest Central Sectional 

1929-30 Ruth May Bourne 

I930~3i Anne E. Lincoln 

Phi Mu 

1924-25 Rose Frances Egan 

1925-26 Mary C. McKee 

1926-27 Alma J. Neill 

1927-28 Margaret Pitkin 

1928-29 Rosemond Tuve 

Rose Sidgwick Memorial 

1922-23 Una M. Ellis- Fermor 

1923-24 Grace Gertrude Gilchrist (Mrs. John Ferguson) 

1924-25 Cecilia H. Payne 

1925-26 Maria Bedford TeWater 

1926-27 R. Evelyn Lucas 

1928-29 Kathleen E. Carpenter 

I930~3i Kitty Karoline Klugmann 

Sarah Berliner Research and Lecture 

1909-10 Caroline McGill 

1911-12 Edna Carter 

1 91 2-1 3 Gertrude Rand (Mrs. C. E. Ferree) 

1 91 3-14 Elizabeth R. Laird 

1914-15 Ethel Browne (Mrs. E. Newton Harvey) 

191 5-16 Janet T. Howell (Mrs. Admont H. Clark) 

1916-17 Mildred West Loring (Mrs. E. L. Sylvester) 

191 7 Vera Danchakoff 

191 7-1 8 Carlotta Joaquina Maury 

191 8-19 Marjorie O'Connell (Mrs. William Shearon) 

191 8-19 Cornelia Kennedy 

1919-20 Olive Swezy 

1920-21 Helene Connet (Mrs. David W. Wilson) 

1921-22 Frances Gertrude Wick 

1922-23 Ruth B. Howland 

1923-24 Helen C. Coombs 

1924-25 Leonora Neuffer (Mrs. E. M. Bilger) 

1925-26 Hope Hibbard 

1926-27 Helen R. Downes 

1927-28 Jane Sands (Mrs. Robert C. Robb) 

1928-29 Mary Lura Sherrill 

448 Appendix 

1929-30 Sally Hughes Schrader 
1930-31 Abby H. Turner 

Southwest Central Sectional 

1929-30 Mary Virginia Henderson 

Undesignated, or Pre-School 

1927-28 Elizabeth Evans Lord 

Western Association of Collegiate Alumnae (discontinued) 
1888-89 Ida M. Street 
1889-90 Arlisle M. Young 



President: Mary E. Woolley, Litt.D., LL.D., Mount Holyoke 

College, South Hadley, Massachusetts 
First Vice-President: Dorothy B. Atkinson (Mrs. F. G.), B.A., 

104 Groveland Terrace, Minneapolis, Minnesota 
Second Vice-President; Gertrude Romans Cooper (Mrs. A. W.), 

B.A., 625 Gerald Avenue, Portland, Oregon 
Treasurer: Vassie J. Hill (Mrs. A. Ross), B.A., 800 West 52nd Street, 

Kansas City, Missouri 
Comptroller: Yna R. McCIintock (Mrs. J. K.), M.A., 1634 Eye 

Street, Northwest, Washington, D.C. 
Executive, and Educational Secretary: Kathryn McHale, Ph.D., 

1634 Eye Street, Northwest, Washington, D.C. 
Headquarters Secretary: Belle Rankin, B.A., 1634 Eye Street, 

Northwest, Washington, D.C. 

Sectional Directors 
North Atlantic Section: Elizabeth B. Kirkbride, B.A., 314 State 

Street, Albany, New York 
South Atlantic Section: Florence Harmer (Mrs. Harvey W^), M.A., 

531 Horner Avenue, Clarksburg, West Virginia 
Northeast Central Section: Alice Wright, B.A., 230 East Wells 

Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
Southeast Central Section: Florence Dymond, B.A., 839 Pine Street, 

New Orleans, Louisiana 
Northwest Central Section: Georgetta Waters (Mrs. F. H.), B.L., 

713 Eighth Street, Ames, Iowa 
Southwest Central Section: Grace Wilkie, M.A., University of 

Wichita, Wichita, Kansas 
Rocky Mountain Section: Martha Hoag Clifford (Mrs. Wm. H.), 

M.A., M.D., 1901 Cherry Street, Denver, Colorado 
North Pacific Section: Anna Lytle Brannon (Mrs. Melvin A.), 

B.A., 427 Power Street, Helena, Montana 
South Pacific Section: Irene Taylor Heineman (Mrs. Arthur S.), 

M.A., 254 South Spalding Drive, Beverly Hills, California 
Chairman, Committee on International Relations: Aurelia Henry 

Reinhardt (Mrs. G. F.), Ph.D., Mills College, California 




Economic and Legal Status of Women, Mrs. Otto Beyer, M.S., 

Spring Hill, McLean, Va. 
Educational Policies, Lois Hayden Meek, Ph.D.,. 52 Perry St., 

New York City 
Fellowship Awards, EmiHe J. Hutchinj;on, Ph.D., Barnard College, 

Columbia University, New York City 
International Relations, Aurelia Henry Reinhardt, Ph.D., Mills 

College, California 
Legislation, Mrs. Glen Levin Swiggett, B.A., Mendota Apt., Wash- 
ington, D.C. 
Maintaining Standards, Emily H. Dutton, Ph.D., Sweet Briar 

College, Sweet Briar, Virginia 
Membership, Katharine R. Adams, Ph.D., Dean of College, Mills 

College, California 
National Club, Mrs. Otto L. VeerhofT, B.A., 604 Aspen Street, N.W., 

Washington, D.C. 
Publications, Elizabeth E. Wellington, M.A., Hotel Gramatin, 

Bronxville, N.Y. 
Publicity, Marie Dickore, M.A., 3325 Burnet Avenue, Cincinnati, 


Special Committees, 1930-31 

Fine Arts, Lura Beam, M.A., chairman, 23 Midland Avenue, 
Bronxville, New York 

Million Dollar Fellowship Fund, National Appeal Committee^ 
Dorothy B. Atkinson (Mrs. F. G), A.B., chairman, 104 Grove- 
land Terrace, Minneapolis, Minnesota 



Abbott, Frances M., paper of, 
on 'Needs and Endowments of 
Women's Colleges,' 183 

Abbott, Grace, of the Children's 
Bureau in Washington, 221 

Abbott, Mary M., her services to 
Connecticut Branch and Na- 
tional Education Association, 
220; and the Parent-Teacher 
Association, 297, 298 

Aberdeen, Lady, 301 

Academic appointments, 199, 200 

Adams, Elizabeth Kemper, chair- 
man of Vocational Opportunities 
Committee, 207, 233-36, 319; 
initiates Professional Section of 
United States Employment Ser- 
vice, 208; paper of, on 'The 
Psychological Gains and Losses 
of the College Woman,' 231, 

Adams, Dr. Herbert B., of Johns 
Hopkins University, 313 

Addams, Jane, of Hull House, 108, 
236, 267 

Admission to A.C.A. and A.A.U.W., 
institutional, early procedure, 
63; first Committee on Admis- 
sion of Colleges (May i, 1882), 
63, 64, 69; individual, 63, 78; 
Committee on College Work, 
64; new procedure (1886), 65; 
measure of Jan. 14, 1888, 66; 
pressure for admission, 66, 67; 
local interests, 67; vote of Oct. 
25, 1889, as to requirements, 68, 
69; the problem as stated in 
secretary's report of Oct. 1891, 
69; vote of 1892, 69; vote of 1893, 
69, 70; Committee on Unifica- 
tion of Collegiate Standards, 
(1895), 70; Committee on Cor- 
porate Membership, 70-83; vote 
of 1896, 70, 71; statement of 
principles followed in making 
recommendations (1897), 71, 72; 
of state institutions, 73; high 

standard of, maintained, 79; 
question of a more liberal 
standard, 79, 80; reasonable 
recognition of women required, 
80, 82 ; difficulty of gathering and 
arranging data, 80; adoption of 
standards of Carnegie Founda- 
tion, 81, 82, 84; of women from 
foreign universities, 82, 83; 
adoption of standards of U.S. 
Bureau of Education, 83, 84; 
standards of Federal Bureau of 
Education and Carnegie Founda- 
tion abandoned, 84, 85; adoption 
of list recommended by Associa- 
tion of American Universities, 
85, 87; as regards graduates of 
technical courses, 85-91; recom- 
mendation concerning alumnse 
with at least two years' work 
credited towards arts degree, 
86; recommendation of lists of 
regional rating agencies, 86, 87; 
bulletin, 'Information Concern- 
ing Institutional Mesnbership 
in the American Association of 
University Women,' 89; further 
recommendations toward broad- 
ening basis of eligibility (1924, 
1925), 89-91; as regards proba- 
tionary period, 90, 91; return to 
ratings of Association of Ameri- 
can Universities, 92 

Adult education, post-graduate 
study at home and abroad, 143- 
55; work of branches in, 342, 
343; a program of, 401-15. See 
also Study groups; University 
extension work 

Agnes Scott College, becomes 
member of A.C.A. , 60 

Albright, Mrs., gift from, 158 • 

Allen, Annie E., on committee to 
consider institutional member- 
ship, 70; on committee to pre- 
pare leaflet on 'Health in Pre- 
paratory Schools,' 125 



Alpha Xi Delta Fraternity, fellow- 
ship offered by, 163 

Alvarez, Virginia P. (Mrs. Lindley 
M. Hussey), holder of Latin- 
American fellowship, 267 

Alvord, Katherine S., of University 
of Wisconsin and DePauw Uni- 
versity, 377, 378 ^ 

American Association of Library 
Schools, its accredited list of 
schools, 88 

American Association of University 
Women, result of union of Asso- 
ciation of Collegiate Women and 
Southern Association of College 
Women, 28, 36, 58-62; constitu- 
tion of, 28, 29; conventions, 37, 
39; committees of, 38, 39; board 
of directors, 39; charter and 
by-laws, 39 n. ; South Atlantic 
and Southeast Central Sections 
of, 61, 62; admission to, 87-92; 
Sectional Committees on Rec- 
ognition, 88, 89; present mem- 
bership of, 92; achievements 
of committees on institutional 
membership, 93, 94; aid from 
foundation received by, 138; ap- 
pointment of educational secre- 
tary, 305, 404; what it does, 418- 
20; list of presidents, 426; of- 
ficers of (1930-1931), 449; stand- 
ing committees and chairmen 
(i 930-1931), 450. See also Asso- 
ciation of Collegiate Alum- 

American Council of Education, 
245, 301, 302 

American Historical Society, 402 

American Home Economics Associ- 
ation, 222 

American University Union in 
Europe, I59 ^ 

American University Women's 
Club, Paris, 396 

American University Women's 
Paris Center, 274, 275 

Americanization, work of, 247, 

353. 354 
Ames, Alice V. (later Mrs. Thomas 

G. Winter), secretary pro tern of 

the Minnesota Branch of the 

A.C.A., 105 
'Amherst County Day,' 356 

Amos, Thyrsa W., of the Pitts- 
burgh Branch, 344 

Anderson, Frances, of Committee 
on Foreign Students, 266 

Andrews, Lucy C, member of first 
meeting called to consider forma- 
tion of association of women 
college graduates, 10; member of 
committee to arrange for general 
meeting, 11 

Angell, Florence, secretary of Inter- 
national Relations Committee, 


Anna Ticknor Library Association, 
144 «. 

Appointment bureau conferences, 
234, 235 ^ 

Approved universities and colleges, 
list of, 429-34 

Army Overseas Educational Com- 
mission, 211 

Ashby, Mrs. Corbett, convenor of 
Conference Committee of the 
LF.U.W., 286 

Associated Charities of San Fran- 
cisco, 1 01 

Association for the Education of 
Women in Oxford University, 145 

Association of American Colleges, 
245. 301 

Association of American Medical 
Schools, its accredited list of 
schools, 88 

Association of American Univer- 
sities, 84, 85, 87, 92 

Association of Colleges and Second- 
ary Schools of the Southern 
States, 48, 52, 54, 58 

Association of Collegiate Alumnae, 
the founding of, 8-14; constitu- 
tion of, 12, 13; meetings of 
(times and places), 15, 23, 25, 
39; presidents of, 15, 16; meet- 
ings of (proceedings), 16; papers 
read before, 16, 17; committees 
of, 16, 17, 35, 38; institutions 
belonging to, 17, 18; makes pro- 
vision for branch associations, 
19-21, 23, 24; the Washington 
branch of, 20, 97-99; six policies 
inaugurated by, 20; new articles 
added to the constitution of, 
21-25; the financing of, 22, 24, 
35, 37; the term * general Associa- 



tion,' 24; general members, 24, 
24 n.; term of office of general 
officers of, 25; change in compo- 
sition of Executive Committee, 
25; quotation from secretary's 
report of 1895 (on securing of 
permanent salaried secretary, 
on finances, on publications, on 
relation of branches to the 
Association, on work of Associ- 
ation), 25, 26; report of com- 
mittee appointed to consider 
secretary's report of 1895, 26, 27; 
associate membership of, 27, 35, 
37; offices of secretary and 
treasurer merged into that of 
secretary-treasurer, 27, 36; in- 
corporation of, 28; act of in- 
corporation of, 28, 29; seal and 
motto of, 29; by-laws of, 29; 
report of Mrs. Backus (1901), 
30, 31; bursar, 30, 31, 36; 
general secretary, 31, 36; need 
of an official headquarters for, 
82; the trunk, early depository 
of the property of, 32, 32 w.; 
the 19 1 2 reorganization of, 32- 
36; council of, 33, 37; sectional 
vice-president, 34; officers of, 34, 
36; classes of membership of, 
35; conferences, 35; recording 
secretary, 36; 191 5 amendment 
to by-laws, 36; treasurer, 36; 
conventions, 37, 39; fellowship 
fund, 37; the Journal, 37, 57, 
135. 203, 207; educational secre- 
tary, 38; unites with Western 
Association, 45 (cf. 23, 25); 
makes agreement with A.C.A. 
as to territory, 50; unites with 
S.A.C.W., 58-62 (cf. 28, 36, 46); 
admission to, 63-87; schedules 
as regards the institutions in, 
72, 73; reorganization of its by- 
laws, 83; achievements of com- 
mittees on institutional member- 
ship, 93, 94; first subject made 
object of study by (health and 
physical education), ii6, 117; 
pamphlet on physical education 
issued by, 117, 118, 120-23; 
appoints committee on physical 
education, 118 (cf. 16); under- 
takes investigations into the 

health of women college gradu- 
ates, 118, 119, 124, 125; under- 
takes task of stimulating effort to 
secure better physical conditions 
for girls in preparatory schools, 
125; has symposium on extra- 
curricular activities, 125; con- 
siders question of withdrawal of 
students before completion of 
course, 125, 126; questionnaires 
sent out by, 127; paper of 
Dr. Brown (1915) on Public 
Health as field of work for col- 
lege women, 128; resolution of 
1919, 128; interested in physi- 
cal welfare of women students, 
129, 130; the financing of, 131- 
42; incorporation of, 132; two 
permanent funds of, 132-34; 
fellowships, 134-37. i47-49» 156- 
72; office of treasurer separated 
from that of secretary, 135; 
office of bursar abolished, 135; 
salaries, 135; annual dues, 137; 
life membership, 137; bequests 
to, 137, 138; its study of post- 
graduate work, 143-55; Bulletin 
I, 235; Bulletin II, 236; and the 
World War, 242-57; State Divi- 
sions of, 246; establishment of 
clubhouse and headquarters in 
Washington, 247, 258765; di- 
plomas and medals awarded to, 
293 n.; list of presidents of, 425; 
list of original members of, 427, 
428. See also Admission; Ameri- 
can Association of University 
Women; Branches; Committees; 
Fellowships; Journal 

Association to Aid Scientific Re- 
search by Women, 301, 302 

Athletics, in the eighties, 117 

Atkinson, Dorothy B. (Mrs. F. G.) 
of the A.A.U.W., 106; on com- 
mittee working for International 
fellowships, 171 

Atkinson, Emma S., paper of, on 
'The Relation Between the 
Home and the College,' 17; asks 
for recognition of Washington 
Branch, 96; discusses extra- 
curricular activities, 125 

Atlanta Constitution, educational 
column in, 50 



Atwater, Helen, of Clubhouse 
Committee of national head- 
quarters, 260, 261 

Austin, Maude, of the Western 
New York Branch of the A.C.A., 

Backus, Helen Hiscock, fourth 
President of Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae, 16; report of 
(1901), 30, 31; on committee of 
A.C.A. to confer concerning 
union with Western Association, 
45; work on questionnaires, 127; 
of Committee on Collegiate 
Administration, 194; paper of, 
on 'Need and Opportunity for 
College-Trained Women in 
Philanthropic Work,' 237 

Baker, George P., 315 «. 

Baltimore, Md., girls' high schools 
in, 3 n. 

Baltimore Association for the Pro- 
motion of the University Educa- 
tion of Women, 169 n. 

Bancroft, Jane M. (later Mrs. 
George O. Robinson), paper of, 
on 'Occupations and Professions 
for College-Bred Women,' 17, 
44, 314; first President of the 
Western Association, 41; degrees 
received by, 41 «.; paper of, on 
'Advantages for Women in the 
University of France,' 44 

Barnard College, 195; admitted to 
membership in the A.C.A., 73, 74 

Barnes, Mary Sheldon, on Com- 
mittee on Development of Child- 
hood, 126, 173; of first Com- 
mittee on Fellowships, 147 n. 

Barrett, John, Director-General 
of the Pan-American Union, 266 

Barrows, Vinnie, chairman of the 
House Committee at Washington 
headquarters, 262 

Barus, Annie Howes, 74 n., 126; 
on Committee on Development 
of Childhood, 126, 127, 173; on 
National University Committee, 
188; secretary-treasurer of the 
A.C.A., 295. See also Howes, 
Annie G. 

Bashford, Jane (Jennie) Field, first 
president of the A.C.A., 13, 15, 

387; member of Executive Com- 
mittee, 18; of the Committee on 
Educational Legislation, 218 

Bassett, Agnes, makes plea for 
standing committees of art and 
drama, 412 

Beam, Lura, chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Fine Arts, 412 

Bedell, Leila G., paper of, on 'The 
Unity of Science,' 44 

Beloit College, recommended for 
admission to membership in the 
A.C.A., 84 

Benton, Mary, dean of women at 
Carleton College, 245, 246 

Bequests, to A.C.A. and A.A.U.W., 

137- 138 

Berliner, Emile, endowment made 
by, 164 

Bernard, Frances Fenton (later 
Mrs. Park), 223, 262, 407; first 
educational secretary of the 
A.A.U.W., 305-07- 336 

Bernhardt, Sarah, 351 

Better District School Association, 
The, 331 

Better Schools Association, 369 

Beyer, Clara Mortenson (Mrs. Otto 
Beyer), chairman of Committee 
on the Economic and Legal . 
Status of Women, 241 

Bible Normal College of Spring- 
field, 217 

Bingham, Mary, gift of, 348 

Bishop, Harriette Warner, charter 
member of Detroit Branch of 
A.C.A., 109, no 

Bissell, Dr. Mary Taylor, paper of, 
on ' Physical Training as a Factor 
in Liberal Education,' 125 

Blaine, Margaret, 385; her efforts 
in behalf of Crosby Hall, 386 

Blake, Harriet C, member of first 
meeting called to consider forma- 
tion of association of women 
college graduates, 10 

Bolster, Mrs. Percy, of Housing 
Committee of Boston Branch, 

Borland, Ona Wmants, 212 «.; 

her work on child labor laws, 221 
Bosanquet, Theodora, secretary 

of the LF.U.W., 289 
Boston, Mass., no preparatory 



' school for girls in, In the 1870's, 

3, 4 

Boston Latin School, 3; girls ex- 
cluded from, 6 

Boston University, opens College 
of Liberal Arts admitting women, 
3, 4; an original member of the 
Association of Collegiate Alum- 
nae, 17 

Boswell, Eleanor, executive secre- 
tary, 336 

Bouffieur, Ethel J., holder of fel- 
lowship, 412 

Boyd, Emma Garrett (later Mrs. 
Morris), president of the South- 
ern Association of College 
Women, 49, 50; vice-president 
of the A.C.A., 49, 50; president 
of the Georgia Branch of the 
Southern Association, 49, 50; 
her interest in child labor, 219 

Bradwell, Judge James B., 158 

Bradwell, Mrs. Myra, a Bachelor 
of Laws, 107 «. 

Brainard, Mrs. Harriet C. (Har- 
riet Tilden), 293 

Branch associations of A.C.A. and 
A.A.U.W., provision made for, 
19-2 1,23,95; played at first small 
part in the v/hole organization, 22 ; 
annual fee of fifty cents assessed 
upon members of, 24; presidents 
of, substituted for state directors 
as members of Executive Com- 
mittee, 25; their relation to the 
General Association, 26, 66; 
allowed in certain cases to ex- 
tend invitation to associate 
membership, 27; associate and 
local members of, 37; need for 
organization of, 66; require- 
ments for acceptance as, 95, 96; 
scholarships and loan funds 
maintained by, 170; educational 
work in, 219, 220; work on edu- 
cational legislation, 227; war 
work of, 248-53, 388; members 
of, decorated, 253, 254; contribu- 
tions of, to Oriental colleges, 255; 
assistance to University of Lou- 
vain, 256; give assistance in se- 
curing headquarters, 264, 265; 
foreign, 269; what they repre- 
sent, 338, 339 ; reasons for forma- 

tion of, 339-41; place in com- 
munity occupied by, 341 ; cooper- 
ation with parent-teacher asso- 
ciations, 342, 343; their part in 
adult education, 342, 343; their 
cooperation with other associa- 
tions, 343, 344, 356; broadening 
of programs of, 344; social service 
of, 346; civic work of, 346, 347; 
their work for libraries, 347, 348; 
their work for theatres, 348-51; 
their work for fine arts, 351, 352; 
their work for music, 352; their 
work in Americanization, 353, 
354; their cooperation with 
Young Women's Christian As- 
sociations, 355; in welfare work, 
356, 357; provide membership 
for legislative councils, 357, 358; 
and children's codes, 358; spon- 
sor vocational guidance, 359; 
their work in connection with 
children, 359-63; their interest 
in kindergartens and nursery 
schools, 363, 364; their interest 
in elementary schools, 364; spon- 
sor Girl Scout movement. Girl 
Reserves, and Camp Fire Girls, 
365; their interest in high-school 
girls, 365-68; their work for girls 
in industry, 368, 369; their inter- 
est in summer schools for girls in 
industry, 369; their interest in 
rural schools, 369, 370; their 
work for young women attending 
colleges and universities, 370; 
their work for foreign students, 
374-76; their interest in new 
branches of study for college 
girls, 376-78; try to interest 
senior girls in work of the 
A.A.U.W., 378, 379; their in- 
terest in teachers, 379-81; un- 
dertake research projects, 381, 
382; clubhouses of, 382, 383; 
their work for bureaus of occu- 
pation, 383; financial state- 
ments of, 384-86; the members 
of, who they are, 386, 387; hon- 
orary members of, 387, 388. 

Ames (Iowa), 375, 37^; Ann 
Arbor (Mich.), 97, no, 248; 
Appleton (Wis.), 249, 264; Bal- 
timore (Md.), 238; Battle Creek 



(Mich.), 249; Beloit (Wis.), 264; 
Boston (Mass.), 96, 102-04, 161, 
211, 229, 238, 248, 264, 385; Cali- 
fornia, 174, 211, 217, 220; Cape 
Girardeau (Mo.), 264; Central 
Illinois (Urbana-Champaign), 
97; Central Missouri (Colum- 
bia), 97; Central New York, 96, 
104, 105; Chicago, 19, 96, 107- 
09, 191, 219, 238, 248, 249, 293, 
299» 327, 371, 378; Colorado 
(Denver), 97, 220; Columbus 
(Ohio), 97; Connecticut, 97, 124, 
220; Copper Country (Mich.), 
339; Des Moines (Iowa), 97; De- 
troit (Mich.), 96, 109, no, 327; 
El Paso (Texas), 365; Eastern 
New York (Albany), 96; Erie 
(Penn.), 343; Fresno (Cal.), 349, 
353, 354; Greeley (Col.), 359; 
Honolulu (Hawaii), 244, 390, 
391; Hot Springs (Ark.), 342; 
Idaho, 220; Imperial Valley 
(Cal.), 344; Indiana (Indianap- 
olis), 96, 112-14, 162 n., 327; 
Iron Mountain (Mich.), 340; 
Kalamazoo (Mich.), 249, 380; 
Kansas, 97, 251 ; Kansas City, 97, 

219, 250; Kenosha (Wis.), 180, 
380; Lansing (Mich.), 345, 375; 
Little Rock (Ark.), 372; Long 
Beach (Cal.), 344; Los Angeles 
(Cal.), 97, 348, 350, 382; Madi- 
son (Wis.), 371; Madrid (Spain), 
399, 400; Manila (Philippine 
Isl.), 389, 390; Mankato (Minn.), 
342; Milwaukee (Wis.), 97, 124, 
327, 357, 368, 372; Minneapolis 
(Minn.), 238; Minnesota (Minne- 
apolis and St. Paul), 96, 105- 
07, 245, 327; Montclair (N.J.), 
373; Nebraska, 97; New Haven 
(Conn.), 124; New York City 
(N.Y.), 96, 99, 232, 237, 238, 246; 
Norfolk (Va.), 264, 372; Ohio, 96, 
114, 327; Ohio Valley (Cincin- 
nati), 97, 249; Oklahoma .City 
(Oklahoma), 373; Olympia 
(Wash.), 380; Omaha (Neb.), 97, 
343, 354; Oregon (Portland), 97, 

220, 327; Pampa (Texas), 341; 
Paris (France), 396; Peking (Pei- 
ping, China), 394-96; Philadel- 
phia (Penn.), 96, 102, 171, 238, 

382; Pittsburgh (Penn.), 97, 244; 
Pomona (Cal.), 255; Portland 
(Ore.), 344; Porto Rico, 398, 399; 
Poughkeepsie (N.Y.), 354; Pro- 
vidence (R.I.), 238, 368; Pueblo 
(Col.), 244; Pullman (Wash.), 
347; Rhode Island, 97, 236, 327; 
Ripon (Wis.), 373; Rochester 
(Minn.), 341; Rome (Ga.), 365; 
St. Louis (Mo.), 97, 327, 373; St. 
Paul (Minn.), 250; San Antonio 
(Texas), 249; San Francisco Bay 
(Pacific California), 96, 100-02, 
206«., 249,250,327,335,360,385; 
San Jose (Cal.), 353 ; Schenectady 
(N.Y.), 349; Seattle (Wash.), 97, 
249, 327, 361 ; Shanghai (China), 
397, 398; Sioux City (Iowa), 372; 
South Carolina, 220; Southern 
New York (Binghampton), 97; 
Spokane (Wash.), 362; Superior 
(Wis.), 250; Sweet Briar (Va.), 
356; Tacoma (Wash.), 97, 249; 
Tientsin (China), 396, 397; 
Tokyo (Japan), 269, 392-94; 
Toledo (Ohio), 244, 345, 346; 
Virginia, 97; Washington (D.C.), 
20, 96-99, 173 w-, 193, 207, 209- 
II, 219, 250, 259, 260, 264, 301, 
359, 382; Western New York 
(Buffalo), 96, III, 112, 248. See 
also pp. 50, 338-88, 401-15, 435- 

Breckinridge, Sophonisba P., Gen- 
eral Secretary of the A.C.A., 229; 
of the Committee on Economic 
Efficiency of College Women, 229 

Bridgman, Lillian, 212 n. 

Briggs, L. B. R., present at first 
sectional conference, 324 

British Educational Mission, 268, 
277, 281 

British Federation of University 
Women, 279, 280, 282, 283, 287, 

Brookings, Marion Kinney, serv- 
ices of, 263, 264, 385 

Brooks, Frona M., 183; president of 
Minnesota Branch of the A.C.A., 

Brown, Dr. Adelaide, paper of, on 
'Public Health: A normal field of 
interest and work for college 
women,' 128 



Brown, S. Alice, member of first 
meeting called to consider forma- 
tion of association of women col- 
lege graduates, lo; member of 
committee to arrange for general 
meeting, ii; chairman of com- 
mittee charged with finding sen- 
timent of branches on question 
of uniting with other societies, 

Bryn Mawr College, admitted to 
membership in the A.C.A., 68 

Bureau of Collegiate Information, 
179, 410 

Bureau of Vocational Information, 

239. 301, 392 

Bureau of Occupations, 181, 233, 
234, 238, 250, 313, 314, 383 

Burstall, Sara A., 42 n.; Head Mis- 
tress of Manchester High School 
for Girls (Manchester, England), 
279, 280 

California, chooses director of 
A.C.A., 23; plan of Association 
organizations in, 38 

California State Division, 335 

Calisthenics, 117 

Cambridge, Mass., no preparatory 
school for girls in, in the 1870's, 3 

Cambridge High School, 3 

Campoamor, Dr. Clara, chairman 
of committee of the I.F.U.W., 
286, 400 

Canadian Federation of University 
Women, 202, 269, 280 

Capen, Dr. Samuel, 86 

Capper-Bacon Bill, 224 

Carbutt, May, of Bureau of Oc- 
cupations, 234, 314 

Carnegie, Andrew, 80, 190 

Carnegie Endowment for Interna- 
tional Peace, grant from, 139 

Carnegie Foundation for Advance- 
ment of Teaching, 80, 81, 273; 
appropriation from, 139 

Carter, Mrs. J. Prescott, helps or- 
ganize club of university women 
in Spain, 399 

Case, Mary S., chairman of re- 
search committee, 126 

Caukin, Dr. Esther, secretary of 
Committee on International Re- 

^ lations, 273, 274, 321, 406, 407 

Chadsey, Mildred, 212 n. 

Chapin, Mary Whitney, chairman 
of committee of Western Associ- 
ation, 41; and World's Fair ex- 
hibit, 293 

Charles, Myrtle, president Arkan- 
sas State Division, 379 

Chase, Amanda Mathews, gift of, 

Chauncy Hall School, Boston, 3, 4, 

Chemistry, on the training of 
women for careers in, 239 

Cheney, May W., 187; conducts 
educational bureau, 102; of Com- 
mittee on Economic Efficiency of 
College Women, 229; of Com- 
mittee on Vocational Opportu- 
nities, 233 

Child, Ruth L., of Committee on 
Foreign Students, 266 

Child Labor Amendment, 224, 225 

Child study, research in, 173-78, 
305-07, 359-63, 403, 404, 407-09 

Children's Bureau of the Federal 
Government, 176, 221, 301 

Children's codes, 358 

'Children's Year,' 245 

Choate, Mabel, her efforts to raise 
endowment for fellowship, 282 

Civil Service Reform, 205-07 

Claghorn, Kate Holladay, 212 «.; 
first secretary-treasurer of 
A.C.A., 27; on committee to 
study civil service reform, 205 

Clapp, Lucia M., of Committee on 
Endowment, 185 n. 

Clarke, Dr. E. H., his book on 'Sex 
in Education,' 116; calls identical 
education of the two sexes a 
crime, 116 

Clarke, Elizabeth Lawrence, 258; 
secretary-treasurer of the A.C.A., 
31, 134, 142 

Clarke, Helen I., chairman of 
Committee on Housing of Mad- 
ison Branch, 213 

Clemen, Melle. M., chairman of 
committee of the I.F.U.W., 286 

Coe College, provisionally admitted 
to membership in the A.C.A., 84 

Coes, Mary, of the Committee on 
Reorganization (191 1), 32; chair- 
man of Committee on standards, 



75; chairman of Committee on 
Collegiate Administration, 198; 
of Committee on Economic Effi- 
ciency of College Women, 229; 
of Committee of Vocational Op- 
portunities, 233 

Cole, Kate Dewey, of Commit- 
tee on Educational Legislation, 
216 5 

Cole, Mrs. Theodore, 260 

Colgan, Mary E., of Indiana 
Branch, 113 

College administration, 194, 195, 

College Alumnae, preliminary 
meeting of, in Massachusetts In- 
stitute of Technology, 9, 10; call 
for general meeting of, 10, 11 

College and university administra- 
tion, 193-204 

College Club of Washington, 264 

College endowments, 181-90 

College settlements, interest of 
branches in, 403 

College Settlements Association, 
162, 163, 237, 299, 300 

College Week, 331 

Colorado College, recommended 
for admission to membership In 
the A.C.A., 84 

College entrance requirements, 296, 

Colton, Elizabeth Avery, 58, 61; 
chairman of Committee on 
Standards of Colleges, Southern 
Association of College Women, 
report of, 51, 52, 54, 55; paper of, 
on 'Southern Colleges for Wo- 
men,' 52; reports and papers of, 
52, 53; death, 59 w.; threatened 
shooting of, 94 

Coman, Katherine, paper of, on 
'Work for Women in Local His- 
tory,' 313 

Committees: Academic Appoint- 
ments, 199, 200; Admission of 
Colleges, 63, 64, 69; Amend- 
ments to the By-Laws, 30, 32; 
Child Study, 100, 177; Col- 
lege Clubs and College Days 
(S.A.C.W.), 55; College Endow- 
ments, 181-90; College Work, 
17, 64, 179; Collegiate Admin- 
istration, 194, 195, 198-200; Col- 

legiate Information, 180; Com« 
munity Service (Boston Branch), 
356; Constitution and By-Laws 
(S.A.C.W.), 55; Corporate Mem- 
bership, 20, 27, 70-83; Creden- 
tials, 35; Development of Child- 
hood, 127, 173, 174; Economic 
Efficiency of Women, 229-31; 
Economic and Legal Status of 
Women, 39, 201, 239-41; Educa- 
tional Legislation, 35, 113, 189, 
190-92, 216-23, 304; Educa- 
tional Policy ^Policies), 38, 
39, 224, 226, 227, 304-09; 
Educational Progress, 180; 
Environment, 177; Extension 
(S.A.C.W.), 55; Euthenics, 35, 
177, 178; Fellowships, 35, 39, 
62, 106, 108, 134, 147, 157-59, 
172 w.; Fellowships Award, 
172 n.; Finance (Finance and 
Publication), 35, 55 (S.A.C.W.), 
136, 317; Fine Arts, 412; For- 
eign Students, 266-70; Future 
Policy (Reorganization), 32, 
33; Home Economics (Boston 
Branch), 104; Housing, 210-13, 
246, 356; International Rela- 
tions, 39, 139, 226, 227, 246, 
266-76; Investigating European 
Universities, 83; Investigation, 
150; Legislation, 39, 223, 226, 
227; Loan Funds (S.A.C.W.), 55; 
Membership (Recognition of Col- 
leges and Universities), 35, 38, 
55».58, 89 w., 92, 203, 326; Mu- 
nicipal (Central N.Y. Branch), 
105; National Appeal, of Million 
Dollar Fellowship Fund, 39; Na- 
tional Club, 39; National Uni- 
versity, 189, 190; Philanthropic 
(Central N.Y. Branch), 105; 
Physical Education, 16, 118; 
Press, 55, 57; Procedure, 303 n.; 
Publications, 39; Publicity, 39; 
Recognition of Colleges and Uni- 
versities (Membership), 35, 62, 
83, 84, 88, 89, 92, 181 w.,20i, 326; 
Registry or Trained Women, 
208; Scholarships (S.A.C.W.), 
55, 56; School Patrons 
(S.A.C.W.), 57; Selections for 
Oxford, 273; Standards (Main- 
taining Standards), 38, 39, 52, 



55, 62, 181 n., 198 n., 203; Study 
of Family Records, 177; Teach- 
ers' Colleges, 87 n.; Trust Fund, 
133. 134. 136; Unification of Col- 
lege Standards, 70; Vocational 
Opportunities, 35, 181, 207, 208, 
231-39, 319; Volunteer Social 
Service, 237; of International 
Federation of University Wo- 
men, 286; of San Francisco Bay 
Branch, 249, 250; of 1930-31, 
'Community Players, The,' 389 
Community problems, investiga- 
tion of, 406-08 
Community service, 356 
Compulsory Education Bill, 224 
Comstock, Ada L., chairman of 
Committee on Recognition of 
Colleges and Universities, 84, 
85; Dean of Smith College, 262; 
president of A.C.A., 263, 304, 
305. 387; alternate at London 
meeting, 284 
Comstock, Amy, president of Tulsa 

(Okl.) Branch, 331, 336 
Comstock, Anna Botsford, of first 
Committee on Fellowships, 
147 n. 
Cone, Kate Morris, paper of, on 
'Women's Gifts to Educational 
Institutions,' 17, 183, 312; holder 
of degree of Ph. D., 144; of Com- 
mittee on Collegiate Informa- 
tion, 179, 180; in conference 
(1889), 193 w. ; of Committee on 
Collegiate Administration, 194; 
Bureau of Collegiate Informa- 
tion established by, 410 (cf. 


Conference of Women Trustees of 
A.C.A. Colleges and Univer- 
sities, 200 

Conference on Academic Rank, 
Tenure, and Standards of Pro- 
motion (Jan. 1926), 302 

Conferences. See Sectional con- 

Congress of Representative Wo- 
men, 292, 293 

Connecticut, chooses director of 
A.C.A., 23 

Connecticut Women's Council of 
Education, 295, 297 

Consumers' League, Minnesota, 
107; Illinois, 109 

'Contributions towards a Bibli- 
ography of the Higher Education 
of Women,' 318 

Coolidge, Vice-Pres. Calvin, 263 

Coolidge, Mrs. Calvin, 263, 330, 

Cooperative Bureau of Women 
Teachers, 302 

Cooperative houses, 213, 250 

Cornell University, 195; an original 
member of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae, 17; repre- 
sented in charter membership of 
Southern Association of Univer- 
sity Women, 47; awards fellow- 
ship to women, 146 

Corporate membership. See Ad- 

Coverdale, Mrs. Vv^illiam, chairman 
of Budget Committee of the 
I.F.U.W., 286 

Creche, at Buffalo, iii, 359 

Crocker, Fandira, of Michigan 
Division, 336 

Crosby Hall, hall of residence in 
London, 384-86 

Crow, Martha Foote, on Committee 
on Development of Childhood, 
126, 173; on Committee of In- 
vestigation, 150; on f^ommittee 
on Educational Progress, 180; on 
Committee on Endowment, 181; 
sends paper to Educational Con- 
gress in Berlin (1897), 294; presi- 
dent of the A.C.A., 387 

Culbertson, Emma, on committee 
to prepare leaflet on 'Health in 
Preparatory Schools,' 125; on 
committee considering with- 
drawal before completion of 
course, 126 

CuUis, Dr. Winifred, 260, 271, 283; 
fourth president of the I.F.U.W., 

Curie, Irene Joliot, 155 

Curie, Mme., 154, 155 

Curtis-Gard Child Labor Bill, 223 

Cushing, Florence M., 142; mem- 
ber oi first meeting called to con- 
sider formation of Association of 
women college graduates, 9, 10; 
member of committee to arrange 



for general meeting, ii; made 
Vice-President of Association of 
Collegiate Alumnse, 13; second 
president of Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae, 15, 16, 387; 
member of Executive Commit- 
tee, 18; temporary general sec- 
retary, 31; on committees to de- 
termine policy of institutional 
admission to A.C.A., 63, 64, 70; 
report of, quoted, 68; her outline 
of procedure in recommending 
for admission to A.C.A., 74; 
chairman of Trust Fund Com- 
mittee, 133, 134; resigns from 
Finance Committee, 136; on 
Committee of Investigation, 150; 
chairman of Committee on Fel- 
lowships, 157; on Committee on 
College Endowment, 181 ; in con- 
ference (1889), 193 w,; on Com- 
mittee on Collegiate Adminis- 
tration, 194; article of, on 'Op- 
portunities for Advanced Study,' 

Cushing, Thomas, 3 n. 

Cutler, Ruth, death in France, 253 

Dakin, Esse Bissell, president of 
the Western Association (1887), 

Dame, Lydia M., first president of 
Washington Branch, 96; paper 
of, on 'The Relation of Diet to 
School Life,' 125 

Darby, Dr. Hawthorne, president 
of Manila Branch, 390 

Darwin, Charles, 173 

Darwin, Gertrude B., 173 «.; asks 
for recognition of Washington 
Branch, 96 

Davenport, Dr. Frances Gardiner, 
of Committee on Study of Family 
Records, 177 

Davies, Emily, a founder of Girton 
College, 416, 417. 

Davis, Olive, 260 

Dawes, Anna L., appeal for pro- 
fessional education for social 
workers made by, 237 

Day, Dr. Francis R., memorial to, 

Deal, Alice, memorial to, 348 
Dean, Maria M., member of first 

meeting called to consider forma- 
tion of association of women col- 
lege graduates, 10; member of 
committee to arrange for general 
meeting, 11 

Degree-conferring power, efforts to 
restrict, 190-92 

Delsartian exercises, 117 

Deutsch, Mrs. Maurice, survey 
made by, 382 

DeVeny, Mary M., 125 

Dewey, Melvil, address of, 313 

Dey, Mary Duguid, chairman of 
committee to consider policy on 
trust funds, 133; resigns from 
Finance Committee, 136; refer- 
ence to, 142 

District of Columbia, chooses di- 
rector of A.C.A., 23 

Douglas, Mrs. W. W., on com- 
mittee of California State Divi- 
sion, 335 . . 

Drake University, provisionally 
admitted to membership in the 
A.C.A., 84 

Duggan, Prof. Stephen P., 270, 302 

Duniway, Caroline Cushing, 197 w., 

Dutton, Emily Helen, chairman of 
the Standards Committee, South- 
ern Association of College Wo- 
men, 53; speaker before South- 
ern Association, 53; her reports, 
54; state representative on com- 
mittee, 55; on Committee on 
Recognition of Colleges and Uni- 
versities of A.A.U.W., 62; on 
Committee on Standards of 
A.A.U.W., 62 

Eastman, Elizabeth, and Child 
Labor Amendment, 225 

Ebaugh, Dr. Franklin B., psy- 
chologist, 359 

Educational legislation, 35, 189-92, 
216-23, 204 

Educational Policy, Committee on, 
38, 39, 224, 226, 227, 304-09 

Eifie Serina Wager estate, bequest 
from, 138 

Elizabeth Moore Hall, the, at 
University of West Virginia, 334 

Elliot, Marie D., asks for recogni- 
tion of Washington Branch, 96 



Emerson, Wilimena Eliot, on Com- 
mittee on Educational Legisla- 
tion, 216 

Eugenics. See Euthenics 

European universities, women at, 

149, 152; memorial and petition 
addressed to governing boards of, 

150, 151 

Euthenics, Committee on, 177, 178 
Extra-curricula activities, 125 

Faribault, Minn., public schools, 
Delsartian exercises in, 117 n. 

Farr, Shirley, 260 

Farrand, Margaret, spreads infor- 
mation about I.F.U.W., 272 

Farrand, Dr. Max, executive sec- 
retary of the Commonwealth 
Fund, 271 

Fay, Mr., offers to provide sum for 
institute for girls, 182 

Federal Department of Education, 
223, 224 

Federal Industrial Home for Wo- 
men, 224 

Federation of Business and Profes- 
sional Women's Clubs, 343 

Federation of Women's Clubs, 222, 
295. 297, 301 

Federations of University Women, 
represented in London meeting 
(July, 1920), 285 

Felici, Xavier, orphan, 252 

Fellows, of the A.C.A. and 
A.A.U.W., services of, 167-69 

Fellowships, 134-37, 147-49, 156- 
72; 'History of the Fellowships 
awarded by the A.A.U.W., 1888- 
1929, with the vitas of the Fel- 
lows,' by Margaret E. Maltby, 
157, 321 ; of British Federation of 
University Women, 287; cooper- 
ation in appointment to, 300; list 
of awards to (A.C.A., A.A.U.W., 
W.A.C.A.), 443-48 

Alice Freeman Palmer, 134, 
135, 139, 160, 164, 384; Anna C. 
Brackett, 135, 137, 139, 161 ; Bos- 
ton Alumnae, 161 ; European, 137, 
147, 148, 160; Guggenheim Me- 
morial, 168; International, 165, 
170-72, 275, 287; Joint (of Col- 
lege Settlements Association and 
A.C.A.), 162, 163, 299, 300; 

Julia C. G. Piatt, 136, 137, 
139, 161; Latin-American, 162, 
267, 275; Laura Spelman Rocke- 
feller, 138, 139, 273, 306, 308; 
Lindsey Barbee, 163; Manila, 
389; Margaret E. Maltby, 166; 
Mary Pemberton Nourse, 166; 
Million Dollar, 139, 170-72, 
325, 328, 334, 337, 420; pre- 
school, 167; Rose Sidgwick, 137, 
139, 165, 275, 282; Sarah Ber- 
liner, 139, 163-65; Scandinavian, 

Fess Home Economics, 223 

Filley, Laura Sawin, paper of, on 
' Record of the Development of 
Two Baby Boys,' 318 

Fine, Jeannette Gurney, of College 
Settlement of New York, 237 

Fine arts, 351, 352, 411, 412 

'Finishing schools,' 4, 124 

Fisher, Dorothy Canfield, honorary 
member of the Poughkeepsie 
Branch, 387 

Fitch, R. Louise, editor of Journal, 

Fogwell, Mabel Ellis, directs Fog- 
well Nursery School, 363 

Follett, Miss, quoted, 213 

Folsom, Ellen M., on Committee on 
College Endowment, 181 

Food, for students and teacljers, 195 

Foreign Correspondence Bureau, 43 

Foreign students, 266-70 

Foreign universities, membership 
in A.C.A., of women educated in, 
82, 83 

Foster, Alia W., chairman of Com- 
mittee on Endowment, 181, 182, 
185-87; chairman of Committee 
on Educational Legislation, 190, 
216-18; paper of, on 'The Rela- 
tion of Women to the Governing 
Boards and Faculties of Colleges, 
193, 203 

Foster, Mary Louise, member of 
Madrid Branch, 400 

Foster, Rose, of Indiana Branch, 

113 . , 

Foulke, William Dudley, United 
States Commissioner, address 
of, on 'The Rationale of Civil 
Service Reform,' 205 

Francis, Vida Hunt, 212 «.; on the 



Committee on Reorganization, 
(1911), 32 

Francke, Marie, study of, on 'Op- 
portunities for Women in Do- 
mestic Science,' 236, 319 

Franklin, Christine Ladd, chairman 
of first Committee on Fellow- 
ships, 147, 157; fellowship estab- 
lished through efforts of, 163, 164 

Freeman, Alice E., member of first 
meeting called to consider forma- 
tion of association of women col- 
lege graduates, 10; makes motion 
that meeting be called for organ- 
izing association, 10; her interest 
in the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnse, 11; made Director of 
Association of Collegiate Alum- 
nae, 1 3 ; third president of Associa- 
tion of Collegiate Alumnas, 16; on 
committee to determine policy of 
institutional admission to A.C.A., 
63; holder of degree of Ph.D., 
144. See also Palmer, Alice 

French, Ruth, executive secretary, 
262, 336 

Friend, Margaret A., chairman of 
Committee on Volunteer Social 
Service, 237 

Frisby, Alma F., member of first 
meeting called to consider forma- 
tion of association of women col- 
lege graduates, 10 

Fry, Sue M. D., holder of degree of 
Ph.D., 144 

Furness, Dr. Caroline Ellen, 269; 
assists in founding Tokyo Branch 
of the A.C.A., 392 

Gamma Phi Beta Sorority, fellow- 
ship offered by, 163 

Garnjobst, Laura, 334 

Garrigues, Ellen E., on committee 
to consider institutional member- 
ship, 70 

Gentry, Ruth, of Detroit Branch of 
A.C.A., no; makes bequest to 
A.C.A., 137, 138 

George Washington University, 
represented in charter member- 
ship of the Southern Association 
of College Women, 47 

Georgia State Division, 334, 335 

Gilbreth, Dr. Lillian, of the Mont- 
clair Branch, 344 

Gildersleeve, Dr. Virginia C, Dean 
of Barnard College, 171; of War 
Service Committee, 242; in war 
service, 245; chairman of Com- 
mittee on International Rela- 
tions, 268-70, 277; president of 
LF.U.W., 273, 274, 288; an in- 
corporator of Reid Hall, 275; 
her part in formation of the 
I.F.U.W., 277, 278, 281-84 

Gill, Laura Drake, president of 
A.C.A., 50, 297; speaker before 
the Southern Association, 53; on 
Committee of Investigation, 150, 
152; on Committee on Voca- 
tional Opportunities, 233; presi- 
dent of School Patrons Depart- 
ment of the N.E.A., 298; gen- 
eral secretary of the A.C.A., 299 

Girton College, Cambridge, Engl., 

Gleditsch, Dr. Docent Ellen, third 
president of the LF.U.W., 288 

Goddard, Alice, 125 

Goucher College, recommended for 
admission to membership in the 
A.C.A., 84 

Grants, to the A.A.U.W., 138, 139 

Graupner, Elise Wenzelburger, 225, 

Grinnell College (Iowa), admitted 

to membership in the A.C.A., 

Gronna Bill, 223 
Gross, Mary Peckham, member of 

Milwaukee Branch, 358 
Grotecloss, Harriet E. (later Mrs. 

Charles D. Marx), first woman 

fellow of Cornell, 146 
Gunther, Emma H., 172 

Hagen, Prof. Oskar, lectures by, 

Haire, Anna R., paper of, on 'The 
Post-Graduate Question,' 44 

Hall, Mrs. Lucius Endicott, honor- 
ary member of Salt Lake City 
Branch, 387 

Hamlin, Sarah Dix, 100 

Hannevart, Dr. G., chairman of 
Committee on Exchange of 
Information Concerning Second- 



ary Education of the I.F.U.W., 


Hanscom, Elizabeth Deering, 194, 
197 n. 

Harding, Pres. and Mrs. Warren 
G., 263 

Harkness, Mary Leal (later Mrs. 
Black), 37; speaker before 
Southern Association of College 
Women, 53; chairman of Stand- 
ing Committee on Scholarship, 
Southern Association, 56; presi- 
dent of Southern Association, 
59, 61 ; on committee to consider 
union of A.C.A. and S.A.C.W., 
59; director of Southeast Central 
Section of A.A.U.W., 62; dele- 
gate to London meeting, 284 

Harper, Isabella Worth, 383 

Harris, Dr. William T., Com- 
missioner of Education for the 
United States, advocate of child 
study, 173 

Harwood, Mary C, Memorial 
Fund, 373 

Hatfield, Ethel Glover, 197 n. 

Hayes, Alice, confers with Mrs. Tal- 
bot and Marion Talbot, 8; mem- 
ber of first meeting called to con- 
sider formation of association of 
women college graduates, 9 

Hayes, Ellen A., member of first 
meeting called to consider forma- 
tion of association of women 
college graduates, 9 

Hayes, Julia, principal of Philip- 
pines School for the Deaf and 
Blind, 390 

Hazard, Caroline, of Trust Fund 
Committee, 133 

Hazlett, Dr. Olive C, 160 

Health, the first subject made 
object of study by the A.C.A. , 
116. See also Physical education 

Health Statistics of Women College 
Graduates, report on, 118, 119, 

Hearst, Phoebe Apperson, first 

woman regent of University of 
California, loi, 335; offers co- 
operation in establishing fellow- 
ship, 149; fellowship given by, 

Helmer, Bessie Bradwell, of the 

Chicago Branch, 45, 107, 108; 
chairman of Committee on Fel- 
lowships, 148, 156, 157, 158 

Hempl, Frau Dr., scholarship 
offered by, 148 

Herrick, Robert, 315 n. 

Hersey, Heloise E., of first Com- 
mittee on Fellowships, 147 n. 

Hicks, Margaret (Mrs. Volkmann), 
made Treasurer of Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae, 13; member 
of Executive Committee, 18; on 
committee to determine policy of 
institutional admission to A.C.A., 


Higginson, Col. Thomas Went- 
worth, 313 

Hill, Justina Robinson, on Com- 
mittee on Educational Legisla- 
tion, 216 

Hill, Vassie James (Mrs. A. Ross), 
141, 142, 263, 264 

Hilton, Mrs. H. H., on Finance 
Committee, 136 

Hines, Mrs. Walker, 260 

History, textbooks of, 319, 320 

Holcomb, Amelia E., chairman of 
committee of Western Associa- 
tion, 41 

Holden, Ruth, fellow of A.C.A., 
169; death in Russia, 253 

Home economics, 104, 1^8, 403 

'Home Sanitation,' 313, 402 

Hook, Mary Rockwell, 212 n. 

Hooker, Mrs. Elon H., an in- 
corporator of Reid Hall, 275 

Hoover, Herbert, 252 

Hoover, Mrs. Herbert, 252, 260, 
302, 387 

Hoshino, Miss Ai, member of the 
Japanese Branch of the A.C.A., 


HostCvSS House, Cape Cod, 104 

Housing problem, 209-15 

Howe, Elizabeth M., quoted on 
association of college women, 14; 
president of A.S.A., 46, 158; 
speaks on work of alumna in 
Southern States, 46; fellowship 
due to efforts of, 158; chairman 
of Committee on Foreign Stu- 
dents, 266, 267 

Howe, Mrs. Julia Ward, assists 
Marion Talbot, 5 



Hov/e, Maud, Saturday Morning 
Club, established for, 5 

Howes, Annie G. (later Mrs. 
Barus), chairman of committee 
investigating health of women 
college graduates, 118, 119. 
See also Barus, Annie Howes 

Huddleston, Mabel Parker, paper 
of, on 'A Modified Curriculum,' 

Hughes, Daisy M., art exhibit of, 

Huici, Dr. Matilde, chairman of 
committee of the I.F.U.W., 286 

Hull House, 236 

Humphrey, Caroline L., 340; 
speaker before the Southern 
Association, 53; on Finance 
Committee, 136; on War Service 
Committee, 242; former presi- 
dent of the A.C.A., 262, 387; at 
first sectional conference, 323; 
at state conference (1915), 327 

Hunt, Miss, chairman of committee 
of Western Association, 42 

Hussey, Nora, 383 

Hutchinson, Emilie J., chairman 
of Committee on Fellowship, 

Hyde, Ida Henrietta, 153, 208, 
336; on the Committee of Inves- 
tigation, 152 

Ibuka, Mme., address of, 392 
Illinois, chooses director of A.C.A., 


Indiana University, admitted to 
membership in the A.C.A., 84 

Influenza epidemic of 191 8, 251, 

Institute of Economic Relations, 

Institute of International Educa- 
tion, 159, 271-73 

Institute of Women's Professional 
Relations, 241 

Institutes of international rela- 
tions, 406 

Intercollegiate Community Service 
Association, 246 

International Council of Women, 

301 . 
International Federation of Uni- 
versity Women, 36, 37, 59, 61, 

82, 91, 139, 165, 166, 172, 198 «., 
260, 302, 417; the founding of, 
42, 246, 268, 269, 271-75, 277- 
84; contribution to, from the 
A.A.U.W., 141; and inter- 
national fellowships, 170, 171; 
proceedings of, 284-86; federa- 
tions in, 285; committees of, 
286; plan of, for establishment 
of International University Sana- 
torium at Leysin, 287; fellow- 
ships of, 287; presidents of, 288; 
meetings of, 288; financing of, 
288, 289; headquarters and club 
houses of, 289, 290 

International Garden Cities and 
Town Planning Association, con- 
ference of, in London, 211 

International relations, 39, 139, 
226, 227, 246, 266-76 

International Society of College 
Women, 279 

International University Sana- 
torium, 287 

Jackson, Florence, 236 «., 238, 319; 
present at first sectional con- 
ference, 323 

James, Harlean, chairman of Com- 
mittee on Legislation, 225, 226; 
president of Washington Branch, 

Jenks, Dr. Jeremiah W., of Indiana 
University, 113 

Jodai, Miss Tano, member of the 
Japanese Branch of the A.C.A., 


Johnson, Lilian WyckoflF, of the 
University of Tennessee, Vice- 
President of the Southern Associ- 
ation of College Women, 47 

Johnston, Eva, on commission to 
consider admission to the A.C.A. 
of women from foreign universi- 
ties, 82 

Jordan, Mary A., paper of, 'Con- 
cerning Higher Education,' 44 

Journal, references to, 57, 135, 
138, 203, 207, 211-13; 238-40, 
258, 262, 316, 318, 319, 322, 331, 

Kansas Agricultural College, re- 
commended for admission to 



membership in the A.C.A., 89, 
Kansas State Council of Women, 

Kansas State Division, 327, 330, 

Kawai, Miss Michi, member of the 
Japanese Branch of the A.C.A., 


Keller, May L., 37; speaker before 
Southern Association of College 
Women, 53; on committee to 
consider union of A.C.A. and 
S.A.C.W., 59; director of South 
Atlantic Section of A.A.U.W., 
62; expressed spirit of S.A.C.W., 

Kelley, Florence, 237; speaks before 
Minnesota Branch of the A.C.A. , 
107; of Hull House, 109 

Kellogg, Mr. and Mrs. Vernon, 252 

Kellor, Frances A., holder of fellow- 
ship, 163, 300 

Kerr, Mina, 336 

Kimball, Ruth Laird, 355 

Kindergartens, 363, 364 

King, Mrs. J. C. E., 351 

Kingsbury, Susan M., 199, 200, 
202; paper of, on 'Efficiency and 
Wage of Women in Gainful 
Occupations,' 229; member of 
Committee on Economic Effi- 
ciency of College Women, 229- 
33. 318 

Kinkel, Mrs. Charles A., founder 
of the El Paso Branch, 365 

Kirkbride, Elizabeth B., 336 

Kirkland, Chancellor James H., 
paper of, on ' College Standards 
— A Public Interest,' 55 

Klein, Prof., of Gottingen, 149 

Knight, Mrs. George W., president 
of Columbus, Ohio, Branch, 
her war work, 249 

Knight, Margaret, receives decora- 
tion for war work, 249 

Koda, Mrs. Tomi, member of the 
Japanese Branch of the A.C.A., 

Kohler, Marie, 252 w.; member of 
Sheboygan Branch, 358 

Ladd, Mary H., member of first 
meeting called to consider forma- 

tion of association of women 
college graduates, 10; member 
of committee to arrange for 
general meeting, 11; on com- 
mittee to consider admission to 
the A.C.A., 64; gives books to 
Louvain University, 256 

Ladd, William H., 3 n. 

Lake Forest College, recommended 
for admission to membership in 
the A.C.A., 84 

Landrum, Grace Warren, presi- 
dent of the Southern Association 
of University Women, 49 

Lansing, Mrs. Robert, 260 

Lapham, Ella C, of the Western 
New York Branch of the A.C.A., 

Larew, Gillie, on committee to 
consider union of A.C.A. and 
S.A.C.W., 59 

Lathrop, Julia C, Hull House 
fellow, 109; first director of 
Children's Bureau of the Federal 
Government, 176; on Advisory 
Committee, 260 

Latin- American Fellowship, 136, 

Latin School for Girls, Boston, 
establishment of, 6 

Lawrence College, admitted to 
membership in the A.C.A.^ 84 

Leach, Prof. Abby, work on 
questionnaires, 127; chairman 
of Committee on Fellowships, 
157. 158; on Committee on En- 
dowment, 181 

League of Nations, 176, 225 

League of Women Voters, 301 

Legislation, 39, 223, 226, 227. See 
also Educational legislation 

Legislative reference library, 218 «. 

Leland Stanford, Jr., University, 
admitted to membership in the 
A.C.A., 71; offers advanced 
degrees to women, 146; limit set 
to women students in, 196 

Liberty Bread Shop, Boston, 104, 

Libraries, work of branches for, 

347. 348 
'Little House at Chatham,' 248 
'Little Theatre' movement, 349, 

350, 389 



Loan funds, 170 

Logan, Marjorie S., article of, on 
'The Fine Arts in Their Relation 
to Academic Study,' 412 

Lonn, Dr. Ella, paper of, 202 

Lord, Eleanor L., speaker before 
Southern Association of College 
Women, 53 

Lovejoy, Owen, 358 

Lowenberg, Margaret Friend, pre- 
sent at first sectional conference, 

Lowry, Mrs. Edward K., president 

of the Tientsin Branch, 397 
Lucas, Mrs. William Palmer, of the 

San Francisco Branch, 406 
Luce, Alice H., 125 
Lumsden, Louisa I. (Dame Lums- 

den), 417 
Lynch, Caroline V., 212 «., 214 

MacDonald, Jessie C, 261 
MacLean, Dr. Ida Smedley, 260, 
271; chairman of Committee on 
International Fellowships Award 
of the I.F.U.W., 286; convenor 
of committee on international 
fellowship fund appeal, 286 
Maddison, Dr. Isabel, 127 
Maeztu, Seiiorita Maria de, 399 
'Magazine' of the A.C.A., 315, 316 
Magill, Helen (later Mrs. Andrew 
D. White), on committee to 
consider admission to the A.C.A., 
64; paper of, on 'Opportunities 
for Post-Graduate Study,' 143, 
144, 312; holder of degree of 
Ph.D., 143 w-r 145 
Maltby, Margaret Eliza, 61; on 
the Committee of Investigation, 
152; her history of fellowships a- 
warded by A.C.A. and A.A.U.W., 
I57» 321; chairman of Com- 
mittee on Fellowships, 157; on 
devoted work of, 166; on Com- 
mittee on Foreign Students, 266 
Mann, Dr. C. R., 302 
Manning, Dean Helen Taft, an 
incorporator of Reid Hall, 275. 
See also Taft, Dean Helen 
Margaret Morrison Carnegie Col- 
lege for Women of Carnegie 
Institute (Pittsburgh), admitted 
to membership in the A.C.A. , 91 

Marlatt, Abby L., president of 
Madison, Wis., Branch, 414 

Marston, Mary O., member of 
first meeting called to consider 
formation of association of wo- 
men college graduates, 10 

Martin, Beall, secretary of the 
Southern Association of College 
Women, 49 

Martin, Mrs. Caro C. T., 260 

Martin, Gertrude Shorb, 208; on 
Committee on Reorganization 
(191 1 ), 33; executive secretary 
of the A.C.A., 59, 238, 328, 336; 
quoted, 239; on War Service 
Committee, 242; appeals for 
Oriental colleges, 255; her 'free- 
will gift' to the A.C.A., 258; on 
Committee on International Re- 
lations, 268; present at first 
sectional conference, 323 

Masaryk, Dr. Alice, 253, 267, 376 

Massachusetts, chooses director of 
A.C.A., 23 

Massachusetts Division, 336 

Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, admitted to member- 
ship in the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae, 18, 63 

Mathews, Lois Kimball (later Mrs. 
Rosenberry), on Finance Com- 
mittee, 136; on War Service 
Committee, 242; on Committee 
on International Relations, 268; 
president of the A.C.A., 387. 
See also Rosenberry, Mrs. Mar- 
vin Bristol 

Matsuda, Miss Michi, member of 
the Japanese Branch of the 
A.C.A., 393 

McCagg, Ezra B., paper of, on 
'Women as a Power Militant in 
the War of the Rebellion,' 44 

McClintock, Yna R. (Mrs. J. K.), 
comptroller, 141 

McCollester, Lizzie Parker, Vice- 
president of Detroit Branch of 
A.C.A., 109 

McDowell, Alice Lee, on Com- 
mittee on Endowment, 185 n. 

McDuffie, Penelope, her work as 
chairman of Press Committee of 
the Southern Association, 57; 
death, 57 n.\ on committee to 



consider union of A.C.A. and 
S.A.C.W., 59; notice of death, 

McGiH University, admitted to 
membership (non-professional 
degrees) in the A.C.A., 81, 280 

McGraw, Maria Dickinson, first 
president of Detroit Branch, 109 

McHale, Dr. Kathryn, 336; study 
groups under, 408; educational 
secretary, 410, 411, 413, 415 

McLennan, Dr. Ethel, 166 

McVea, Emilie Watts, of Univer- 
sity of Tennessee, secretary- 
treasurer of the Southern Associ- 
ation of College Women, 37, 
47; speaker before Southern As- 
sociation of College Women, 
53; makes motion by which 
S.A.C.W. accepts invitation to 
unite with A.C.A., 60; on 
Committee on Fellowships of 
A.A.U.W., 62; plea of, 93; re- 
quests 'Amherst County Day,' 

Meek, Dr. Lois Hayden, educa- 
tional secretary of A.C.A., 138, 
273. 307, 308, 321, 336; study 
groups under, 408; extensiveness 
of her work, 408, 409; outside 
committees on which she served, 
409, 410 

Meloney, Mrs. William Brown, 154 

Mendenhall, Dr. Dorothy Reed, 

Metcalf, Edith E., member of first 
meeting called to consider for- 
mation of association of women 
college graduates, 10; member 
of committee to arrange for 
general meeting, 11 

Michaels, Rena M., paper of, on 
' Coeducation the Education of 
the Future,' 44 

Michigan, chooses director of 
A.C.A., 23 

Michigan Division, 335, 336 

Milinowski, Harriet Ransom, of 
Western New York Branch, iii 

Mineah, Mary A., chairman of 
committee of Western Associa- 
tion, 42 

Miner, Sarah L., member of first 
meeting called to consider forma- 

tion of association of women 

college graduates, 10 
Minneapolis College Club, 106 
Minnesota, chooses director of 

A? ^' .23 . . . 

Mississippi Division, 334 

Mitchell, Alice Friend, study of, 
on 'The Vocation of Dietitian,' 

'Mme. Curie Fund,' 154 

Moody, William Vaughn, 293 n. 

Moore, Eva Perry, on Committee 
on the Future Policy of the 
A.C.A. , 32, 33; first chairman of 
board of directors of the Wash- 
ington headquarters, 260; secre- 
tary of School Patrons Depart- 
ment of the N.E.A., 298, 299; 
president of National Council of 
Women, 300; report of, 303 

Moore, Ella A., vice-president of 
the Vocational Supervision 
League of Chicago, 378 

Moore, Mrs. Philip N., 208 

Morgan, Anne E. F., member of 
first meeting called to consider 
formation of association of wo- 
men college graduates, 9; made 
Director of Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae, 13; member of 
Executive Committee, 18 

Morgan, Laura Puffer, ^seconds 
motion for union of S*A.C.W. 
and A.C.A., 6r; on Committee 
on Vocational Opportunity, 207; 
and the United States Employ- 
ment Service, 208, 209; of Wo- 
men's Joint Committee, 223, 225; 
makes report on women in 
classified civil service, 235, 236; 
on War Service Committee, 242, 
243; her plan for Washington 
headquarters, 259, 260 

Morris, Kate E., made Director of 
Association of Collegiate Alum- 
nae, 13; member of Executive 
Committee, 18 

Morrison, Mrs. Alexander F., 158 

Morrison, May Treat, on Com- 
mittee on the Future Policy of 
the A.C.A., 32, 33; on Finance 
Committee, 136; on Committee 
on Foreign Students, 266; presi- 
dent of the A.C.A., 387 



Mott, Mrs. E. J., on committee of 

California State Branch, 335 
Mount Holyoke College, admitted 

to membership in the A.C.A., 84 
Movies, 350, 351 
Muhse, Dr. Effa Funk, her report, 

'Heredity and Problems in 

Eugenics,' 178 
Murphy, Caroline, of Milwaukee 

Branch, 369 
Music, work of branches for, 352 

Nakazawa, Ken, lectures of, 352 

Naples Table Association for Pro- 
moting Laboratory Research by 
Women, 134, 153, 300, 381 

Nardin, F. Louise, chairman of 
Committee on Recognition of 
Colleges and Universities, 86-90, 

National Catholic War Council, 

National Committee of the Bu- 
reaus of Occupations, 208 

National Congress of Mothers and 
Parent-Teacher Associations, 222 

National Consumers' League, 222 

National Council of Women, 222, 

National Education Association, 
44, 220, 296-99, 301; School 
Patrons Department, 134, 298, 

National Federation of Business 
and Professional Women, 222 

National League of Women Voters, 

National Mute College at Wash- 
ington, 43. . 

National University, the project 
of, 188-90 

National Women's Trade Union 
League, 222 

National Young Women's Chris- 
tian Association, 209 

New England Optical Institute, 

New Hampshire Division, 335, 336 

New Jersey, chooses director of 
A.C.A., 23 

New York State Division, 329 

Newcomb, Virginia, 245, 271-73 

Newnham College, Cambridge, 
Engl., 42 

Nightingale, Dr. A. F., superin- 
tendent of High Schools in Chi- 
cago, 296 

Noble, Harriet, Professor at Butler 
College, 113; president of Indiana 
Branch, 113 

Noonan, Emma L., supervises 
first school playground in San 
Francisco, loi 

Northwestern University, admit- 
ted to membership in the A.C.A., 

Nourse, Mary Pemberton, 166 

Novakova, Miss, 285 

Noyes, Lucia Clapp, chairman of 
Committee on Endowment, 182; 
on Committee of Educational 
Legislation, 216, 218; present 
at legislative hearing, 217 

Nursery schools, 363, 364 

Oberlin College, an original mem- 
ber of the Association of Col- 
legiate Alumnae, 17 

O'Brien, Dr. Emilie Young, on 
Committee on Educational Leg- 
islation, 218, 219 

Oklahoma, plan of Association or- 
ganization in, 38 

Oklahoma State Division, 331, 332, 

Oldham, Reta, chairman of Com- 
mittee on Interchange of Sec- 
ondary Education Teachers of 
the I.F.U.W., 286 

Olin, Helen Remington, 196; on 
Committee on the Future Policy 
of the A.C.A., 32 

Olin, Mrs. John M., decorated for 
war service, 254 

'Opportunities for Women in Do- 
mestic Science,' publication of 
the A.C.A., 236, 319 

Ordway, Evelyn Walton, paper of, 
on * Industrial Education for 
Women,' 16 

Oregon Agricultural College, re- 
commended for admission to 
membership in the A.C.A., 89, 90 

Oregon State Division, 334 

Oriental colleges, 255 

Osborne, Mrs. John W., 389 

Osborne, Lois Stuart, of Bureau o( 
Education, 390 



Overstudy, ii8 

Oxford University, women ad- 
mitted to 'Honour Examina- 
tions' at, 145; applications for 
admission to, 272, 273 

Pacific Branch, recognition of, 65 
Palen, Anna, chairman of Com- 
mittee on Fellowships, 157 
Palmer, Alice Freeman, president 
of A.C.A. from 1887 to 1891, 16, 
387; first general secretary of 
A.C.A., 31; on committee of 
A.C.A. to confer concerning 
union with Western Association, 
45; on Committee on Corporate 
Membership, 71, 73; proposes 
investigation of problem.s of do- 
mestic service, 104; advisory 
dean of women at University of 
Chicago, 108; her lecture on 
'The Higher Education of Wo- 
men,' 114; work on question- 
naires, 127; death, 133; memorial 
fellowship for, 133; on Com- 
mittee on Fellowships, 147 n., 
148, 157; President of Women's 
Education Association of Boston, 
148 w.; on Committee on En- 
dowment, 181; on Massachu- 
setts State Board of Education, 
187; in conference (1889), 193 n.\ 
on Committee on Collegiate Ad- 
ministration, 194; at legislative 
hearing, 217; member of Advis- 
ory Council of Congress of 
Representative Women, 292, 
293; memorial to, 317. See also 
Freeman, Alice E. 
Palmer, Prof. George Herbert, 11 
Parent-Teacher Associations, 56, 

220, 298, 342, 343, 408 
Parish, Dr. Rebecca, founder of 
Mary Johnston Hospital, Tando, 


Park, Maud Wood, president of 
National League of Women 
Voters, 223; chairman of Wo- 
men's Joint Committee, 223; 
speaks on woman movement, 302 

Parris, Marion, paper of, on ' Non- 
Teaching Positions Open to 
Students of Economics, Politics, 
and Sociology,' 232; on Com- 

mittee on Vocational Opportu- 
nities, 233 

Parrish, Celestia W., of Athens, 
Georgia, President of Southern 
Association of University Wo- 
men, 47 

Parsons, Mrs. Edgerton, 154, 155; 
first treasurer of the I.F.U.W., 
272; an incorporator of Reid 
Hall, 275; alternate at London 
meeting, 284 

Pattee, Loueen, alternate at Lon- 
don meeting, 284 

Peabody, Susan Wade, 114 

Pearmain, Alice Upton, secretary 
of Committee on the Future Pol- 
icy of the A.C.A., 32; chairman 
of Boston Branch of A.C.A., 103; 
work on questionnaires, 127; on 
Furnishings Committee of Wash- 
ington headquarters, 260; chair- 
man of Committee on Finance 
and Publication, 317 

Pearson, Helen, secretary of In- 
diana Branch of A.C.A., 113; 
president of the A.C.A., 387 

Peirce, H. M., made Director of 
Association of Collegiate Alum- 
nae, 13; member of Executive 
Committee, 18 

Peixotto, Dr. Jessica, 284 

Peking American College Women's 

Club, 394 * ^ 

Pendleton, Ellen F., on the Com- 
mittee on Reorganization (1911), 
32; chairman of Committee 
on International Relations, 139, 
273; on War Service Com- 
mittee, 242; at first sectional 
conference, 324 
Pennsylvania- Delaware Division, 

Pensions, to teachers, in Carnegie 

Foundation, 80, 81 

Perkins, Mrs. Charles A. (Angle 
Warren Perkins), hostess on oc- 
casion of formation of Southern 
Association of College Women, 
46; chairman of School Patrons 
Committee of the Southern As- 
sociation, 57 

Perkins, Prof. Emma M., 158, 187, 
188; president of Ohio Branch 
of A.C.A., 114 



Perkins, Frances, 336 
Pershipo", Gen. John J., 263 
Philadelphia, Pa., Girls' High 

School in, 3 n. 
Phi Mu Sorority, fellowship of- 
fered by, 163 
Phipps, Helen, helps organize club 
of university women in Spain, 


Physical education, the first sub- 
ject made object of study by the 
A.C.A., 116, 117; pamphlet on, 
issued by the A.C.A., 117, 118, 
120-23, 311; committee on, ap- 
pointed, 118 (cf. 16); investiga- 
tions into health of women col- 
lege graduates undertaken by 
A.C.A., 118, 119, 124, 125; need 
for better physical conditions for 
girls in preparatory schools, 124, 
125; symposium on, 125; ques- 
tion of withdrawal of students 
before completion of course, 125, 
126; questionnaires, 127; paper 
of Dr. Brown (191 5) on Public 
Health on field of work for col- 
lege women, 128; resolution of 
1919, 128; physical v^^elfare of 
women students, 129, 130 

Placement bureaus. See Bureaus 
of Occupation 

Platter, Amelia Waring, treasurer 
of Indiana Branch of A.C.A., 113 

Point, Marie Louise, orphan, 252 

Political science, club for study of, 

Pomeroy, Katharine Puncheon, 
258, 378 w.; treasurer of A.C.A., 
59, 61, 142, 263; on Finance 
Committee, 136 

Poppleton, Elizabeth E., in confer- 
ence (1889), 193 w.; on Com- 
mittee on Collegiate Adminis- 
tration, 194 

Post-graduate study, 143-55 

Powers, Grace, trips to West Indies 
conducted by, 398 

Poynter, Juliet J., on Committee 
on Standards of A.A.U.W., 62 

Proceedings of the A.A.U.W., 322 

Public Educational Association, 

297 . , , 

Publications and prmted records, 

Puech, Madame M. L., chairman 
of Committee on Intellectual 
Cooperation of the I.F.U.W., 

Putnam, Mary, 383 

Putnam., Ruth, 197 11. \ on the Com- 
mittee on Educational Legisla- 
tion, 218 

Radcliffe College, represented in 
charter membership of the South- 
ern Association of College Wo- 
men, 47; admitted to member- 
ship in the A.C.A., 71; incor- 
poration of, 185-87 

Randolph-Macon Woman's Col- 
lege, represented in charter mem- 
bership of the Southern Associ- 
ation of College Women, 47 

Rankin, Belle, 336 

Ransom, Mrs. George, 336 

Rating agencies. See Admission to 
A.C.A. and A.A.U.W. 

Records, 310-22 

Reed, Mrs. Prentiss B., chairman 
of vSchool Patrons Committee of 
Southern Association, 57 

Reform school for girls, established 
in Illinois, 43 

Reid, Mrs. Whitelaw, 274, 275 

Reid Hall, American University 
Women, Paris Center, 274, 275 

Reilly, Marion, on committee to 
consider admission to the A.C.A. 
of women from foreign univer- 
sities, 82; on Committee on Re- 
cognition of Colleges and Uni- 
versities, 85, 86; Fellowship in 
memory of, 171, 334; on com- 
mittee to consider purchase of 
property for Washington head- 
quarters, 261 

Reinhardt, Dr. Aurelia Henry 
(Mrs. George F.), president of 
A.A.U.W., 138, 139, 169, 263, 
388; holder of. European Fellow- 
ship, 169; chairman of Commit- 
tee on International Relations, 
273; chairman of committee of 
California State Division, 335 

Removal of institution from 
A.C.A., 66 

Research projects, 403, 409, 413; 
the first (health and physical ed- 



ucation), 1 16-30; in child study 
and euthenics, 173-78 

Rhondda, Viscountess, chairman 
of committee of the I.F.U.W., 

Rice, Mrs. Julian, chairman of 
committee, Southern Associa- 
tion, 56 

Richards, Ellen H., 104; unites 
with Marion Talbot in calling for 
meeting of University Women in 
Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, 9; made chairman of 
meeting, 10; made Director of 
Association of Collegiate Alum- 
nae, 13; member of Executive 
Committee, 18; gives summer 
course in home economics at 
University of California, loi; on 
committee to prepare leaflet on 
'Health in Preparatory Schools,' 
125; on first Committee on Fel- 
lowships, 147 w.; chairman of 
Committee on Euthenics, 177; 
reports on relation of food to 
health, 195; paper of, on 'De- 
sirable Tendencies in Profes- 
sional and Technical Education 
for Women,' 228; chairman of 
Committee on Economic Effi- 
ciency of College Women, 229, 
318; in charge of university ex- 
tension work, 311; leader of 
study group, 312, 403; editor 
(with Marion Talbot) of 'Home 
Sanitation,' 313 

Richardson, Louisa Holman (later 
Mrs. Everett O. Fisk), first 
European fellow of A.C.A., 147, 

Richmond, Mary E., 237 
Robertson, Mrs. James A., forms 

Manila Branch of the A.C.A., 

Robertson, Ruth, correspondmg 

secretary of the A.C.A., 280 
Rochester College Women's Club, 

Rogers, Agnes Low, chairman of 

Committee on Fellowships, 157; 

alternate at London meeting, 284 
Rogers Bill, 223 

Rogers, Faith, death in France, 253 
Rosenberry, Marvin Bristol, 278 n. 

Rosenberry, Mrs. Marvin Bristol 
(Lois Mathews), on committee 
to consider union of A.C.A. and 
S.A.C.W., 59; president of the 
A.C.A., 278, 284. See also 
Mathews, Lois Kimball 

Ross, Gertrude, of Milwaukee 
Branch, 368 

Roxbury Latin School, 3 

Rumsey, Mrs., 158 

Rural schools, 369, 370 

Russell, Mrs. Alys, chairman of 
Budget Committee of the 
LF.U.W., 286 

Sabin, Ellen C, on Committee on 
International Relations, 268 

Sadakata, Dr. Kameyo, member of 
the Japanese Branch of the 
A.C.A., 393 

Salmon, Lucy M., 104; on Com- 
mittee on Reorganization (191 1) 
of A.C.A. , 32; investigation on 
industrial education of women 
conducted by, 43; paper of, on 
* The Relation of College Women 
to Domestic Science,' 44 

Sanitary Science Club, 144, 312 

Saturday Morning Club, estab- 
lishment of, 5 

Schmidt, Violet Jane, 327 

Schofield, Mrs. William H., 336 

Scholarships, 170 

School Census Bill, 224 

Schreiber-Favre, Madame, chair- 
man of committee of the 
I.F.U.W., 286 

Scudder, Vida D., paper of, 237 

Seagrave, Dr. Mabel, decorated for 
war service, 253 

Searle, Helen, gift in memory of, 


Sectional conferences, 323-27 

Seris, Mrs. Homero (Herlinda 
Smithers de Seris), first presi- 
dent of Madrid Branch, 399 
Settlement Association of San 

Francisco, loi 
Severance, Mrs. C. A., 134 
Severance, Mrs. Frank H., 221 
Severance, Lena Hill, of the West- 
ern New York Branch of A.C.A., 
Severance, Mary Harriman, of the 



Minnesota Branch of the A.C.A., 
105; and the Alice Freeman 
Palmer Fellowship, 160 

Sewall, May Wright, President of 
the Western Association (1886, 
1888), 41, 112, 113; investiga- 
tion as to post-graduate work for 
women made by, 43; paper of, on 
* The Social and Domestic Effects 
of the Higher Education of 
Women,' 44; on committee of 
Western Association to confer 
concerning union with A.C.A., 
45; paper of, 190; a moving spirit 
in International Relations, 278, 
279; urges desirability of having 
the A.C.A. join the National 
Council of Women, 292; chair- 
man of committee formed to con- 
sider the problem of joining other 
societies, 292 

Shannon, Lucy A., first president 
of the Boston Branch of the 
A.C.A., 103 

Sheldon, Margaret Thompson, 
member of Children's Code 
Commission, 358 

Sheppard-Towner Bill, 223 

Sherwood, Dr. Mary, work on 
questionnaires, 127 

Shinn, Millicent W., editor of 
Overland Monthly, 100; in phil- 
anthropic work, 1 01, no; her 
work in child study, 174, 175, 
I77» 317, 318, 403; paper of, 

Sidgwick, Prof. Rose, of the De- 
partment of English in the Uni- 
versity of Birmingham, her part 
in formation of the I.F.U.W., 
277, 278, 280; death, 281; fel- 
lowship established in honor of, 

Sidwell, Frances Haldeman, chair- 
man of committee of A.C.A., 26, 
27; on Committee on Educa- 
tional Legislation, 216; on Com- 
mittee on Foreign Students, 266 

Sikes, Madeleine Wollin, 192, 218- 

Simmons College (Boston), 216, 
217; admitted to membership in 
the A.C.A., 91, 217 

Skinner, Mabel Hurd, on Com- 

mittee on International Rela- 
tions, 268 

Skonhoft, Lektor Lilly, chairman 
of Committee on Standards of the 
I.F.U.W., 286 

Slade, Mrs. Louis, 260 

Slaughter, Prof. M. S., decorated 
for war service, 254 

Slaughter, Mrs. M. S. (Gertrude 
E. T. Slaughter), decorated for 
war service, 254 

Smith, Prof. Mary Roberts, work 
on questionnaires, 127 

Smith, Rachael C. Clarke, on Com- 
mittee on Endowment, 185 n. 

Smith College, an original member 
of the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae, 17; represented in 
charter membership of the South- 
ern Association of College Wo- 
men, 47 

Smoot, Mrs. Jane E., 109 

Snow, Julia Warner, on the Com- 
mittee of Investigation, 152 

Social work, 236, 237 

Society to Encourage Studies at 
Home, 144, 311 

Somerville College, Oxford, 42 

Sophie Newcomb College, becomes 
member of A.C.A. , 60 

South Carolina Division, 334 

Southern Association of College 
Women, form of organization in, 
37, 38; formation of, 46, 47; char- 
ter members of, 47; the objects 
of, 48, 49, 51; first meetings of, 
49, 50; branches of, 50, 55, 56; 
makes agreement as to territory 
with the A.C.A., 50; committees 
of, 51 » 55-58; Proceedings of, 51; 
publications of, 53; papers and 
addresses, 53; efforts of, to pre- 
vent indiscriminate granting of 
charters with degree-conferring 
privileges, 54, 55; scholarships, 
56; loan funds, 56, 57; eligibility 
to membership, 58; unites with 
A.C.A., 58-62 (cf. 28, 36, 46); 
list of presidents of, 425, 426 

Southern Women's Educational 
Alliance, 343 

Speakers' Bureau, 243-45 

Speek, Mrs. Frances Valiant, on 
staff of Educational Office, 410 



Spencer, Mary C, chairman of 
Standing Committee on Scholar- 
ships, Southern Association, 56 

Sprague, Col. Homer B., principal 
of Girls' High School, Boston, 4 

Spurgeon, Dr. Caroline F. E., Pro- 
fessor of English Literature in 
Bedford College of the Univer- 
sity of London, her part in forma- 
tion of the LF.U.W., 260, 271, 
277, 278, 280-82; first president 
of the LF.U.W., 288; quoted, 420 

Standards, the maintaining of, 38, 
39, 52, 55, 62, 181 n., 198 w., 
203; the unification of, 70 

Stanford, Mrs. Leland, 196 

Stanwood, Mrs. Edwin, on com- 
mittee of California State Divi- 
sion, 335 

Stastny, Dr. Olga, honorable war 
service of, 253, 254; of the 
Omaha Branch, 344 

State Councils of Defense, 246 

State divisions, 324, 325, 327-37 

State universities, 73, 86 

Stebbins, Dean Lucy Ward, on 
Committee on International Re- 
lations, 268 

Stephen, Lady, 416 

Stephens, Kate, on first Committee 
on Fellowships, 147 n. 

Sterling-Reed Education Bill, 224, 

Stevens, Mary Thompson, treas- 
urer of the Detroit Branch of 
the A.C.A., 109 

Stevens, Nettie Maria, first holder 
of Alice Freeman Palmer Fellow- 
ship, 153 . 

Stimson, Major Julia, decorated 
for war service, 254; first chair- 
man of board of managers of 
Washington headquarters, 260, 

Stone, Lucy, doubts need of Asso- 
ciation of Collegiate Alumnae, 12 

Stowell, Louisa Reed, President of 
the Western Association (1887), 
41 ; paper of, on ' Post-Graduate 
Study at Michigan University,' 
44; on committee of Western 
Association to confer concerning 
union with A.C.A., 45 

Stratton, Margaret E., member of 

first meeting called to consider 
formation of association of wo- 
men college graduates, 9; mem- 
ber of committee to arrange for 
general meeting, 11 

Street, Ida M., fellowship awarded 
to, 43, 156; paper of, on 'George 
Eliot as a Representative of Her 
Times,' 44 

Study groups, 306, 307, 312, 321, 
341, 342, 345, 401-07, 413 

Summer schools, 369 

Sunshine Laundry, Brookline, 104 

Swarthmore College, admitted to 
membership in the A.C.A., 84 

Swedish Federation of University 
Women, 283 

Swiggett, Mrs. Glen Levin, 260, 
262; on committee to consider 
union of A.C.A. and S.A.C.W., 
59; offers resolution for union of 
S.A.C.W. and A.C.A., 60 

Swiss University Sanatorium, 287 

Syracuse University, admitted to 
membership in the A.C.A., 64 

Taft, Dean Helen, 271, 282. See 
also Manning, Dean Helen Taft 

Taft, Chief Justice and Mrs. Wil- 
liam H., 263 

Talbot, Edith, graduates from 
Latin School for Girls, Boston, 
6; on committee to consider ad- 
mission to the A.C.A. , 64 

Talbot, Dr. I. Tisdale, Dean of the 
School of Medicine in Boston 
University, 4 

Talbot, Mrs. I. Tisdale, 4; en- 
deavors unsuccessfully to secure 
admission of girls to Boston 
Latin School, 6; her vision of an 
association of collegiate alumnae, 
6-9, 18; early advocate of child 
study, 173 

Talbot, Marion, 108, 124, 258; her 
preparation for college, 4; enters 
Boston University, 4; graduates 
from Boston University, 4; her 
outlook after college, 4, 5; ad- 
mitted to Saturday Morning 
Club, 5; obtains master's degree 
at Boston University, 6; initiates 
movement for forming Associa- 
tion of University Women, 8, 9; 



made secretary of first meeting, 
lo; member of committee to 
arrange for general meeting, 1 1 ; 
made Secretary of Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae, 13; member 
of Executive Committee, 18; on 
committee of A.C.A. to confer 
concerning union with Western 
Association, 45; chairman of 
Committee on Corporate Mem- 
bership, 81, 83; starts movement 
for Pacific Branch of A.C.A., 100; 
quoted on Chicago Branch of 
A.C.A., 107; on Committee on 
Endowment, 181; in conference 
(1889), 193 n.\ on Committee on 
Collegiate Administration, 194; 
resolution concerning Alice Mas- 
aryk presented by, 267; and 
World's Fair exhibit, 293; editor 
(with E. H. Richards) of 'Home 
Sanitation,' 313; president of the 
A.C.A., 387 

Tappan, Eva March, 233, 314 

Taylor-Jones, Dr. Louise, deco- 
rated for war service, 254 

Tennessee Division, 334 

Texas, plan of Association organ- 
ization in, 38 

Teachers' Salary Bill, 224 

Theatres, work of branches for, 


Thomas, M. Carey, 37, 223, 260, 
282; chairman of The Commit- 
tee on the Future Policy of the 
A.C.A., 32, 33; chairman of Pub- 
lication Committee, 127; holder 
of degree of Ph. D., 145; chair- 
man of War Service Committee, 
242; on Committee on Interna- 
tional Relations, 268, 271; dele- 
gate to London meeting, 284 

Thomas, Prof. William L, quoted, 

Thompson, Dean C. Mildred, an 
incorporator of Reid Hall, 275 

Thompson, Fannie Mulliken, sec- 
retary of Detroit Branch of the 
A.C.A., 109 

Thompson, Mrs. William Reid, 
honorary member of the Pitts- 
burgh Branch, 387 

Thomson, Eveline A., of Constan- 
tinople College, 269 

Thwing, Dr. Charles P., 190 
Ticknor, Anna Eliot, 'The Society 

to Encourage Studies at Home' 

organized by, 144 n. 
Ticknor, George, 144 n. 
Toronto University, admitted to 

membership (non- professional 

degrees) in the A.C.A., 81, 

Townsend, Mrs. George, president 

of Buffalo Women's Educational 

and Industrial Union, iii 
Tracy, Mrs. Clarissa Tucker, 373 
Tracy, Dr. Martha, on Committee 

on Foreign Students, 266 
Travis, Helen, president of branch 

of Iron Mountain (Mich.), 340 
Tsuji, Mrs. Matsu, member of the 

Japanese Branch of the A.C.A., 


Tucker, Bernice Gallup, president 
of the Japanese Branch of the 
A.C.A., 393 

Tucker, Charlotte C, on Com- 
mittee on Collegiate Administra- 
tion, 194 

Turner, Elsie Lee, 221, 222 

Ullrick, Laura F., her report on 
study of history textbooks, 319, 

United States Chamber of Com- 
merce, 261 

United States Employment Serv- 
ice, 301 ; Professional Section, 
208; and the A.C.A. , 208, 209 

United States Public Health Serv- 
ice, 301 

University extension work, 311, 

University of California, admitted 
to membership in the A.C.A., 
65, 100; home economics course 
offered at, loi 

University of Chicago, admitted to 
membership in the A.C.A., 71; 
offers advanced degrees to wo- 
men, 146; policy of segregation of 
sexes in junior colleges adopted 

University of Cincinnati, as re- 
gards admission of, to member- 
ship in the A.C.A., 93, 94 

University of Colorado, recom- 



mended for admission to mem- 
bership in the A.C.A., 84 

University of Kansas, admitted to 
membership in the A.C.A., 64 

University of Kentucky, becomes 
member of the A.C.A., 60 

University of London, 42 

University of Louvain, 256, 384 

University of Michigan, an original 
member of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae, 17; repre- 
sented in the charter member- 
ship of the Southern Association 
of College Women, 47 

University of Minnesota, admitted 
to membership in the A.C.A., 71, 

University of Missouri, admitted 
to membership in the A.C.A., 78; 
war work of, 251 

University of Nebraska, admitted 
to membership in the A.C.A., 73 

University of Pennsylvania, offers 
advanced degrees to women, 146 

University of Tennessee, 46; repre- 
sented in the charter member- 
ship of the Southern Association 
of College Women, 47; recom- 
mended for full admission to 
membership in the A.C.A., 90 

University of Washington (in Se- 
attle), recommended for admis- 
sion to membership in the 
A.C.A., 84 

University of Wisconsin, an original 
member of the Association of 
Collegiate Women, 17; failure of 
bill for indiscriminate entrance 
to, 188 w.; movement for segrega- 
tion of women in, 196 

University Women, meeting of, at 
Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, to consider association 
of women college graduates, 9-1 1 

Van Hoosen, Gertrude, 265 
Van Kleek, Mary, 235, 236 
Van Rensellaer, Martha, chairman 

of Committee on Euthenics, 177 
Van Winkle, Elva Young, on Trust 

Fund Committee, 133; bursar of 

A.C.A., 133, 134; reference to, 

Vanderburgh, Florence Herrick, 

historian, quoted on California 
State Division, 335 

Vanderlip, Mrs. Frank A., 260 

Vanderslice, Mrs. E. R., member of 
Lansing (Mich.) Branch, 375 

Vassar College, 8; an original 
member of the Association of 
Collegiate Alumnae, 17; repre- 
sented in the charter member- 
ship of the Southern Association 
of the College Women, 47; boot- 
jacks furnished by, as part 
equipment of students' rooms, 

Vassar Miscellany, 312 

Vermont State Division, 330, 331 

Vocational advising (guidance), 
238, 251, 359, 376-78 

Vocational conferences, 233 

Vocational opportunities, 35, 181, 

'Vocational Training,' publication 
of the A.C.A., 235, 319 

Vocations for women, new, 228-41, 

Volunteer service bureaus, 237, 238 

War Camp Community Service, 

War Service Committee, 242, 301 

Ward, Kate, 272 

Ward well, Mary M., of the West- 
ern New York Branch* of the 
A.C.A., III 

Warner, Helen, charter member of 
Detroit Branch of A.C.A., 109 

Warner, Martha, charter member 
of Detroit Branch of A.C.A., 109 

Washington, D.C., headquarters 
and clubhouse of the A.C.A. at, 
247, 258-65 

Washington State Division, 333 

Washington University (in St. 
Louis), recommended for ad- 
mission to membership in the 
A.C.A., 84 

Welch, Jeannette C, Hull House 
fellow, 109 

Welfare work, of branches, 356, 

Wellesley College, an original mem- 
ber of the Association of Colle- 
giate Alumnae, 17; represented 
in the charter membership of the 



Southern Association of College 
Women, 47 

Wesleyan University (Connecti- 
cut), admitted to membership 
in the Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae, 18, 63; represented in 
the charter membership of the 
Southern Association of College 
Women, 47; closes doors to 
women, 196 

West Virginia Division, 334 

Westerdyk, Dr. Johanna, Profes- 
sor at the University of Utrecht, 

Western Association of Collegiate 
Alumnae, organizes as an inde- 
pendent entity, 40; presidents of, 
41 ; meetings of, 41 ; committees, 
41, 42; proposed appointment 
bureau, 42; proposed Bureau of 
Correspondence, 42; and the 
International Federation of Uni- 
versity Women, 42, 278; fellow- 
ship for women established by, 
43; projects laid out by, 43; 
papers read before, 44; social life 
of, 44; union of, with A.C.A., 
45 (cf. 23, 25); fellowships 
awarded by, 156; list of presi- 
dents of, 425 

Weston, Mrs. Nathan, 348 

Wheeler, Mrs. William Morton, 
260; vice-president of North 
Atlantic Section of the A.C.A., 
councillor of London meeting, 

White, Mary A., investigates con- 
ditions in public laundries, 104 

Whitney, Dr. Adaline S., essay of, 
on physical education for wo- 
men, 16, 117; chairman of 
committee on physical educa- 
tion, 118 

Whitney, Charlotte Anita, paper 
of, 184; on Committee on En- 
dowment, 185 n.; on Committee 
on Educational Legislation, 216, 

Whitney, Marian P., alternate at 
London meeting, 284 

Whittlesey, Sarah S., 197 n. 

Wilbur, Mary A., 261 

Wilcox, Alice W., on Committee 
on Environment, 177 

Wilkie, Grace, 336 
Wilkinson, Florence, paper of, on 
'Creative Literary Power in 
College Women,' 315 
Willard, Frances E., paper of, on 
'Women and the Social Ques- 
tion,' 44 
Willard, Mary Bannister, chairman 
of committee of Western Associ- 
ation, 41; paper of, on 'The 
Story of the Struggles and 
Triumphs of Emma Aertron of 
Finland,' 44; scholarship offered 
by, 148 
Williams, Dr. Mary, 320 
Williams, Mrs. W. T., 364 
Wilson, Pres. Woodrow, 117, 263 
Wilson, Mrs. Woodrow, 263 
Wing, Lucy Madeira, 260, 261 
Winona, Minn., State Normal 
School, Delsartian exercises in, 
117 n. 
Wischnewetzky, Florence Kelley, 

speech of, 237 
Wisconsin, chooses director of 
A.C.A., 23; plan of Association 
organization in, 38 
Wisconsin Division, 336 
Woman's Christian Temperance 

Union, 222 
Woman's College of Western Re- 
serve University, admitted to 
membership in the A.C.A., 73, 


Woman's Education Association of 
Boston, 148, 158, 291, 300 

Woman's Foundation for Health, 

Woman's Legislative Council, 333 

Women, obstacles to their educa- 
tion in the 1870's, 3-6; obstacles 
to the later use of their educa- 
tion, 5, 7; economic and legal 
status of, 39, 201, 239-41; higher 
education for, in the South, 52; 
limiting and segregation of, in 
educational institutions, 196; 
status of, on university faculties, 
199-204; new vocations for, 228- 
41 ; economic efficiency of, 229-31 

Women's College in Brown Uni- 
versity, recommended for ad- 
mission to membership in the 
A.C.A., 84 



Women's Joint Congressional Com- 
mittee, 222, 223, 225-27, 301, 

Wood, Edith Elmer, chairman of 
Housing Committee, 210, 211, 
214; her investigations on the 
housing problem, 211, 212, 214, 


Wood, Ida, paper of, on 'Habits of 
Sleep,' 125 

Woodhouse, Chase Going, 240, 

WooUey, Helen Thompson, on 
committee to consider admission 
to the A.C.A. of women from 
foreign universities, 82 ; chairman 
of Committee on Educational 
Policies, 138, 307, 308 

Woolley, Mary E., 387; of War 
Service Committee, 242; at 
first sectional conference, 324 

World Court, 225 

World War, the A.C.A. in, 242- 
57; War Service Committee, 242; 
Speakers' Bureau, 243-45; Amer- 
icanization work, 247; of 
branches, 248-50; bureaus of 
occupation, 250; cooperative 
houses, 250; vocational guid- 
ance, 251; influenza epidemic of 
1918, 251, 252; relief work, 252, 
253; service on national, state. 

and local committees, 253; over- 
seas service, 253; decorations, 
253t 254; assistance to Oriental 
colleges, 255; assistance to Uni- 
versity of Louvain, 256; contacts 
of the A.C.A. with other organi- 
zations at time of, 301, 302; the 
branches in, 388 

World's Columbian Exposition, 
Chicago (1893), 292, 293 

Wright, Alice, 336 

Wright, Hon. Carroll D., Director 
of the U.S. Bureau of Labor, 98; 
chief of the Massachusetts Bu- 
reau of Statistics of Labor, 119 

Wright, Helen R., 212 n. 

Wylie, Laura J., 125 

Yale University, offers advanced 
degrees to women, 146 

Yarros, Dr. Rachelle, 359 

Yasui, Dr. Tetsu, dean of Christian 
College for Women at Tokyo, 
392; member of the Japanese 
Branch of the A.C.A., 393 

Young, Arlisle M., fellowship 
awarded to, 156 

Young, Elva Hulburd (later Mrs. 
Van Winkle), bursar of A.C.A., 

Young Women's Christian Associ- 
ations, cooperation with, 355